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Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain
Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2013; in revised form: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
Abstract: Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (CnC1im C1SO4, n = 2 and 4), tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P4441 C1SO4) and methylpyridinium methylsulfate (C1Py C1SO4) and two high charge density potassium inorganic salts (K2CO3 and K2HPO4) were determined by the cloud point method at 298.15 K. The influence of the addition of the selected inorganic salts to aqueous mixtures of ILs was discussed in the light of the Hofmeister series and in terms of molar Gibbs free energy of hydration. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the methylsulfate-based ILs has been investigated. All the solubility data were satisfactorily correlated to several empirical equations. A pesticide (pentachlorophenol, PCP) extraction process based on the inorganic salt providing a greater salting out effect was tackled. The viability of the proposed process was analyzed in terms of partition coefficients and extraction efficiencies.
Keywords: pentachlorophenol; ionic liquids; aqueous biphasic systems; extraction; potassium inorganic salts
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Moscoso, F.; Deive, F.J.; Esperança, J.M.S.S.; Rodríguez, A. Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 20954-20965.
Moscoso F, Deive FJ, Esperança JMSS, Rodríguez A. Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14(10):20954-20965.
Moscoso, Fátima; Deive, Francisco J.; Esperança, José M.S.S.; Rodríguez, Ana. 2013. "Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14, no. 10: 20954-20965.