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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14(10), 20954-20965; doi:10.3390/ijms141020954

Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents

1 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain 2 Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Av. da República, 2780-157 Oeiras, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 18 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ionic Liquids 2014 & Selected Papers from ILMAT 2013)
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Phase segregation in aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of four hydrophilic ionic liquids (ILs): 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium methylsulfate (CnC1im C1SO4, n = 2 and 4), tributylmethyl phosphonium methylsulfate (P4441 C1SO4) and methylpyridinium methylsulfate (C1Py C1SO4) and two high charge density potassium inorganic salts (K2CO3 and K2HPO4) were determined by the cloud point method at 298.15 K. The influence of the addition of the selected inorganic salts to aqueous mixtures of ILs was discussed in the light of the Hofmeister series and in terms of molar Gibbs free energy of hydration. The effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the methylsulfate-based ILs has been investigated. All the solubility data were satisfactorily correlated to several empirical equations. A pesticide (pentachlorophenol, PCP) extraction process based on the inorganic salt providing a greater salting out effect was tackled. The viability of the proposed process was analyzed in terms of partition coefficients and extraction efficiencies.
Keywords: pentachlorophenol; ionic liquids; aqueous biphasic systems; extraction; potassium inorganic salts pentachlorophenol; ionic liquids; aqueous biphasic systems; extraction; potassium inorganic salts
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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Moscoso, F.; Deive, F.J.; Esperança, J.M.S.S.; Rodríguez, A. Pesticide Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Adding Salting Out Agents. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 20954-20965.

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