Next Article in Journal
Potential Threats Posed by New or Emerging Marine Biotoxins in UK Waters and Examination of Detection Methodologies Used for Their Control: Cyclic Imines
Next Article in Special Issue
Specific Metabolites in a Phaeodactylum tricornutum Strain Isolated from Western Norwegian Fjord Water
Previous Article in Journal
Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diatom-Specific Oligosaccharide and Polysaccharide Structures Help to Unravel Biosynthetic Capabilities in Diatoms
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(12), 7067-7086; doi:10.3390/md13127055

Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in Culture

1
FR CNRS-Université de Nantes-Ifremer 3473, EA 2160, Pôle Mer et Littoral, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cédex 3, France
2
CNRS UMR 7266, LIENSs, Université La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle, France
3
Laboratoire Phycotoxines, IFREMER, rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes, France
4
CNRS-Université d'Angers, UMR 6112-LPG-BIAF, 2 boulevard Lavoisier, 49045 Angers, France
5
CNRS-Université de Nantes, UMR 6204-U3B, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cédex 3, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anake Kijjoa
Received: 27 June 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1180 KB, uploaded 26 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Over the last century, human activities have altered the global nitrogen cycle, and anthropogenic inputs of both inorganic and organic nitrogen species have increased around the world, causing significant changes to the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The increasing frequency of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. in estuarine and coastal waters reinforces the need to understand better the environmental control of its growth and domoic acid (DA) production. Here, we document Pseudo-nitzschia spp. growth and toxicity on a large set of inorganic and organic nitrogen (nitrate, ammonium, urea, glutamate, glutamine, arginine and taurine). Our study focused on two species isolated from European coastal waters: P. multiseries CCL70 and P. australis PNC1. The nitrogen sources induced broad differences between the two species with respect to growth rate, biomass and cellular DA, but no specific variation could be attributed to any of the inorganic or organic nitrogen substrates. Enrichment with ammonium resulted in an enhanced growth rate and cell yield, whereas glutamate did not support the growth of P. multiseries. Arginine, glutamine and taurine enabled good growth of P. australis, but without toxin production. The highest DA content was produced when P. multiseries grew with urea and P. australis grew with glutamate. For both species, growth rate was not correlated with DA content but more toxin was produced when the nitrogen source could not sustain a high biomass. A significant negative correlation was found between cell biomass and DA content in P. australis. This study shows that Pseudo-nitzschia can readily utilize organic nitrogen in the form of amino acids, and confirms that both inorganic and organic nitrogen affect growth and DA production. Our results contribute to our understanding of the ecophysiology of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and may help to predict toxic events in the natural environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pseudo-nitzschia; toxic diatoms; nitrogen; amino acids; domoic acid Pseudo-nitzschia; toxic diatoms; nitrogen; amino acids; domoic acid
Figures

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Martin-Jézéquel, V.; Calu, G.; Candela, L.; Amzil, Z.; Jauffrais, T.; Séchet, V.; Weigel, P. Effects of Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen on the Growth and Production of Domoic Acid by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis (Bacillariophyceae) in Culture. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 7067-7086.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top