Next Article in Journal
Amino Acid-Derived Metabolites from the Ascidian Aplidium sp.
Next Article in Special Issue
Silaffins in Silica Biomineralization and Biomimetic Silica Precipitation
Previous Article in Journal
Functional Genomics of the Aeromonas salmonicida Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen and A-Layer from Typical and Atypical Strains
Previous Article in Special Issue
Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(6), 3809-3835; doi:10.3390/md13063809

Dangerous Relations in the Arctic Marine Food Web: Interactions between Toxin Producing Pseudo-nitzschia Diatoms and Calanus Copepodites

1
Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Sølvgade 83S, 1307 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund Slot, Jægersborg Allé 1, 2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark
3
Alfred-Wegener-Institut für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Ökologische Chemie, Am Handelshafen 12, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
4
Arctic Research Center, Department of Bioscience, Roskilde, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Véronique Martin-Jézéquel
Received: 5 February 2015 / Accepted: 28 May 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1031 KB, uploaded 16 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce domoic acid (DA), a toxin that is vectored in the marine food web, thus causing serious problems for marine organisms and humans. In spite of this, knowledge of interactions between grazing zooplankton and diatoms is restricted. In this study, we examined the interactions between Calanus copepodites and toxin producing Pseudo-nitzschia. The copepodites were fed with different concentrations of toxic P. seriata and a strain of P. obtusa that previously was tested to be non-toxic. The ingestion rates did not differ among the diets (P. seriata, P. obtusa, a mixture of both species), and they accumulated 6%–16% of ingested DA (up to 420 µg per dry weight copepodite). When P. seriata was exposed to the copepodites, either through physical contact with the grazers or separated by a membrane, the toxicity of P. seriata increased (up to 3300%) suggesting the response to be chemically mediated. The induced response was also triggered when copepodites grazed on another diatom, supporting the hypothesis that the cues originate from the copepodite. Neither pH nor nutrient concentrations explained the induced DA production. Unexpectedly, P. obtusa also produced DA when exposed to grazing copepodites, thus representing the second reported toxic polar diatom. View Full-Text
Keywords: Calanus copepodites; Pseudo-nitzschia seriata; P. obtusa; grazing; induction; chemical ecology; toxin production; domoic acid Calanus copepodites; Pseudo-nitzschia seriata; P. obtusa; grazing; induction; chemical ecology; toxin production; domoic acid
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Harðardóttir, S.; Pančić, M.; Tammilehto, A.; Krock, B.; Møller, E.F.; Nielsen, T.G.; Lundholm, N. Dangerous Relations in the Arctic Marine Food Web: Interactions between Toxin Producing Pseudo-nitzschia Diatoms and Calanus Copepodites. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 3809-3835.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top