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Mar. Drugs 2014, 12(7), 4165-4187; doi:10.3390/md12074165

The Effect of Polyunsaturated Aldehydes on Skeletonema marinoi (Bacillariophyceae): The Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn di Napoli, Villa Comunale, Napoli I80121, Italy
Current Address: Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
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Received: 18 January 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 30 June 2014 / Published: 14 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
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Abstract

Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated in the marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi (SM), exposed to 2E,4E/Z-decadienal (DECA), 2E,4E/Z-octadienal (OCTA), 2E,4E/Z-heptadienal (HEPTA) and a mix of these last two (MIX). When exposed to polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA), a decrease of NO was observed, proportional to the PUA concentration (85% of the initial level after 180 min with 66 µM DECA). Only OCTA, HEPTA and MIX induced a parallel increase of ROS, the highest (2.9-times the control) with OCTA concentrations twice the EC50 for growth at 24 h (20 μM). The synthesis of carotenoids belonging to the xanthophyll cycle (XC) was enhanced during exposure, suggesting their antioxidant activity. Our data provide evidence that specific pathways exist as a reaction to PUA and that they depend upon the PUA used and/or the diatom species. In fact, Phaeodactylum tricornutum (PT) produces NO in response to DECA, but not to OCTA. We advance the hypothesis that SM perceives OCTA and HEPTA as intra-population infochemicals (as it produces PUA), while PT (non-PUA producing species) perceives them as allelochemicals. The ability to produce and to use PUA as infochemicals may underlie ecological traits of different diatom species and modulate ecological success in natural communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: octadienal; heptadienal; infochemical; xanthophylls; signaling; competition octadienal; heptadienal; infochemical; xanthophylls; signaling; competition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gallina, A.A.; Brunet, C.; Palumbo, A.; Casotti, R. The Effect of Polyunsaturated Aldehydes on Skeletonema marinoi (Bacillariophyceae): The Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide. Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 4165-4187.

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