Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(12), 24531-24548; doi:10.3390/ijms141224531
Article

Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens Using Non-Ionic Surfactant with Cylodextrin Functionalized Ionic Liquid as a Modifier

1 Environmental Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia 2 Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Malaysia 3 Advanced Medical & Dental Institute, University of Science Malaysia, No 1–8 (Lot 8), Persiaran Seksyen 4/1, Bandar Putra Bertam, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang 13200, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2013; in revised form: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
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Abstract: A cloud point extraction (CPE) process using non-ionic surfactant (DC193C) to extract selected paraben compounds from water samples was investigated using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The CPE process with the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) functionalized ionic liquid as a modifier (CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL) is a new extraction technique that has been applied on the optimization of parameters, i.e., pH, βCD-IL concentration and phase volume ratio. This CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL method is facilitated at 30 °C, showing great losses of water content in the surfactant-rich phase, resulting in a high pre-concentration factor and high distribution coefficient. The developed method CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL did show enhanced properties compared to the CPE method without the modifier (CPE-DC193C). The developed method of CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL gives an excellent performance on the detection of parabens from water samples with the limit of detection falling in the range of 0.013–0.038 µg mL−1. Finally, the inclusion complex formation, hydrogen bonding, and π–π interaction between the βCD-IL, benzyl paraben (ArP), and DC 193C were proven using 1H NMR and 2D NOESY spectroscopy.
Keywords: cloud point extraction; non-ionic surfactant; β-cyclodextrin-ionic liquid; paraben; water sample

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MDPI and ACS Style

Noorashikin, M.S.; Raoov, M.; Mohamad, S.; Abas, M.R. Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens Using Non-Ionic Surfactant with Cylodextrin Functionalized Ionic Liquid as a Modifier. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 24531-24548.

AMA Style

Noorashikin MS, Raoov M, Mohamad S, Abas MR. Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens Using Non-Ionic Surfactant with Cylodextrin Functionalized Ionic Liquid as a Modifier. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):24531-24548.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Noorashikin, Md S.; Raoov, Muggundha; Mohamad, Sharifah; Abas, Mhd R. 2013. "Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens Using Non-Ionic Surfactant with Cylodextrin Functionalized Ionic Liquid as a Modifier." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 24531-24548.

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