E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013"

Quicklinks

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Andreas Taubert (Website)

Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Building 26, Rm. 2.64, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany
Fax: +49 331 977 5055
Interests: inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids; functional ionic liquids-hybrid materials; self-assembling polymers, peptides & nanoparticles; calcium phosphate materials; silica hybrid materials; iron oxide materials; metal-peptide frameworks; materials for metallic implants
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. André Vioux (Website)

Assistant-Director of CNRS-University laboratory UMR 5253, « Institut Charles Gerhardt » of Montpellier, France
Head of the Chemistry Department of Université Montpellier 2, France

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The search for new environmentally benign non-aqueous solvents, which can easily be recovered/recycled, as well as acting as efficient catalysts, is a priority for the development of green/sustainable chemical processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) are now widely recognized as suitable for use in organic reactions and provide possibilities for improvement in the control of product distribution, enhanced reactivity, ease of product recovery, catalyst immobilization, and recycling. In this decade, ILs have been attracting many chemists’ research interest and numerous reports have already appeared in the literature. The chemistry of ILs is, however, still at an incredibly exciting stage in its development. This volume will discuss the scope of the applications of ionic liquids cutting edge reports on a wide range of scientific fields, e.g., organic chemistry, biotechnology, nuclear, materials, medicine, pharmaceutical and environmental, etc.

This issue is cooperating with the international conference ILMAT 2013 (http://ilmat2013.icgm.fr/). All speakers presenting a paper at this conference can submit a manuscript for publication.

Prof. Dr. Andreas Taubert
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Keywords

  • ionic liquids
  • green chemistry
  • synthesis
  • sustainability
  • transition metal
  • organocatalyst
  • biotransformation
  • recyclable use
  • biomass

Published Papers (16 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Ionic Liquids 2014 and Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013: Highlighting the Ever-Growing Potential of Ionic Liquids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(12), 22815-22818; doi:10.3390/ijms151222815
Received: 12 November 2014 / Revised: 27 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 9 December 2014
PDF Full-text (617 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ionic Liquids (ILs) are arguably among the most intensely researched areas in today’s natural sciences, especially the chemistry, physics, and materials sciences fields. The high promise of ILs for essentially all fields of science, engineering, and technology has also led to a [...] Read more.
Ionic Liquids (ILs) are arguably among the most intensely researched areas in today’s natural sciences, especially the chemistry, physics, and materials sciences fields. The high promise of ILs for essentially all fields of science, engineering, and technology has also led to a sprouting of national and international meetings focusing on ILs and their use and application. Probably, the largest IL meeting is the Conference on Ionic Liquids (COIL) conference, now going into its 6th edition, to take place in Korea in 2015.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Separators for Li-Ion and Li-Metal Battery Including Ionic Liquid Based Electrolytes Based on the TFSI and FSI Anions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(8), 14868-14890; doi:10.3390/ijms150814868
Received: 24 May 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 22 August 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (12285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The characterization of separators for Li-ion or Li-metal batteries incorporating hydrophobic ionic liquid electrolytes is reported herein. Ionic liquids made of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (PYR14+) or N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (PYR12O1+), paired with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI [...] Read more.
The characterization of separators for Li-ion or Li-metal batteries incorporating hydrophobic ionic liquid electrolytes is reported herein. Ionic liquids made of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (PYR14+) or N-methoxyethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium (PYR12O1+), paired with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) or bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI) anions, were tested in combination with separators having different chemistries and morphologies in terms of wetting behavior, Gurley and McMullin number, as well as Li/(Separator + Electrolyte) interfacial properties. It is shown that non-functionalized microporous polyolefin separators are poorly wetted by FSI-based electrolytes (contrary to TFSI-based electrolytes), while the ceramic coated separator Separion® allows good wetting with all electrolytes. Furthermore, by comparing the lithium solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) resistance evolution at open circuit and during cycling, depending on separator morphologies and chemistries, it is possible to propose a scale for SEI forming properties in the order: PYR12O1FSI > PYR14FSI > PYR14TFSI > PYR12O1TFSI. Finally, the impact the separator morphology is evidenced by the SEI resistance evolution and by comparing Li electrodes cycled using separators with two different morphologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Open AccessArticle Rapid Carbonation for Calcite from a Solid-Liquid-Gas System with an Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 11350-11363; doi:10.3390/ijms150711350
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 4 June 2014 / Accepted: 10 June 2014 / Published: 25 June 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6946 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aqueous carbonation of Ca(OH)2 is a complex process that produces calcite with scalenohedral calcite phases and characterized by inadequate carbonate species for effective carbonation due to the poor dissolution of CO2 in water. Consequently, we report a solid-liquid-gas carbonation system [...] Read more.
Aqueous carbonation of Ca(OH)2 is a complex process that produces calcite with scalenohedral calcite phases and characterized by inadequate carbonate species for effective carbonation due to the poor dissolution of CO2 in water. Consequently, we report a solid-liquid-gas carbonation system with an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, in view of enhancing the reaction of CO2 with Ca(OH)2. The use of the IL increased the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous environment and enhanced the transport of the reactive species (Ca2+ and CO32−) and products. The presence of the IL also avoided the formation of the CaCO3 protective and passivation layer and ensured high carbonation yields, as well as the production of stoichiometric rhombohedral calcite phases in a short time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Geminal Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for the Mannich Reaction in Water
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8656-8666; doi:10.3390/ijms15058656
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 30 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 15 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Quaternary ammonium geminal Brønsted acid ionic liquids (GBAILs) based on zwitterionic 1,2-bis[N-methyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium]ethane (where the carbon number of the alkyl chain is 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, or 18) and p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate were synthesized. The catalytic [...] Read more.
Quaternary ammonium geminal Brønsted acid ionic liquids (GBAILs) based on zwitterionic 1,2-bis[N-methyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium]ethane (where the carbon number of the alkyl chain is 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, or 18) and p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate were synthesized. The catalytic ionic liquids were applied in three-component Mannich reactions with an aldehyde, ketone, and amine at 25 °C in water. The effects of the type and amount of catalyst and reaction time as well as the scope of the reaction were investigated. Results showed that GBAIL-C14 has excellent catalytic activity and fair reusability. The catalytic procedure was simple, and the catalyst could be recycled seven times via a simple separation process without noticeable decreases in catalytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Li–Air Batteries: Lithium Metal Cycling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8122-8137; doi:10.3390/ijms15058122
Received: 7 March 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 8 May 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the electrochemical stability and lithium plating/stripping performance of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) are reported, by investigating the behavior of Li metal electrodes in symmetrical Li/electrolyte/Li cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and galvanostatic cycling at different [...] Read more.
In this work, the electrochemical stability and lithium plating/stripping performance of N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI) are reported, by investigating the behavior of Li metal electrodes in symmetrical Li/electrolyte/Li cells. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements and galvanostatic cycling at different temperatures are performed to analyze the influence of temperature on the stabilization of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), showing that TFSI-based ionic liquids (ILs) rank among the best candidates for long-lasting Li–air cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Open AccessArticle An Environmentally Benign Protocol for Aqueous Synthesis of Tetrahydrobenzo[b]Pyrans Catalyzed by Cost-Effective Ionic Liquid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6897-6909; doi:10.3390/ijms15046897
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 30 March 2014 / Accepted: 8 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A mild, efficient, and environmentally benign protocol for the synthesis of tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives in the presence of readily accessible, biodegradable, and choline hydroxide based ionic liquid as catalyst has been established. The key features of the reported methodology include good [...] Read more.
A mild, efficient, and environmentally benign protocol for the synthesis of tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyran derivatives in the presence of readily accessible, biodegradable, and choline hydroxide based ionic liquid as catalyst has been established. The key features of the reported methodology include good to excellent yields of desired products, simple work-up procedure and good recyclability of catalysts, which may be a practical alternative to the existing conventional processes for the preparation of 4-H pyrans to cater to the requirements of academia as well as industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effects of a Protic Ionic Liquid on the Reaction Pathway during Non-Aqueous Sol–Gel Synthesis of Silica: A Raman Spectroscopic Investigation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6488-6503; doi:10.3390/ijms15046488
Received: 16 March 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 16 April 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The reaction pathway during the formation of silica via a two-component “non-aqueou” sol-gel synthesis is studied by in situ time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. This synthetic route is followed with and without the addition of the protic ionic liquid 1-ethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (C2HImTFSI) in order [...] Read more.
The reaction pathway during the formation of silica via a two-component “non-aqueou” sol-gel synthesis is studied by in situ time-resolved Raman spectroscopy. This synthetic route is followed with and without the addition of the protic ionic liquid 1-ethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (C2HImTFSI) in order to investigate its effect on the reaction pathway. We demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy is suitable to discriminate between different silica intermediates, which are produced and consumed at different rates with respect to the point of gelation. We find that half-way to gelation monomers and shorter chains are the most abundant silica species, while the formation of silica rings strongly correlates to the sol-to-gel transition. Thus, curling up of linear chains is here proposed as a plausible mechanism for the formation of small rings. These in turn act as nucleation sites for the condensation of larger rings and thus the formation of the open and polymeric silica network. We find that the protic ionic liquid does not change the reaction pathway per se, but accelerates the cyclization process, intermediated by the faster inclusion of monomeric species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Cellulose-2,3-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) in an Ionic Liquid and Its Chiral Separation Efficiency as Stationary Phase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 6161-6168; doi:10.3390/ijms15046161
Received: 11 February 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 11 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A chiral selector of cellulose-2,3-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CBDMPC) was synthesized by reacting 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate with microcrystalline cellulose dissolved in an ionic liquid of 1-allyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). The obtained chiral selector was effectively characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and 1H NMR. The selector [...] Read more.
A chiral selector of cellulose-2,3-bis(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (CBDMPC) was synthesized by reacting 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate with microcrystalline cellulose dissolved in an ionic liquid of 1-allyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). The obtained chiral selector was effectively characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis and 1H NMR. The selector was reacted with 3-aminopropylsilanized silica gel and the CBDMPC bonded chiral stationary phase (CSP) was obtained. Chromatographic evaluation of the prepared CSPs was conducted by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and baseline separation of three typical fungicides including hexaconazole, metalaxyl and myclobutanil was achieved using n-hexane/isopropanol as the mobile phase with a flow rate 1.0 mL/min. Experimental results also showed that AMIMCl could be recycled easily and reused in the preparation of CSPs as an effective reaction media. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Swelling and Shrinking Properties of Thermo-Responsive Polymeric Ionic Liquid Hydrogels with Embedded Linear pNIPAAM
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(4), 5337-5349; doi:10.3390/ijms15045337
Received: 27 January 2014 / Revised: 19 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 27 March 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1098 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been [...] Read more.
In this study, varying concentrations of linear pNIPAAM have been incorporated for the first time into a thermo-responsive polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) hydrogel, namely tributyl-hexyl phosphonium 3-sulfopropylacrylate (P-SPA), to produce semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. The thermal properties of the resulting hydrogels have been investigated along with their thermo-induced shrinking and reswelling capabilities. The semi-interpenetrating networks (IPN) hydrogels were found to have improved shrinking and reswelling properties compared with their PIL counterpart. At elevated temperatures (50–80 °C), it was found that the semi-IPN with the highest concentration of hydrophobic pNIPAAM exhibited the highest shrinking percentage of ~40% compared to the conventional P-SPA, (27%). This trend was also found to occur for the reswelling measurements, with semi-IPN hydrogels producing the highest reswelling percentage of ~67%, with respect to its contracted state. This was attributed to an increase in water affinity due to the presence of hydrophilic pNIPAAM. Moreover, the presence of linear pNIPAAM in the polymer matrix leads to improved shrinking and reswelling response compared to the equivalent PIL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Rapid and Efficient Functionalized Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions Associated with Microwave Irradiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 1284-1299; doi:10.3390/ijms15011284
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Five quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) and two tetrabutylphosphonium ILs were prepared and characterized. An environmentally benign and convenient functionalized ionic liquid catalytic system was thus explored in the aldol condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes with acetone. The aldol reactions proceeded more [...] Read more.
Five quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) and two tetrabutylphosphonium ILs were prepared and characterized. An environmentally benign and convenient functionalized ionic liquid catalytic system was thus explored in the aldol condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes with acetone. The aldol reactions proceeded more efficiently through microwave-assisted heating than through conventional thermal heating. The yield of products obtained under microwave heating for 30 min was approximately 90%, and the ILs can be recovered and reused at least five times without apparent loss of activity. In addition, this catalytic system can be successfully extended to the Henry reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Open AccessArticle Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens Using Non-Ionic Surfactant with Cylodextrin Functionalized Ionic Liquid as a Modifier
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 24531-24548; doi:10.3390/ijms141224531
Received: 21 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (981 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A cloud point extraction (CPE) process using non-ionic surfactant (DC193C) to extract selected paraben compounds from water samples was investigated using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The CPE process with the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) functionalized ionic liquid as a [...] Read more.
A cloud point extraction (CPE) process using non-ionic surfactant (DC193C) to extract selected paraben compounds from water samples was investigated using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The CPE process with the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) functionalized ionic liquid as a modifier (CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL) is a new extraction technique that has been applied on the optimization of parameters, i.e., pH, βCD-IL concentration and phase volume ratio. This CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL method is facilitated at 30 °C, showing great losses of water content in the surfactant-rich phase, resulting in a high pre-concentration factor and high distribution coefficient. The developed method CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL did show enhanced properties compared to the CPE method without the modifier (CPE-DC193C). The developed method of CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL gives an excellent performance on the detection of parabens from water samples with the limit of detection falling in the range of 0.013–0.038 µg mL−1. Finally, the inclusion complex formation, hydrogen bonding, and π–π interaction between the βCD-IL, benzyl paraben (ArP), and DC 193C were proven using 1H NMR and 2D NOESY spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Open AccessArticle Homogeneous Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths with the Betaine—Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Ionic Liquid System
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(11), 21353-21377; doi:10.3390/ijms141121353
Received: 27 August 2013 / Revised: 7 October 2013 / Accepted: 18 October 2013 / Published: 28 October 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (490 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical [...] Read more.
Several fundamental extraction parameters such as the kinetics and loading were studied for a new type of metal solvent extraction system with ionic liquids. The binary mixture of the ionic liquid betainium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and water shows thermomorphic behavior with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST), which can be used to avoid the slower mass transfer due to the generally higher viscosity of ionic liquids. A less viscous homogeneous phase and mixing on a molecular scale are obtained when the mixture is heated up above 55 °C. The influence of the temperature, the heating and cooling times, were studied for the extraction of neodymium(III) with betaine. A plausible and equal extraction mechanism is proposed in bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, nitrate, and chloride media. After stripping of the metals from the ionic liquid phase, a higher recovery of the ionic liquid was obtained by salting-out of the ionic liquid fraction lost by dissolution in the aqueous phase. The change of the upper critical solution temperature by the addition of HCl or betaine was investigated. In addition, the viscosity was measured below and above the UCST as a function of the temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 20954-20965; doi:10.3390/ijms141020954
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (CnC1im C1SO4, n = 2 and 4), tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P4441 C1SO [...] Read more.
Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (CnC1im C1SO4, n = 2 and 4), tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P4441 C1SO4) and methylpyridinium methylsulfate (C1Py C1SO4) and two high charge density potassium inorganic salts (K2CO3 and K2HPO4) were determined by the cloud point method at 298.15 K. The influence of the addition of the selected inorganic salts to aqueous mixtures of ILs was discussed in the light of the Hofmeister series and in terms of molar Gibbs free energy of hydration. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the methylsulfate-based ILs has been investigated. All the solubility data were satisfactorily correlated to several empirical equations. A pesticide (pentachlorophenol, PCP) extraction process based on the inorganic salt providing a greater salting out effect was tackled. The viability of the proposed process was analyzed in terms of partition coefficients and extraction efficiencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Figures

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Application of Ionic Liquids in Hydrometallurgy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(9), 15320-15343; doi:10.3390/ijms150915320
Received: 28 May 2014 / Revised: 31 July 2014 / Accepted: 18 August 2014 / Published: 29 August 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2794 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids, low temperature molten salts, have various advantages manifesting themselves as durable and environmentally friendly solvents. Their application is expanding into various fields including hydrometallurgy due to their unique properties such as non-volatility, inflammability, low toxicity, good ionic conductivity, and wide electrochemical potential window. This paper reviews previous literatures and our recent results adopting ionic liquids in extraction, synthesis and processing of metals with an emphasis on the electrolysis of active/light, rare earth, and platinum group metals. Because the research and development of ionic liquids in this area are still emerging, various, more fundamental approaches are expected to popularize ionic liquids in the metal manufacturing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Open AccessReview Applications and Mechanisms of Ionic Liquids in Whole-Cell Biotransformation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 12196-12216; doi:10.3390/ijms150712196
Received: 20 May 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 1 July 2014 / Published: 9 July 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ionic liquids (ILs), entirely composed of cations and anions, are liquid solvents at room temperature. They are interesting due to their low vapor pressure, high polarity and thermostability, and also for the possibility to fine-tune their physicochemical properties through modification of the [...] Read more.
Ionic liquids (ILs), entirely composed of cations and anions, are liquid solvents at room temperature. They are interesting due to their low vapor pressure, high polarity and thermostability, and also for the possibility to fine-tune their physicochemical properties through modification of the chemical structures of their cations or anions. In recent years, ILs have been widely used in biotechnological fields involving whole-cell biotransformations of biodiesel or biomass, and organic compound synthesis with cells. Research studies in these fields have increased from the past decades and compared to the typical solvents, ILs are the most promising alternative solvents for cell biotransformations. However, there are increasing limitations and new challenges in whole-cell biotransformations with ILs. There is little understanding of the mechanisms of ILs’ interactions with cells, and much remains to be clarified. Further investigations are required to overcome the drawbacks of their applications and to broaden their application spectrum. This work mainly reviews the applications of ILs in whole-cell biotransformations, and the possible mechanisms of ILs in microbial cell biotransformation are proposed and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Open AccessReview Ionic Liquids and Cellulose: Dissolution, Chemical Modification and Preparation of New Cellulosic Materials
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(7), 11922-11940; doi:10.3390/ijms150711922
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 13 June 2014 / Accepted: 23 June 2014 / Published: 4 July 2014
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies [...] Read more.
Due to its abundance and a wide range of beneficial physical and chemical properties, cellulose has become very popular in order to produce materials for various applications. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of new cellulose materials and technologies using ionic liquids. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquids has been used to develop new processing technologies, cellulose functionalization methods and new cellulose materials including blends, composites, fibers and ion gels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJMS Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijms@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJMS
Back to Top