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Special Issue "Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterial Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Andreas Taubert

Institute of Chemistry, University of Potsdam, Building 26, Rm. 2.64, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, D-14476 Golm, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +49 331 977 5055
Interests: inorganic materials synthesis in ionic liquids; functional ionic liquids-hybrid materials; ionogels; biomimetic materials; hybrid materials; calcium phosphate; silica
Guest Editor
Dr. Peter Hesemann

Institut Charles Gerhardt, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05, France
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Phone: +33 (0)46 714 4528
Interests: ionosilicas—nanostructured silica hybrid materials bearing ionic substructures; soft templating approaches to nanostructured silica type materials; heterogeneous (organo-)catalysis, ion exchange reactions with ionosilicas

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ionic liquids (ILs) are at the forefront of modern materials research and development, and virtually every field of application has at least seen attempts of using ILs for advanced materials design. Although not all attempts have been equally successful, ILs are among the most versatile and promising materials or material components in today's advanced materials. Fields of interest encompass energy, health, catalysis, environment, and many other areas. The Special Issue aims at highlighting recent key developments of the field and invites high profile contributions from all areas related to ionic liquids for advanced materials design and application.

This issue is cooperating with the international conference ILMAT III (http://www.ilmat.net/). All speakers presenting a paper at this conference can submit a manuscript for publication.

Prof. Dr. Andreas Taubert
Dr. Peter Hesemann
Guests Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

• ionic liquids
• ionic liquid crystals
• ionogels
• nanomaterials
• hybrid materials
• poly(ionic liquids)
• composites
• synthesis
• catalysis
• energy
• health
• electrochemistry

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Macromolecular Interactions Control Structural and Thermal Properties of Regenerated Tri-Component Blended Films
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1989; doi:10.3390/ijms17121989
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With a growing need for sustainable resources research has become highly interested in investigating the structure and physical properties of biomaterials composed of natural macromolecules. In this study, we assessed the structural, morphological, and thermal properties of blended, regenerated films comprised of cellulose,
[...] Read more.
With a growing need for sustainable resources research has become highly interested in investigating the structure and physical properties of biomaterials composed of natural macromolecules. In this study, we assessed the structural, morphological, and thermal properties of blended, regenerated films comprised of cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose (xylan) using the ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively measure bonding interactions, morphology, and thermal stability of the regenerated films. The results demonstrated that the regenerated films’ structural, morphological, and thermal character changed as a function of lignin-xylan concentration. The decomposition temperature rose according to an increase in lignin content and the surface topography of the regenerated films changed from fibrous to spherical patterns. This suggests that lignin-xylan concentration alters the self-assembly of lignin and the cellulose microfibril development. X-ray scattering confirms the extent of the morphological and molecular changes. Our data reveals that the inter- and intra-molecular interactions with the cellulose crystalline domains, along with the amount of disorder in the system, control the microfibril dimensional characteristics, lignin self-assembly, and possibly the overall material′s structural and thermal properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle Design of Phosphonated Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids Grafted on γ-Alumina: Potential Model for Hybrid Membranes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1212; doi:10.3390/ijms17081212
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 8 July 2016 / Accepted: 20 July 2016 / Published: 27 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Imidazolium bromide-based ionic liquids bearing phosphonyl groups on the cationic part were synthesized and grafted on γ-alumina (γ-Al2O3) powders. These powders were prepared as companion samples of conventional mesoporous γ-alumina membranes, in order to favor a possible transfer of
[...] Read more.
Imidazolium bromide-based ionic liquids bearing phosphonyl groups on the cationic part were synthesized and grafted on γ-alumina (γ-Al2O3) powders. These powders were prepared as companion samples of conventional mesoporous γ-alumina membranes, in order to favor a possible transfer of the results to supported membrane materials, which could be used for CO2 separation applications. Effective grafting was demonstrated using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), N2 adsorption measurements, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and special attention was paid to 31P and 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle Conductive Hybrid Crystal Composed from Polyoxomolybdate and Deprotonatable Ionic-Liquid Surfactant
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 994; doi:10.3390/ijms17070994
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 20 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 June 2016 / Published: 23 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A polyoxomolybdate inorganic-organic hybrid crystal was synthesized with deprotonatable ionic-liquid surfactant. 1-dodecylimidazolium cation was employed for its synthesis. The hybrid crystal contained δ-type octamolybdate (Mo8) isomer, and possessed alternate stacking of Mo8 monolayers and interdigitated surfactant bilayers. The crystal structure
[...] Read more.
A polyoxomolybdate inorganic-organic hybrid crystal was synthesized with deprotonatable ionic-liquid surfactant. 1-dodecylimidazolium cation was employed for its synthesis. The hybrid crystal contained δ-type octamolybdate (Mo8) isomer, and possessed alternate stacking of Mo8 monolayers and interdigitated surfactant bilayers. The crystal structure was compared with polyoxomolybdate hybrid crystals comprising 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium surfactant, which preferred β-type Mo8 isomer. The less bulky hydrophilic moiety of the 1-dodecylimidazolium interacted with the δ-Mo8 anion by N–H···O hydrogen bonds, which presumably induced the formation of the δ-Mo8 anion. Anhydrous conductivity of the hybrid crystal was estimated to be 5.5 × 10−6 S·cm−1 at 443 K by alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient, Versatile, and Safe Access to Supported Metallic Nanoparticles on Porous Silicon with Ionic Liquids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 876; doi:10.3390/ijms17060876
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
PDF Full-text (8879 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The metallization of porous silicon (PSi) is generally realized through physical vapor deposition (PVD) or electrochemical processes using aqueous solutions. The former uses a strong vacuum and does not allow for a conformal deposition into the pores. In the latter, the water used
[...] Read more.
The metallization of porous silicon (PSi) is generally realized through physical vapor deposition (PVD) or electrochemical processes using aqueous solutions. The former uses a strong vacuum and does not allow for a conformal deposition into the pores. In the latter, the water used as solvent causes oxidation of the silicon during the reduction of the salt precursors. Moreover, as PSi is hydrophobic, the metal penetration into the pores is restricted to the near-surface region. Using a solution of organometallic (OM) precursors in ionic liquid (IL), we have developed an easy and efficient way to fully metallize the pores throughout the several-µm-thick porous Si. This process affords supported metallic nanoparticles characterized by a narrow size distribution. This process is demonstrated for different metals (Pt, Pd, Cu, and Ru) and can probably be extended to other metals. Moreover, as no reducing agent is necessary (the decomposition in an argon atmosphere at 50 °C is fostered by surface silicon hydride groups borne by PSi), the safety and the cost of the process are improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Ionic Liquids on an Iron(III) Catalyzed Three-Component Coupling/Hydroarylation/Dehydrogenation Tandem Reaction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(6), 860; doi:10.3390/ijms17060860
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 1 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A three-component oxidative dehydrogenation tandem reaction via the coupling and hydroarylation of benzaldehyde, aniline and phenylacetylene to a quinoline derivate was catalyzed by an iron-containing ionic liquid. The reaction was air mediated and could be performed under neat conditions. The iron(III) of the
[...] Read more.
A three-component oxidative dehydrogenation tandem reaction via the coupling and hydroarylation of benzaldehyde, aniline and phenylacetylene to a quinoline derivate was catalyzed by an iron-containing ionic liquid. The reaction was air mediated and could be performed under neat conditions. The iron(III) of the ionic liquid was the oxidizing species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle An Eco-Friendly Ultrasound-Assisted Synthesis of Novel Fluorinated Pyridinium Salts-Based Hydrazones and Antimicrobial and Antitumor Screening
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 766; doi:10.3390/ijms17050766
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
PDF Full-text (1145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The present work reports an efficient synthesis of fluorinated pyridinium salts-based hydrazones under both conventional and eco-friendly ultrasound procedures. The synthetic approach first involves the preparation of halogenated pyridinium salts through the condensation of isonicotinic acid hydrazide (1) with p-fluorobenzaldehyde
[...] Read more.
The present work reports an efficient synthesis of fluorinated pyridinium salts-based hydrazones under both conventional and eco-friendly ultrasound procedures. The synthetic approach first involves the preparation of halogenated pyridinium salts through the condensation of isonicotinic acid hydrazide (1) with p-fluorobenzaldehyde (2) followed by the nucleophilic alkylation of the resulting N-(4-fluorobenzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide (3) with a different alkyl iodide. The iodide counteranion of 510 was subjected to an anion exchange metathesis reaction in the presence of an excess of the appropriate metal salts to afford a new series of fluorinated pyridinium salts tethering a hydrazone linkage 1140. Ultrasound irradiation led to higher yields in considerably less time than the conventional methods. The newly synthesized ILs were well-characterized with FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 11B, 19F, 31P and mass spectral analyses. The ILs were also screened for their antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Within the series, the salts tethering fluorinated counter anions 1113, 2123, 3133 and 3638 were found to be more potent against all bacterial and fungal strains at MIC 4–8 µg/mL. The in vitro antiproliferative activity was also investigated against four tumor cell lines (human ductal breast epithelial tumor T47D, human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, human epithelial carcinoma HeLa and human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2) using the MTT assay, which revealed that promising antitumor activity was exhibited by compounds 5, 12 and 14. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of Ternary Mixtures Containing 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide, Ethylene Carbonate and Lithium Bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 670; doi:10.3390/ijms17050670
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 4 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Temperature-dependent viscosity, conductivity and density data of ternary mixtures containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide (EMIM-TFSA), ethylene carbonate (EC), and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide (Li-TFSA) were determined at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of 20 to 80 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed to characterize
[...] Read more.
Temperature-dependent viscosity, conductivity and density data of ternary mixtures containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide (EMIM-TFSA), ethylene carbonate (EC), and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)azanide (Li-TFSA) were determined at atmospheric pressure in the temperature range of 20 to 80 °C. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements were performed to characterize phase conditions of the mixtures in a temperature range of −120 to +100 °C. The viscosity data were fitted according to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann-Hesse (VFTH) equation and analyzed with the help of the fractional Walden rule. In this study, fundamental physicochemical data about the mixtures are provided and discussed as a basis for structure-property relationship calculations and for potential use of those mixtures as electrolytes for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle Tetrabromidocuprates(II)—Synthesis, Structure and EPR
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 596; doi:10.3390/ijms17040596
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1878 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs) are of interest for a variety of technical applications, e.g., particle synthesis and materials with magnetic or thermochromic properties. In this paper we report the synthesis of, and two structures for, some new tetrabromidocuprates(II) with several “onium” cations in
[...] Read more.
Metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs) are of interest for a variety of technical applications, e.g., particle synthesis and materials with magnetic or thermochromic properties. In this paper we report the synthesis of, and two structures for, some new tetrabromidocuprates(II) with several “onium” cations in comparison to the results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic analyses. The sterically demanding cations were used to separate the paramagnetic Cu(II) ions for EPR measurements. The EPR hyperfine structure in the spectra of these new compounds is not resolved, due to the line broadening resulting from magnetic exchange between the still-incomplete separated paramagnetic Cu(II) centres. For the majority of compounds, the principal g values (g and g) of the tensors could be determined and information on the structural changes in the [CuBr4]2− anions can be obtained. The complexes have high potential, e.g., as ionic liquids, as precursors for the synthesis of copper bromide particles, as catalytically active or paramagnetic ionic liquids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle Fast Conversion of Ionic Liquids and Poly(Ionic Liquid)s into Porous Nitrogen-Doped Carbons in Air
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 532; doi:10.3390/ijms17040532
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 1 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 April 2016 / Published: 8 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new
[...] Read more.
Ionic liquids and poly(ionic liquid)s have been successfully converted into nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tunable surface area up to 1200 m2/g at high temperatures in air. Compared to conventional carbonization process conducted under inert gas to produce nitrogen-doped carbons, the new production method was completed in a rather shorter time without noble gas protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle Ionogels Based on Poly(methyl methacrylate) and Metal-Containing Ionic Liquids: Correlation between Structure and Mechanical and Electrical Properties
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 391; doi:10.3390/ijms17030391
Received: 21 February 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4153 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Ionogels (IGs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs) bis-1-butyl-3-methlimidazolium tetrachloridocuprate(II), tetrachloride cobaltate(II), and tetrachlorido manganate(II) have been synthesized and their mechanical and electrical properties have been correlated with their microstructure. Unlike many previous examples, the current IGs show
[...] Read more.
Ionogels (IGs) based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the metal-containing ionic liquids (ILs) bis-1-butyl-3-methlimidazolium tetrachloridocuprate(II), tetrachloride cobaltate(II), and tetrachlorido manganate(II) have been synthesized and their mechanical and electrical properties have been correlated with their microstructure. Unlike many previous examples, the current IGs show a decreasing stability in stress-strain experiments on increasing IL fractions. The conductivities of the current IGs are lower than those observed in similar examples in the literature. Both effects are caused by a two-phase structure with micrometer-sized IL-rich domains homogeneously dispersed an IL-deficient continuous PMMA phase. This study demonstrates that the IL-polymer miscibility and the morphology of the IGs are key parameters to control the (macroscopic) properties of IGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle Micellization Behavior of Long-Chain Substituted Alkylguanidinium Surfactants
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 223; doi:10.3390/ijms17020223
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 6 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface activity and micelle formation of alkylguanidinium chlorides containing 10, 12, 14 and 16 carbon atoms in the hydrophobic tail were studied by combining conductivity and surface tension measurements with isothermal titration calorimetry. The purity of the resulting surfactants, their temperatures of Cr→LC
[...] Read more.
Surface activity and micelle formation of alkylguanidinium chlorides containing 10, 12, 14 and 16 carbon atoms in the hydrophobic tail were studied by combining conductivity and surface tension measurements with isothermal titration calorimetry. The purity of the resulting surfactants, their temperatures of Cr→LC and LC→I transitions, as well as their propensity of forming birefringent phases, were assessed based on the results of 1H and 13C NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and polarizing microscopy studies. Whenever possible, the resulting values of Krafft temperature (TK), critical micelle concentration (CMC), minimum surface tension above the CMC, chloride counter-ion binding to the micelle, and the standard enthalpy of micelle formation per mole of surfactant (ΔmicH°) were compared to those characterizing alkyltrimethylammonium chlorides or bromides with the same tail lengths. The value of TK ranged between 292 and 314 K and increased strongly with the increase in the chain length of the hydrophobic tail. Micellization was described as both entropy and enthalpy-driven. Based on the direct calorimetry measurements, the general trends in the CMC with the temperature, hydrophobic tail length, and NaCl addition were found to be similar to those of other types of cationic surfactants. The particularly exothermic character of micellization was ascribed to the hydrogen-binding capacity of the guanidinium head-group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessArticle The Formation of pH-Sensitive Wormlike Micelles in Ionic Liquids Driven by the Binding Ability of Anthranilic Acid
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(12), 28146-28155; doi:10.3390/ijms161226096
Received: 19 September 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (9030 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wormlike micelles are typically formed by mixing cationic and anionic surfactants because of attractive interactions in oppositely charged head-groups. The structural transitions of wormlike micelles triggered by pH in ionic liquids composed of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide-based ILs (ionic liquids) and anthranilic
[...] Read more.
Wormlike micelles are typically formed by mixing cationic and anionic surfactants because of attractive interactions in oppositely charged head-groups. The structural transitions of wormlike micelles triggered by pH in ionic liquids composed of N-alkyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bromide-based ILs (ionic liquids) and anthranilic acid were investigated. These structures were found responsible for the variations in flow properties identified by rheology and dynamic light scattering, and account for the structures observed with cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). High-viscosity, shear-thinning behavior, and Maxwell-type dynamic rheology shown by the system at certain pH values suggested that spherical micelles grow into entangled wormlike micelles. Light scattering profiles also supported the notion of pH-sensitive microstructural transitions in the solution. Cryo-TEM images confirmed the presence of spherical micelles in the low-viscosity sample and entangled wormlike micelles in the peak viscosity sample. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis revealed that the pH sensitivity of ionic liquid systems originated from the pH-dependent binding ability of anthranilic acid to the cationic headgroup of ionic liquids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Controlled Synthesis of Polyions of Heavy Main-Group Elements in Ionic Liquids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(9), 1452; doi:10.3390/ijms17091452
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4003 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proven to be valuable reaction media for the synthesis of inorganic materials among an abundance of other applications in different fields of chemistry. Up to now, the syntheses have remained mostly “black boxes”; and researchers have to resort
[...] Read more.
Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proven to be valuable reaction media for the synthesis of inorganic materials among an abundance of other applications in different fields of chemistry. Up to now, the syntheses have remained mostly “black boxes”; and researchers have to resort to trial-and-error in order to establish a new synthetic route to a specific compound. This review comprises decisive reaction parameters and techniques for the directed synthesis of polyions of heavy main-group elements (fourth period and beyond) in ILs. Several families of compounds are presented ranging from polyhalides over carbonyl complexes and selenidostannates to homo and heteropolycations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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Open AccessReview Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 731; doi:10.3390/ijms17050731
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 4 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 May 2016 / Published: 16 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents.
[...] Read more.
Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material? Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2016 and Selected Papers from ILMAT III)
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