Abstract: The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium) and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here.
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Li, H.-Y.; Lu, Y.; Zheng, J.-W.; Yang, W.-D.; Liu, J.-S. Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 153-166.
Li H-Y, Lu Y, Zheng J-W, Yang W-D, Liu J-S. Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis. Marine Drugs. 2014; 12(1):153-166.
Li, Hong-Ye; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng. 2014. "Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis." Mar. Drugs 12, no. 1: 153-166.