Abstract: Quaternary ammonium geminal Brønsted acid ionic liquids (GBAILs) based on zwitterionic 1,2-bis[N-methyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium]ethane (where the carbon number of the alkyl chain is 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, or 18) and p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate were synthesized. The catalytic ionic liquids were applied in three-component Mannich reactions with an aldehyde, ketone, and amine at 25 °C in water. The effects of the type and amount of catalyst and reaction time as well as the scope of the reaction were investigated. Results showed that GBAIL-C14 has excellent catalytic activity and fair reusability. The catalytic procedure was simple, and the catalyst could be recycled seven times via a simple separation process without noticeable decreases in catalytic activity.
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He, L.; Qin, S.; Chang, T.; Sun, Y.; Zhao, J. Geminal Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for the Mannich Reaction in Water. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8656-8666.
He L, Qin S, Chang T, Sun Y, Zhao J. Geminal Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for the Mannich Reaction in Water. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2014; 15(5):8656-8666.
He, Leqin; Qin, Shenjun; Chang, Tao; Sun, Yuzhuang; Zhao, Jiquan. 2014. "Geminal Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for the Mannich Reaction in Water." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 15, no. 5: 8656-8666.