Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Metals, Volume 6, Issue 3 (March 2016)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-30
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Picosecond Laser Shock Peening of Nimonic 263 at 1064 nm and 532 nm Wavelength
Metals 2016, 6(3), 41; doi:10.3390/met6030041
Received: 12 November 2015 / Revised: 3 February 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 23 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents a study on the surface modifications of nickel based superalloy Nimonic 263 induced by laser shock peening (LSP) process. The process was performed by Nd3+:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG) picosecond laser using the following parameters: pulse duration 170 ps;
[...] Read more.
The paper presents a study on the surface modifications of nickel based superalloy Nimonic 263 induced by laser shock peening (LSP) process. The process was performed by Nd3+:Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (YAG) picosecond laser using the following parameters: pulse duration 170 ps; repetition rate 10 Hz; pulse numbers of 50, 100 and 200; and wavelength of 1064 nm (with pulse energy of 2 mJ, 10 mJ and 15 mJ) and 532 nm (with pulse energy of 25 mJ, 30 mJ and 35 mJ). The following response characteristics were analyzed: modified surface areas obtained by the laser/material interaction were observed by scanning electron microscopy; elemental composition of the modified surface was evaluated by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); and Vickers microhardness tests were performed. LSP processing at both 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths improved the surface structure and microhardness of a material. Surface morphology changes of the irradiated samples were determined and surface roughness was calculated. These investigations are intended to contribute to the study on the level of microstructure and mechanical properties improvements due to LSP process that operate in a picosecond regime. In particular, the effects of laser wavelength on the microstructural and mechanical changes of a material are studied in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Shock Processing on Metal)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Phase Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of the Semi-Solid SIMA Processed 7075 Aluminum Alloy
Metals 2016, 6(3), 42; doi:10.3390/met6030042
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 23 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microstructural and mechanical behaviors of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated during semi-solid processing. The strain induced melt activation (SIMA) process consisted of applying uniaxial compression strain at ambient temperature and subsequent semi-solid treatment at 600–620 °C for 5–35 min. Microstructures were characterized
[...] Read more.
Microstructural and mechanical behaviors of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated during semi-solid processing. The strain induced melt activation (SIMA) process consisted of applying uniaxial compression strain at ambient temperature and subsequent semi-solid treatment at 600–620 °C for 5–35 min. Microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). During the isothermal heating, intermetallic precipitates were gradually dissolved through the phase transformations of α-Al + η (MgZn2) → liquid phase (L) and then α-Al + Al2CuMg (S) + Mg2Si → liquid phase (L). However, Fe-rich precipitates appeared mainly as square particles at the grain boundaries at low heating temperatures. Cu and Si were enriched at the grain boundaries during the isothermal treatment while a significant depletion of Mg was also observed at the grain boundaries. The mechanical behavior of different SIMA processed samples in the semi-solid state were investigated by means of hot compression tests. The results indicated that the SIMA processed sample with near equiaxed microstructure exhibits the highest flow resistance during thixoforming which significantly decreases in the case of samples with globular microstructures. This was justified based on the governing deformation mechanisms for different thixoformed microstructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Temperature Effects on the Tensile Properties of Precipitation-Hardened Al-Mg-Cu-Si Alloys
Metals 2016, 6(3), 43; doi:10.3390/met6030043
Received: 5 January 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 23 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because the mechanical performance of precipitation-hardened alloys can be significantly altered with temperature changes, understanding and predicting the effects of temperatures on various mechanical properties for these alloys are important. In the present work, an analytical model has been developed to predict the
[...] Read more.
Because the mechanical performance of precipitation-hardened alloys can be significantly altered with temperature changes, understanding and predicting the effects of temperatures on various mechanical properties for these alloys are important. In the present work, an analytical model has been developed to predict the elastic modulus, the yield stress, the failure stress, and the failure strain taking into consideration the effect of temperatures for precipitation-hardenable Al-Mg-Cu-Si Alloys (Al-A319 alloys). In addition, other important mechanical properties of Al-A319 alloys including the strain hardening exponent, the strength coefficient, and the ductility parameter can be estimated using the current model. It is demonstrated that the prediction results based on the proposed model are in good agreement with those obtained experimentally in Al-A319 alloys in the as-cast condition and after W and T7 heat treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Synthesizing Temperature on Microstructure and Electrochemical Property of the Hydrothermal Conversion Coating on Mg-2Zn-0.5Mn-Ca-Ce Alloy
Metals 2016, 6(3), 44; doi:10.3390/met6030044
Received: 14 January 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mg(OH)2 conversion coatings were formed on an Mg-2Zn-0.5Mn-Ca-Ce alloy via hydrothermal method at three different synthesizing temperatures (160, 170 and 180 °C). The effect of synthesizing temperature on microstructure and electrochemical property of the coatings were systematically studied. With increasing synthesizing temperature,
[...] Read more.
Mg(OH)2 conversion coatings were formed on an Mg-2Zn-0.5Mn-Ca-Ce alloy via hydrothermal method at three different synthesizing temperatures (160, 170 and 180 °C). The effect of synthesizing temperature on microstructure and electrochemical property of the coatings were systematically studied. With increasing synthesizing temperature, the coating became thicker due to the faster reaction and deposition of Mg(OH)2 on the α-Mg phase and secondary phases of the substrate Mg alloy. Internal micro-cracks were also generated in the higher-temperature synthesized coatings due to the increased shrinking stress, but the cross-cutting micro-cracks were suppressed. Benefiting from the improved barrier effect against penetration of corrosive medium, the higher-temperature synthesized thicker coating presented significantly enhanced electrochemical property and anti-corrosion efficiency in Hanks’ solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidation of Metals)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Simulation and Experimental Investigation for the Homogeneity of Ti49.2Ni50.8 Alloy Processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing
Metals 2016, 6(3), 45; doi:10.3390/met6030045
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
PDF Full-text (2232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ti49.2Ni50.8 shape memory alloy (SMA) was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for eight passes at 450 °C. The deformation homogeneity was analyzed on various planes across the thickness by Deform-3D software. Strain standard deviation (SSD) was used to
[...] Read more.
Ti49.2Ni50.8 shape memory alloy (SMA) was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) for eight passes at 450 °C. The deformation homogeneity was analyzed on various planes across the thickness by Deform-3D software. Strain standard deviation (SSD) was used to quantify deformation homogeneity. The simulation result shows that the strain homogeneity is optimized by the third pass. Deformation homogeneity of ECAP was analyzed experimentally using microhardness measurements. Experimental results show that the gradual evolution of hardness with increasing numbers of passes existed and the optimum homogeneity was achieved after three passes. This is in good agreement with simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermetallics 2016)
Open AccessArticle Al-Co Alloys Prepared by Vacuum Arc Melting: Correlating Microstructure Evolution and Aqueous Corrosion Behavior with Co Content
Metals 2016, 6(3), 46; doi:10.3390/met6030046
Received: 18 January 2016 / Revised: 11 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 27 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hypereutectic Al-Co alloys of various Co contents (7–20 weight % (wt.%) Co) were prepared by vacuum arc melting, aiming at investigating the influence of the cobalt content on the microstructure and corrosion behavior. Quite uniform and directional microstructures were attained. The obtained microstructures
[...] Read more.
Hypereutectic Al-Co alloys of various Co contents (7–20 weight % (wt.%) Co) were prepared by vacuum arc melting, aiming at investigating the influence of the cobalt content on the microstructure and corrosion behavior. Quite uniform and directional microstructures were attained. The obtained microstructures depended on the Co content, ranging from fully eutectic growth (7 wt.% and 10 wt.% Co) to coarse primary Al9Co2 predominance (20 wt.% Co). Co dissolution in Al far exceeded the negligible equilibrium solubility of Co in Al; however, it was hardly uniform. By increasing the cobalt content, the fraction and coarseness of Al9Co2, the content of Co dissolved in the Al matrix, and the hardness and porosity of the alloy increased. All alloys exhibited similar corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt.% NaCl with high resistance to localized corrosion. Al-7 wt.% Co showed slightly superior corrosion resistance than the other compositions in terms of relatively low corrosion rate, relatively low passivation current density and scarcity of stress corrosion cracking indications. All Al-Co compositions demonstrated substantially higher resistance to localized corrosion than commercially pure Al produced by casting, cold rolling and arc melting. A corrosion mechanism was formulated. Surface films were identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidation of Metals)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Corrosion Resistance Micro-Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Anodized Aluminum in a One-Step Electrodeposition Process
Metals 2016, 6(3), 47; doi:10.3390/met6030047
Received: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
PDF Full-text (2444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The formation of low surface energy hybrid organic-inorganic micro-nanostructured zinc stearate electrodeposit transformed the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface to superhydrophobic, having a water contact angle of 160°. The corrosion current densities of the anodized and aluminum alloy surfaces are found to be
[...] Read more.
The formation of low surface energy hybrid organic-inorganic micro-nanostructured zinc stearate electrodeposit transformed the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) surface to superhydrophobic, having a water contact angle of 160°. The corrosion current densities of the anodized and aluminum alloy surfaces are found to be 200 and 400 nA/cm2, respectively. In comparison, superhydrophobic anodic aluminum oxide (SHAAO) shows a much lower value of 88 nA/cm2. Similarly, the charge transfer resistance, Rct, measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that the SHAAO substrate was found to be 200-times larger than the as-received aluminum alloy substrate. These results proved that the superhydrophobic surfaces created on the anodized surface significantly improved the corrosion resistance property of the aluminum alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys)
Figures

Open AccessArticle On the Modelling of the Transient Flow Behavior of Metallic Glasses: Analogy with Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect
Metals 2016, 6(3), 48; doi:10.3390/met6030048
Received: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
PDF Full-text (814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A constitutive model for serrated flow together with a finite element (FE) analysis was developed to simulate discontinuous yielding behavior of metallic glasses, commonly known as serrated flow inhomogeneous deformation. The constructed model is based on transient behavior resulting from the time dependence
[...] Read more.
A constitutive model for serrated flow together with a finite element (FE) analysis was developed to simulate discontinuous yielding behavior of metallic glasses, commonly known as serrated flow inhomogeneous deformation. The constructed model is based on transient behavior resulting from the time dependence of the flow defect concentration in the shear bands. The computed results of stress-strain curves were consistent with the experimental data. The main features of the serrated flow effect have also been exhibited by the model. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Hot Deformation Activation Energy of 7050 Aluminum Alloy under Three Different Deformation Modes
Metals 2016, 6(3), 49; doi:10.3390/met6030049
Received: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the hot deformation activation energy values of 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy, calculated with two different methods under three deformation modes, were compared. The results showed that the hot deformation activation energy values obtained with the classical constitutive equation are nearly equivalent
[...] Read more.
In this study, the hot deformation activation energy values of 7050-T7451 aluminum alloy, calculated with two different methods under three deformation modes, were compared. The results showed that the hot deformation activation energy values obtained with the classical constitutive equation are nearly equivalent under the hot tensile, compression, and shear-compression deformation modes. Average values exhibited an obvious increase when calculated with the modified constitutive equation because it can reflect the variation of activation energy with deformation conditions such as deformation temperature, strain rate and strain state. Moreover, the values under tensile and compression deformation modes were nearly the same regardless of the calculation method. The higher average value under the shear-compression deformation mode with modified equation indicates that the strain state has a significant effect on the hot deformation activation energy. In addition, when the activation energy was investigated for various deformation conditions, the effect of the strain state on the activation energy was more significant. Under a certain condition, the activation energy was the same for the three deformation modes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys)
Open AccessArticle Onset Frequency of Fatigue Effects in Pure Aluminum and 7075 (AlZnMg) and 2024 (AlCuMg) Alloys
Metals 2016, 6(3), 50; doi:10.3390/met6030050
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 4 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (854 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The viscoelastic response of pure Al and 7075 (AlZnMg) and 2024 (AlCuMg) alloys, obtained with a dynamic-mechanical analyzer (DMA), is studied. The purpose is to identify relationships between the viscoelasticity and fatigue response of these materials, of great interest for structural applications, in
[...] Read more.
The viscoelastic response of pure Al and 7075 (AlZnMg) and 2024 (AlCuMg) alloys, obtained with a dynamic-mechanical analyzer (DMA), is studied. The purpose is to identify relationships between the viscoelasticity and fatigue response of these materials, of great interest for structural applications, in view of their mutual dependence on intrinsic microstructural effects associated with internal friction. The objective is to investigate the influence of dynamic loading frequency and temperature on fatigue, based on their effect on the viscoelastic behavior. This research suggests that the decrease of yield and fatigue behavior reported for Al alloys as temperature increases may be associated with the increase of internal friction. Furthermore, materials subjected to dynamic loading below a given threshold frequency exhibit a static-like response, such that creep mechanisms dominate and fatigue effects are negligible. In this work, an alternative procedure to the time-consuming fatigue tests is proposed to estimate this threshold frequency, based on the frequency dependence of the initial decrease of the storage modulus with temperature, obtained from the relatively short DMA tests. This allows for a fast estimation of the threshold frequency. The frequencies obtained for pure Al and 2024 and 7075 alloys are 0.001–0.005, 0.006 and 0.075–0.350 Hz, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effects of Cryogenic Forging and Anodization on the Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of AA6066–T6 Aluminum Alloys
Metals 2016, 6(3), 51; doi:10.3390/met6030051
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 10 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
PDF Full-text (5861 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, AA6066 alloy samples were cryogenically forged after annealing and then subjected to solution and aging treatments. Compared with conventional 6066-T6 alloy samples, the cryoforged samples exhibited a 34% increase in elongation but sacrificed about 8%–12% in ultimate tensile strength (UTS)
[...] Read more.
In this study, AA6066 alloy samples were cryogenically forged after annealing and then subjected to solution and aging treatments. Compared with conventional 6066-T6 alloy samples, the cryoforged samples exhibited a 34% increase in elongation but sacrificed about 8%–12% in ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield stress (YS). Such difference was affected by the constituent phases that changed in the samples’ matrix. Anodization and sealing did minor effect on tensile strength of the 6066-T6 samples with/without cryoforging but it decreased samples’ elongation about 8%–10%. The anodized/sealed anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) film enhanced the corrosion resistance of the cryoforged samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Strength of Three Aluminum Alloys Used in Light Poles
Metals 2016, 6(3), 52; doi:10.3390/met6030052
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 12 February 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
PDF Full-text (21616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conjoint influence of welding and artificial aging on mechanical properties were investigated for extrusions of aluminum alloy 6063, 6061, and 6005A. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on the aluminum alloys 6063-T4, 6061-T4, and 6005A-T1 in both the as-received (AR) and as-welded (AW)
[...] Read more.
The conjoint influence of welding and artificial aging on mechanical properties were investigated for extrusions of aluminum alloy 6063, 6061, and 6005A. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on the aluminum alloys 6063-T4, 6061-T4, and 6005A-T1 in both the as-received (AR) and as-welded (AW) conditions. Tensile tests were also conducted on the AR and AW alloys, subsequent to artificial aging. The welding process used was gas metal arc (GMAW) with spray transfer using 120–220 A of current at 22 V. The artificial aging used was a precipitation heat treatment for 6 h at 182 °C (360 °F). Tensile tests revealed the welded aluminum alloys to have lower strength, both for yield and ultimate tensile strength, when compared to the as-received un-welded counterpart. The beneficial influence of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) on strength and ductility is presented and discussed in terms of current design provisions for welded aluminum light pole structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aluminum Alloys)
Open AccessArticle Experimental and Numerical Simulations of the Solidification Process in Continuous Casting of Slab
Metals 2016, 6(3), 53; doi:10.3390/met6030053
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermal simulation equipment (TSE) was recently developed to simulate the solidification process in the industrial continuous casting of slab. The grain growth, solid-liquid interface movement, and columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) in the continuous casting process can be reproduced using this equipment. The current study
[...] Read more.
Thermal simulation equipment (TSE) was recently developed to simulate the solidification process in the industrial continuous casting of slab. The grain growth, solid-liquid interface movement, and columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) in the continuous casting process can be reproduced using this equipment. The current study is focused on the effects of different cooling rates and superheat conditions on the grain growth in the solidification process of chromium-saving ferritic stainless steel (B425). The temperature distribution and microstructure evolution are simulated by a Cellular Automaton-Finite Element (CAFE) model. The experimental results demonstrate that the temperature gradient and the grain growth rate of the sample can be effectively controlled by the equipment. It is observed from optical micrographs of the microstructure that the average equiaxed grain ratio increases when the superheat temperature decreases. The average equiaxed grain ratio is approximately 26% and 42% under superheat conditions of 40 °C and 30 °C, respectively, and no apparent columnar grain generation in the samples occurs under superheat conditions of 10 °C and 20 °C, as the result of a large thermal resistance at the copper-sample interface and low superheat inside the sample. A lower cooling rate results in a higher equiaxed crystal ratio in the sample. As the cooling rate decreases, the equiaxed crystal ratio becomes 14%, 23%, and 42%. Comparing the simulation results with the experimental observations, a reasonable qualitative agreement is achieved for the chilled layer thickness, grain morphology, and CET in the sample. Thus, the CAFE model in the current study can accurately predict the grain growth under different superheating and cooling rate conditions. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Characterisation of an Advanced Nickel Based Superalloy Post Cold Work by Swaging
Metals 2016, 6(3), 54; doi:10.3390/met6030054
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cylindrical bars of the advanced nickel based superalloy RR1000 were subjected to swaging to induce approximately 30% cold work. Grain size analysis demonstrated a distinct modification to the microstructure whilst electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements confirmed the evolution of a relatively strong
[...] Read more.
Cylindrical bars of the advanced nickel based superalloy RR1000 were subjected to swaging to induce approximately 30% cold work. Grain size analysis demonstrated a distinct modification to the microstructure whilst electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements confirmed the evolution of a relatively strong <111> texture parallel with the longitudinal bar axis. Intragranular strain damage was identified. The effects of the swaging on bulk mechanical properties are illustrated across a range of test temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superalloys)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Corrosion Resistance Properties of Aluminum Coating Applied by Arc Thermal Metal Spray in SAE J2334 Solution with Exposure Periods
Metals 2016, 6(3), 55; doi:10.3390/met6030055
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 25 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 5 March 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4597 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arc thermal metal spray coating provides excellent corrosion, erosion and wear resistance to steel substrates. This paper incorporates some results of aluminum coating applied by this method on plain carbon steel. Thereafter, coated panels were exposed to an environment known to form stable
[...] Read more.
Arc thermal metal spray coating provides excellent corrosion, erosion and wear resistance to steel substrates. This paper incorporates some results of aluminum coating applied by this method on plain carbon steel. Thereafter, coated panels were exposed to an environment known to form stable corrosion products with aluminum. The coated panels were immersed in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J2334 for different periods of time. This solution consists of an aqueous solution of NaCl, CaCl2 and NaHCO3. Various electrochemical techniques, i.e., corrosion potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the potentiodynamic were used to determine the performance of stimulants in improving the properties of the coating. EIS studies revealed the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion and potentiodynamic attributed the formation of a passive film, which stifles the penetration of aggressive ions towards the substrate. The corrosion products that formed on the coating surface, identified using Raman spectroscopy, were Dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH)2) and Al(OH)3. These compounds of aluminum are very sparingly soluble in aqueous solution and protect the substrate from pitting and uniform corrosion. The morphology and composition of corrosion products determined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses indicated that the environment plays a decisive role in improving the corrosion resistance of aluminum coating. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Accumulative Roll-Bonded AA1050A/AA5005 Laminated Metal Composites
Metals 2016, 6(3), 56; doi:10.3390/met6030056
Received: 10 December 2015 / Revised: 23 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laminated metal composites (LMCs) with alternating layers of commercial pure aluminum AA1050A and aluminum alloy AA5005 were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB). In order to vary the layer thickness and the number of layer interfaces, different numbers of ARB cycles (4, 8, 10,
[...] Read more.
Laminated metal composites (LMCs) with alternating layers of commercial pure aluminum AA1050A and aluminum alloy AA5005 were produced by accumulative roll-bonding (ARB). In order to vary the layer thickness and the number of layer interfaces, different numbers of ARB cycles (4, 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16) were performed. The microstructure and mechanical properties were characterized in detail. Up to 8 ARB cycles, the ultrafine-grained (UFG) microstructure of the layers in the LMC evolves almost equally to those in AA1050A and AA5005 mono-material sheets. However, the grain size in the composites tends to have smaller values. Nevertheless, the local mechanical properties of the individual layers in the LMCs are very similar to those of the mono-material sheets, and the macroscopic static mechanical properties of the LMCs can be calculated as the mean value of the mono-material sheets applying a linear rule of mixture. In contrast, for more than 12 ARB cycles, a homogenous microstructure was obtained where the individual layers within the composite cannot be visually separated any longer; thus, the hardness is at one constant and a high level across the whole sheet thickness. This results also in a significant higher strength in tensile testing. It was revealed that, with decreasing layer thickness, the layer interfaces become more and more dominating. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Upgrading of High-Aluminum Hematite-Limonite Ore by High Temperature Reduction-Wet Magnetic Separation Process
Metals 2016, 6(3), 57; doi:10.3390/met6030057
Received: 8 January 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4040 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The huge consumption of iron ores in China has attracted much attention to utilizing low grade complex iron resources, such as high-aluminum hematite-limonite ore, which is a refractory resource and difficult to upgrade by traditional physical concentration processes due to the superfine size
[...] Read more.
The huge consumption of iron ores in China has attracted much attention to utilizing low grade complex iron resources, such as high-aluminum hematite-limonite ore, which is a refractory resource and difficult to upgrade by traditional physical concentration processes due to the superfine size and close dissemination of iron minerals with gangue minerals. An innovative technology for a high temperature reduction-magnetic separation process was studied to upgrade a high-aluminum iron ore assaying 41.92% Fetotal, 13.74% Al2O3 and 13.96% SiO2. The optimized results show that the final metal iron powder, assaying 90.46% Fetotal, was manufactured at an overall iron recovery of 90.25% under conditions as follows: balling the high aluminum iron ore with 15% coal blended and at 0.3 basicity, reducing the dried pellets at 1350 °C for 25 min with a total C/Fe mass ratio of 1.0, grinding the reduced pellets up to 95%, passing at 0.074 mm and magnetically separating the ground product in a Davis Tube at a 0.10-T magnetic field intensity. The metal iron powder can be used as the burden for an electric arc furnace (EAF). Meanwhile, the nonmagnetic tailing is suitable to produce ceramic, which mainly consists of anorthite and corundum. An efficient way has been found to utilize high-aluminum iron resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Metals)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Composition Distribution and Electrochemical Behavior of an Ni2Al3 Coating on Q235 Steel
Metals 2016, 6(3), 58; doi:10.3390/met6030058
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1542 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An Ni2Al3 coating was prepared via the electrodeposition of nickel followed by pack aluminization. Polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed to study the room temperature corrosion behavior of the coating in a 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. The
[...] Read more.
An Ni2Al3 coating was prepared via the electrodeposition of nickel followed by pack aluminization. Polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were performed to study the room temperature corrosion behavior of the coating in a 3.5 wt. % NaCl solution. The long-term impedance of the coating was also investigated after immersion for 30 days. Results show that the Ni2Al3 coating possessed lower corrosion current density (Icorr) and higher polarization resistance (Rp) than the substrate in the solution. The Bode plots of the coating showed two time constants after the long-term immersion. Pitting corrosion was found on the coating surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidation of Metals)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Surface and Microstructural Failures of PET-Coated ECCS Plates by Salmon-Polymer Interaction
Metals 2016, 6(3), 59; doi:10.3390/met6030059
Received: 17 January 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
PDF Full-text (3306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The new types of knowledge-intensive, multilayer containers consist of steel plates protected against corrosion by nanometric electrolytic chromium (Cr0) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3) layers chemically bonded to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer coating to preserve food. It was
[...] Read more.
The new types of knowledge-intensive, multilayer containers consist of steel plates protected against corrosion by nanometric electrolytic chromium (Cr0) and chromium oxide (Cr2O3) layers chemically bonded to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer coating to preserve food. It was observed that after emptying the cans, the salmon adhered to the polymer coating, changing its color, and that this adhesion increased with longer storage times. This work was aimed at determining the product-container interactions and their characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), confocal Raman and micro-Raman imaging and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The zones of adhesion showed surface changes, variations in crystallinity and microstructural degradation of the PET coating. In addition, localized damages altering the functional properties of the multilayer system were observed as microcracking in the chromium layers that protect the steel. The degradation undergone was evaluated and characterized at a surface and microstructural level to establish the failure mechanisms, which were mainly associated with the activity of the adhered muscle and its biochemical components. Finally, a recommendation is done to preserve the useful life and functionality of cans for the preservation and efficient use of resources with an impact on recycling and environmental conservancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidation of Metals)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of the Ti-Nb-Sn Isothermal Section at 1173 K
Metals 2016, 6(3), 60; doi:10.3390/met6030060
Received: 21 January 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Isothermal section of Ti-Nb-Sn at 1173 K was experimentally studied by back-scattered electron, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Solid solution phase β(Ti, Nb), liquid Sn and eight intermetallic compounds Ti3Sn, Ti2Sn, Ti5Sn3, Ti
[...] Read more.
Isothermal section of Ti-Nb-Sn at 1173 K was experimentally studied by back-scattered electron, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Solid solution phase β(Ti, Nb), liquid Sn and eight intermetallic compounds Ti3Sn, Ti2Sn, Ti5Sn3, Ti6Sn5, Nb6Sn5, Nb3Sn, Ti3Nb2Sn2 and Ti3NbSn coexisted. Four ternary phase regions Ti3Sn + Ti3NbSn + β(Ti, Nb), Ti3NbSn + Ti3Nb3Sn2 + Ti3Sn, Ti2Sn + Ti3Sn + Ti3Nb3Sn2 and Ti6Sn5 + Ti3Nb3Sn2 + Nb3Sn were experimented. In addition, the proper composition range of the single phase was suggested. All the detected Ti-Sn and Nb-Sn compounds have a remarkable solubility along the isoconcentration of Sn. β(Ti, Nb) has a relatively large solution while liquid Sn has a little in the isothermal section. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Influence of Processing Conditions on Microchemistry and the Softening Behavior of Cold Rolled Al-Mn-Fe-Si Alloys
Metals 2016, 6(3), 61; doi:10.3390/met6030061
Received: 7 November 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 11 March 2016
PDF Full-text (7205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Using different homogenization treatments, different initial microchemistry conditions in terms of solid solution levels of Mn, and number densities and sizes of constituents and dispersoids were achieved in an Al-Mn-Fe-Si model alloy. For each homogenized condition, the microchemistry and microstructure, which further change
[...] Read more.
Using different homogenization treatments, different initial microchemistry conditions in terms of solid solution levels of Mn, and number densities and sizes of constituents and dispersoids were achieved in an Al-Mn-Fe-Si model alloy. For each homogenized condition, the microchemistry and microstructure, which further change both during deformation and subsequent annealing, were quantitatively characterized. The influence of the different microchemistries, with special focus on different particle structures (constituents and dispersoids), on the softening behavior during annealing after cold rolling and the final grain structure has been systematically studied. Time-Temperature-Transformation diagrams with respect to precipitation and recrystallization as a basis for analysis of the degree of concurrent precipitation during back-annealing have been established. Densely distributed fine pre-existing dispersoids and/or conditions of significant concurrent precipitation strongly slows down recrystallization kinetics and lead to a grain structure of coarse and strongly elongated grains. At the lowest annealing temperatures, recrystallization may even be completely suppressed. In conditions of low number density and coarse pre-existing dispersoids, and limited additional concurrent precipitation, recrystallization generally results in an even, fine and equi-axed grain structure. Rough calculations of recrystallized grain size, assuming particle stimulated nucleation as the main nucleation mechanism, compare well with experimentally measured grain sizes. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Early Morphological Development of the Near Surface Region of Pickled Grade 91 Tubing Exposed to Steam and Its Long Term Implications
Metals 2016, 6(3), 62; doi:10.3390/met6030062
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve intra-laboratory consistency and experimental repeatability during high temperature oxidation testing, metallic coupons undergo a standardised surface preparation. It is stipulated in international testing standards that grinding of a coupons surface acceptably replicates surface conditions encountered in industrial settings whilst ensuring that
[...] Read more.
To improve intra-laboratory consistency and experimental repeatability during high temperature oxidation testing, metallic coupons undergo a standardised surface preparation. It is stipulated in international testing standards that grinding of a coupons surface acceptably replicates surface conditions encountered in industrial settings whilst ensuring that each coupons surface is chemically and topographically homogenised [1,2]. Grade 91 steel tubing exposed in the laboratory to flowing steam at 650 °C and 1 bar for up to 3000 h has been compared with Grade 91 tubing exposed in a commercially operated boiler system at elevated pressures at temperatures in the range of 500 to 650 °C for 91 kh. It has been found that a pre-existing surface structure dissimilar from that of the bulk alloy and that of a ground surface, is present on the inside surface of the tubing. The presence of pre-existing surface features in commercially exposed material has implications on the long term morphological development of the oxidation region and may account for some of the discrepancies between observations made in laboratory and service exposures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidation of Metals)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Recovery of Vanadium from H2SO4-HF Acidic Leaching Solution of Black Shale by Solvent Extraction and Precipitation
Metals 2016, 6(3), 63; doi:10.3390/met6030063
Received: 21 January 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recovery of vanadium from sulfuric and hydrofluoric mixed acid solutions generated by the direct leaching of black shale was investigated using solvent extraction and precipitation methods. The process consisted of reduction, solvent extraction, and stripping, followed by precipitation and calcination to yield
[...] Read more.
The recovery of vanadium from sulfuric and hydrofluoric mixed acid solutions generated by the direct leaching of black shale was investigated using solvent extraction and precipitation methods. The process consisted of reduction, solvent extraction, and stripping, followed by precipitation and calcination to yield vanadium pentoxide. The influence of various operating parameters on the extraction and recovery of vanadium was studied. Vanadium (IV) was selectively extracted using a mixture of 10% (v/v) di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid and 5% (v/v) tri-n-butylphosphate in sulfonated kerosene. Using six extraction and five stripping stages, the extraction efficiency for vanadium was 96.7% and the stripping efficiency was 99.7%. V2O5 with a purity of 99.52% was obtained by oxidation of the loaded strip solution and precipitation of ammonium polyvanadate at pH 1.8 to 2.2, followed by calcination of the dried precipitate at 550 °C for 2 h. It was concluded that the combination of solvent extraction and precipitation is an efficient method for the recovery of vanadium from a multi-element leach solution generated from black shale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycling of Metals)
Open AccessArticle Research on the Grain Boundary Liquation Mechanism in Heat Affected Zones of Laser Forming Repaired K465 Nickel-Based Superalloy
Metals 2016, 6(3), 64; doi:10.3390/met6030064
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 15 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The damaged K465 nickel-based superalloy parts were repaired by laser forming repair technology. The cracking characteristics and grain boundary liquation in heat affected zones were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that
[...] Read more.
The damaged K465 nickel-based superalloy parts were repaired by laser forming repair technology. The cracking characteristics and grain boundary liquation in heat affected zones were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the cracks originated from the heat-affected zone and extended to the repaired zone. The calculation by Thermol-Cale software showed that the larger γ′ particles at grain boundaries partly dissolved in the γ phase, which made the solutes’ concentration at the γ′/γ interface meet the eutectic-type liquation reaction condition of γ + γ′ → L. Then, grain boundaries liquation occurred and liquid films appeared with the temperature increasing in a rapid heating process. However, the intragranular γ′ phase completely dissolved into the γ phase with no devotion to the liquid film. The dissolution of M5B3 borides at grain boundaries could promote grain boundary liquation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superalloys)
Open AccessArticle Corrosion and Discharge Behaviors of Mg-Al-Zn and Mg-Al-Zn-In Alloys as Anode Materials
Metals 2016, 6(3), 65; doi:10.3390/met6030065
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2016 / Accepted: 4 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn and Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-(1%, 1.5%, 2%)In alloys were prepared by melting and casting. Their microstructures were investigated via metallographic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Moreover, hydrogen evolution and electrochemical tests were carried out in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution aiming at identifying their
[...] Read more.
The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn and Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-(1%, 1.5%, 2%)In alloys were prepared by melting and casting. Their microstructures were investigated via metallographic and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. Moreover, hydrogen evolution and electrochemical tests were carried out in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution aiming at identifying their corrosion mechanisms and discharge behaviors. The results suggested that indium exerts an improvement on both the corrosion rate and the discharge activity of Mg-Al-Zn alloy via the effects of grain refining, β-Mg17Al12 precipitation, dissolving-reprecipitation, and self-peeling. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.5%In alloy with the highest corrosion rate at free corrosion potential did not perform desirable discharge activity indicating that the barrier effect caused by the β-Mg17Al12 phase would have been enhanced under the conditions of anodic polarization. The Mg-6%Al-3%Zn-1.0%In alloy with a relative low corrosion rate and a high discharge activity is a promising anode material for both cathodic protection and chemical power source applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidation of Metals)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Influence of Phospholipid-Coated Porous Ti-6Al-4V Material on the Osteosarcoma Cell Line Saos-2 and Primary Human Bone Derived Cells
Metals 2016, 6(3), 66; doi:10.3390/met6030066
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
PDF Full-text (1773 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomaterial surface functionalization remains of great interest in the promotion of cell osteogenic induction. Previous studies highlighted the positive effects of porous Ti-6Al-4V and phospholipid coating on osteoblast differentiation and bone remodeling. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate the
[...] Read more.
Biomaterial surface functionalization remains of great interest in the promotion of cell osteogenic induction. Previous studies highlighted the positive effects of porous Ti-6Al-4V and phospholipid coating on osteoblast differentiation and bone remodeling. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate the potential synergistic effects of material porosity and phospholipid coating. Primary human osteoblasts and Saos-2 cells were cultured on different Ti-6Al-4V specimens (mirror-like polished or porous specimens) and were coated or not with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) for three weeks or five weeks. Selected gene expressions (e.g., classical bone markers: alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) and runt-related transcription factor 2) were estimated in vitro. Furthermore, the expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin were examined via fluorescent microscopy at five weeks (immunocytochemistry). Consequently, it was observed that phospholipid coating potentiates preferences for low and high porosities in Saos-2 and primary cells, respectively, at the gene and protein levels. Additionally, RANKL and OPG exhibited different gene expression patterns; primary cells showed dramatically increased RANKL expression, whereas OPG expression was decreased in the presence of POPE. A synergistic effect of increased porosity and phospholipid coating was observed in primary osteoblasts in bone remodeling. This study showed the advantage of primary cells over the standard bone cell model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle NURBS-Based Collocation Methods for the Structural Analysis of Shells of Revolution
Metals 2016, 6(3), 68; doi:10.3390/met6030068
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 5 March 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
PDF Full-text (1056 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work we present a collocation method for the structural analysis of shells of revolution based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) interpolation. The method is based on the strong formulation of the equilibrium equations according to Reissner-Mindlin theory, with Fourier series expansion
[...] Read more.
In this work we present a collocation method for the structural analysis of shells of revolution based on Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) interpolation. The method is based on the strong formulation of the equilibrium equations according to Reissner-Mindlin theory, with Fourier series expansion of dependent variables, which makes the problem 1D. Several numerical tests validate convergence, accuracy, and robustness of the proposed methodology, and its feasibility as a tool for the analysis and design of complex shell structures. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Rheo-Cast Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AM60 Alloy Produced by Self-Inoculation Rheo-Diecasting Process
Metals 2016, 6(3), 69; doi:10.3390/met6030069
Received: 16 February 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 14 March 2016 / Published: 18 March 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rheo-forming is becoming the choice for production of high quality parts with diminished defects and fine integrity. In this paper, the novel self-inoculation rheo-diecasting (SIRD) process, in which semisolid slurry is produced by mixing two precursory solid and liquid alloys and subsequently pouring
[...] Read more.
Rheo-forming is becoming the choice for production of high quality parts with diminished defects and fine integrity. In this paper, the novel self-inoculation rheo-diecasting (SIRD) process, in which semisolid slurry is produced by mixing two precursory solid and liquid alloys and subsequently pouring them through a multi-stream fluid director, has been proposed. Microstructural characteristics of AM60 alloy slurry and the microstructure and mechanical properties of rheo-diecasting AM60 samples were investigated. Quenching experiments reveal that the slurry microstructure of AM60 was well refined to irregular α-Mg particles with the average size of approximately 20–40 μm after pouring with the self-inoculation process, and these particles were evolved to globular and coarse morphology while continuously keeping in semisolid state. After rheo-diecasting, the microstructure of the sample was dominated by fine primary α-Mg globules accompanied with tiny secondary α-Mg particles while the sample from conventional liquid die casting was characterized by developed dendrite and porosity. Microscopic analysis indicates that there are three stages of remaining liquid solidification in die cavity in SIRD: α-Mg nucleation and growth on primary α-Mg surface, α-Mg nucleated independently in liquid, and, finally, formation of skeleton devoiced eutectic. Due to diminished porosity and hot tearing, tensile strength and elongation of SIRD samples were increased by 12.9% and 35.3%, respectively, compared to a conventional liquid die casting sample. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Investigation on Hot Deformation Behavior and Hot Processing Map of BSTMUF601 Super-Alloy
Metals 2016, 6(3), 70; doi:10.3390/met6030070
Received: 23 January 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2016 / Accepted: 15 March 2016 / Published: 19 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Isothermal compression tests of BSTMUF601 super-alloy in the temperature range of 950 °C–1200 °C and at the strain rates of 0.2 s−1, 5 s−1, 10 s−1 were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. Based on the hyperbolic sine
[...] Read more.
Isothermal compression tests of BSTMUF601 super-alloy in the temperature range of 950 °C–1200 °C and at the strain rates of 0.2 s−1, 5 s−1, 10 s−1 were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermo-mechanical simulator. Based on the hyperbolic sine function, the unified constitutive equations and hot processing maps during the hot deformation process were established. The flow stress predicted by the constitutive equations shows good agreement with the corrected stress. Hot processing maps for hot working conditions were established based on exploring the effect of power dissipation efficiency and the instability coefficient associated with various kinds of temperatures and stain rates. Subsequently, power dissipation efficiency and the instability coefficient were interpreted based on hot processing maps under a series of strains, temperatures and strain rates. The results show that power dissipation efficiency increases gradually with the increasing temperature and the decreasing stain rate, and instability domains reduce first, then increase with the increase of true strain. The optimum hot working condition of BSTMUF601 super-alloy was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superalloys)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Parameters Influencing Zinc in Experimental Systems in Vivo and in Vitro
Metals 2016, 6(3), 71; doi:10.3390/met6030071
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the role of zinc in biological systems has been a subject of intense research. Despite wide increase in our knowledge and understanding of zinc homeostasis, numerous questions remain to be answered, encouraging further research. In particular, the quantification of intracellular
[...] Read more.
In recent years, the role of zinc in biological systems has been a subject of intense research. Despite wide increase in our knowledge and understanding of zinc homeostasis, numerous questions remain to be answered, encouraging further research. In particular, the quantification of intracellular zinc ions and fluctuation, as well as the function of zinc in signaling processes are being intensely investigated. The determination of free intracellular zinc ions is difficult and error-prone, as concentrations are extremely low (in the pico- to nanomolar range), but techniques exist involving fluorescent probes and sensors. In spite of zinc deficiency being accepted as a global problem, causing death and disease worldwide, to date there are no markers to reliably assess a person’s zinc status. This review summarizes the difficulties and major pitfalls when working with zinc in in vitro and in vivo research. Additionally, it specifies important aspects for zinc substitution and supplementation, including the bioavailability of zinc and its intestinal absorption. In particular, it is intended to help researchers with yet minor experience working with zinc efficiently set up experiments and avoid commonly occurring mistakes, starting with the choice and preparation of reagents and instrumentation, and concluding with possibilities for measuring the status of zinc in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallomics)
Figures

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Metals Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Metals Edit a special issue Review for Metals
logo
loading...
Back to Top