Next Article in Journal
Signaling Pathways in Cartilage Repair
Next Article in Special Issue
Rapid Carbonation for Calcite from a Solid-Liquid-Gas System with an Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquid
Previous Article in Journal
Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Trans-Cinnamaldehyde Attenuate Virulence in Cronobacter sakazakii in Vitro
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ionic Liquid Electrolytes for Li–Air Batteries: Lithium Metal Cycling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(5), 8656-8666; doi:10.3390/ijms15058656
Article

Geminal Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for the Mannich Reaction in Water

1,2,†
,
2,†
,
2,* , 2
 and
1,*
1 School of Chemical Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China 2 Key Laboratory for Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan 056038, China These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2014 / Revised: 30 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 15 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [360 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Quaternary ammonium geminal Brønsted acid ionic liquids (GBAILs) based on zwitterionic 1,2-bis[N-methyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium]ethane (where the carbon number of the alkyl chain is 4, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, or 18) and p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate were synthesized. The catalytic ionic liquids were applied in three-component Mannich reactions with an aldehyde, ketone, and amine at 25 °C in water. The effects of the type and amount of catalyst and reaction time as well as the scope of the reaction were investigated. Results showed that GBAIL-C14 has excellent catalytic activity and fair reusability. The catalytic procedure was simple, and the catalyst could be recycled seven times via a simple separation process without noticeable decreases in catalytic activity.
Keywords: Mannich reaction; geminal ionic liquid; water; catalyst; emulsion Mannich reaction; geminal ionic liquid; water; catalyst; emulsion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

He, L.; Qin, S.; Chang, T.; Sun, Y.; Zhao, J. Geminal Brønsted Acid Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for the Mannich Reaction in Water. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 8656-8666.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert