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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15(1), 1284-1299; doi:10.3390/ijms15011284
Article

Rapid and Efficient Functionalized Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions Associated with Microwave Irradiation

,
,
 and *
Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 17 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
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Abstract

Five quaternary ammonium ionic liquid (IL) and two tetrabutylphosphonium ILs were prepared and characterized. An environmentally benign and convenient functionalized ionic liquid catalytic system was thus explored in the aldol condensation reactions of aromatic aldehydes with acetone. The aldol reactions proceeded more efficiently through microwave-assisted heating than through conventional thermal heating. The yield of products obtained under microwave heating for 30 min was approximately 90%, and the ILs can be recovered and reused at least five times without apparent loss of activity. In addition, this catalytic system can be successfully extended to the Henry reactions.
Keywords: ionic liquid; green chemistry; aldol reaction; microwave ionic liquid; green chemistry; aldol reaction; microwave
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Wang, C.; Liu, J.; Leng, W.; Gao, Y. Rapid and Efficient Functionalized Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions Associated with Microwave Irradiation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2014, 15, 1284-1299.

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