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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(12), 5008-5023; doi:10.3390/md11125008
Article

Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580

1,†
, 1,†
, 1,2
, 1,2
, 2,3
, 1
 and 1,2,*
1 Division of Biotechnology and Life Science, Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan 2 Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 5, Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075, Japan 3 Biotechnology Laboratory, Electric Power Development Co., Ltd, 1, Yanagisaki-machi, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyusyu 808-0111, Japan These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2013 / Revised: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 November 2013 / Published: 11 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
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Abstract

Studies of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis in microalgae are of great importance for many reasons, including the production of biofuel and variable omega 3-long chain PUFAs. The elucidation of the PUFA biosynthesis pathway is necessary for bioengineering to increase or decrease PUFA content in certain microalgae. In this study, we identified the PUFA synthesis pathway in the oleaginous marine diatom, Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580, a promising candidate for biodiesel production. The data revealed not only the presence of the desaturases and elongases involved in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) synthesis, but also the unexpected localization of ω3-desaturase expression in the chloroplast. This suggests that this microalga might perform the final step of EPA synthesis in the chloroplast and not in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) like other diatoms. The detailed fatty acid profile suggests that the EPA was synthesized only through the ω6-pathway in this strain, which was also different from other diatoms. Finally, the transcriptome analysis demonstrated an overall down-regulation of desaturases and elongases over incubation time. These genetic features might explain the decrease of PUFA percentage over incubation time in this strain. The important insights into metabolite synthesis acquired here will be useful for future metabolic engineering to control PUFA content in this diatom.
Keywords: marine oleaginous diatom; Fistulifera sp. JPCC DA0580; eicosapentaenoic acid; polyunsatulated fatty acid; desaturase marine oleaginous diatom; Fistulifera sp. JPCC DA0580; eicosapentaenoic acid; polyunsatulated fatty acid; desaturase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, Y.; Maeda, Y.; Sunaga, Y.; Muto, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Yoshino, T.; Tanaka, T. Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Oleaginous Marine Diatom Fistulifera sp. Strain JPCC DA0580. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 5008-5023.

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