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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(3), 1451-1465; doi:10.3390/md13031451

Ciona intestinalis as a Marine Model System to Study Some Key Developmental Genes Targeted by the Diatom-Derived Aldehyde Decadienal

Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 NAPOLI, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Véronique Martin-Jézéquel
Received: 12 January 2015 / Revised: 4 March 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
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Abstract

The anti-proliferative effects of diatoms, described for the first time in copepods, have also been demonstrated in benthic invertebrates such as polychaetes, sea urchins and tunicates. In these organisms PUAs (polyunsaturated aldehydes) induce the disruption of gametogenesis, gamete functionality, fertilization, embryonic mitosis, and larval fitness and competence. These inhibitory effects are due to the PUAs, produced by diatoms in response to physical damage as occurs during copepod grazing. The cell targets of these compounds remain largely unknown. Here we identify some of the genes targeted by the diatom PUA 2-trans-4-trans-decadienal (DD) using the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. The tools, techniques and genomic resources available for Ciona, as well as the suitability of Ciona embryos for medium-to high-throughput strategies, are key to their employment as model organisms in different fields, including the investigation of toxic agents that could interfere with developmental processes. We demonstrate that DD can induce developmental aberrations in Ciona larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, through a preliminary analysis, DD is shown to affect the expression level of genes involved in stress response and developmental processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ascidian; Hox; ParaHox; stress; glutathione (GSH); development ascidian; Hox; ParaHox; stress; glutathione (GSH); development
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lettieri, A.; Esposito, R.; Ianora, A.; Spagnuolo, A. Ciona intestinalis as a Marine Model System to Study Some Key Developmental Genes Targeted by the Diatom-Derived Aldehyde Decadienal. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 1451-1465.

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