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Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580
Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(1), 153-166; doi:10.3390/md12010153
Review

Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

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Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 7 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
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Abstract

The role of diatoms as a source of bioactive compounds has been recently explored. Diatom cells store a high amount of fatty acids, especially certain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, many aspects of diatom metabolism and the production of PUFAs remain unclear. This review describes a number of technical strategies, such as modulation of environmental factors (temperature, light, chemical composition of culture medium) and culture methods, to influence the content of PUFAs in diatoms. Genetic engineering, a newly emerging field, also plays an important role in controlling the synthesis of fatty acids in marine microalgae. Several key points in the biosynthetic pathway of PUFAs in diatoms as well as recent progresses are also a critical part and are summarized here.
Keywords: diatom; fatty acids; PUFA; genetic engineering diatom; fatty acids; PUFA; genetic engineering
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Li, H.-Y.; Lu, Y.; Zheng, J.-W.; Yang, W.-D.; Liu, J.-S. Biochemical and Genetic Engineering of Diatoms for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 153-166.

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