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Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens Using Non-Ionic Surfactant with Cylodextrin Functionalized Ionic Liquid as a Modifier
Environmental Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Malaysia
Advanced Medical & Dental Institute, University of Science Malaysia, No 1–8 (Lot 8), Persiaran Seksyen 4/1, Bandar Putra Bertam, Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang 13200, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2013; in revised form: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Abstract: A cloud point extraction (CPE) process using non-ionic surfactant (DC193C) to extract selected paraben compounds from water samples was investigated using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The CPE process with the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) functionalized ionic liquid as a modifier (CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL) is a new extraction technique that has been applied on the optimization of parameters, i.e., pH, βCD-IL concentration and phase volume ratio. This CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL method is facilitated at 30 °C, showing great losses of water content in the surfactant-rich phase, resulting in a high pre-concentration factor and high distribution coefficient. The developed method CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL did show enhanced properties compared to the CPE method without the modifier (CPE-DC193C). The developed method of CPE-DC193C-βCD-IL gives an excellent performance on the detection of parabens from water samples with the limit of detection falling in the range of 0.013–0.038 µg mL−1. Finally, the inclusion complex formation, hydrogen bonding, and π–π interaction between the βCD-IL, benzyl paraben (ArP), and DC 193C were proven using 1H NMR and 2D NOESY spectroscopy.
Keywords: cloud point extraction; non-ionic surfactant; β-cyclodextrin-ionic liquid; paraben; water sample
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Noorashikin, M.S.; Raoov, M.; Mohamad, S.; Abas, M.R. Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens Using Non-Ionic Surfactant with Cylodextrin Functionalized Ionic Liquid as a Modifier. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 24531-24548.
Noorashikin MS, Raoov M, Mohamad S, Abas MR. Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens Using Non-Ionic Surfactant with Cylodextrin Functionalized Ionic Liquid as a Modifier. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(12):24531-24548.
Noorashikin, Md S.; Raoov, Muggundha; Mohamad, Sharifah; Abas, Mhd R. 2013. "Cloud Point Extraction of Parabens Using Non-Ionic Surfactant with Cylodextrin Functionalized Ionic Liquid as a Modifier." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 12: 24531-24548.