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Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(9), 5767-5783; doi:10.3390/md13095767

Determination of Lipid Hydroperoxides in Marine Diatoms by the FOX2 Assay

1
Chemical Ecology Laboratory, Integrative Marine Ecology Department, Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy
2
Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, P.O. Box 6050 Langnes, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
3
Bio-Organic Chemistry Unit, Institute Biomolecular Chemistry-CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli, 80078 Naples, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Véronique Martin-Jézéquel
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolites in Diatoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [533 KB, uploaded 11 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Ecologically-relevant marine diatoms produce a plethora of bioactive oxylipins deriving from fatty acid oxidation, including aldehydes, hydroxy-fatty acids, epoxy-hydroxy-fatty acids, and oxo-acids. These secondary metabolites have been related to the negative effect of diatoms on copepod reproduction, causing low hatching success and teratogenesis in the offspring during periods of intense diatom blooms. The common intermediates in the formation of oxylipins are fatty acid hydroperoxides. The quantitative measurement of these intermediates can fundamentally contribute to understanding the function and role of lipoxygenase metabolites in diatom-copepod interactions. Here, we describe the successful adaptation of the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange 2 (FOX2) assay to diatom samples, which showed several advantages over other spectrophotometric and polarographic methods tested in the present work. Using this method we assessed fatty acid hydroperoxide levels in three diatom species: Skeletonema marinoi, Thalassiosira rotula, and Chaetoceros affinis, and discuss results in light of the literature data on their detrimental effects on copepod reproduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: diatoms; diatom detrimental effect; fatty acid hydroperoxides; FOX2 assay; lipoxygenase; oxylipins diatoms; diatom detrimental effect; fatty acid hydroperoxides; FOX2 assay; lipoxygenase; oxylipins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Orefice, I.; Gerecht, A.; d'Ippolito, G.; Fontana, A.; Ianora, A.; Romano, G. Determination of Lipid Hydroperoxides in Marine Diatoms by the FOX2 Assay. Mar. Drugs 2015, 13, 5767-5783.

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