Special Issue "Metallic Biomaterials"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Professor Harrie Weinans

Delft University Technology, TU Delft, Faculty of Mech Maritime & Mat Engn, Mekelweg 2, NL-2628 CD Delft, The Netherlands. University Medical Center Utrecht, dept. Orthopaedics
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Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Amir A. Zadpoor

Delft University of Technology (TUDelft) Mekelweg 2, Delft 2628CD, the Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biofabrication and additive bio-manufacturing; mechanobiology; surface bio-functionalization; infection prevention and treatment; metamaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metallic biomaterials were one of the first types of biomaterials that found their ways to actual clinical use. Since several decades ago, implants and surgical devices have been made from metallic biomaterials, which offer versatility, reliability, and affordability, all at the same time. There are, however, several novel avenues of original research in the field of metallic biomaterials that have emerged during the last few years. This Special Issue aims to highlight some of the recent developments in the field of metallic biomaterials. The topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

- Additively manufactured metallic biomaterials

- Multi-functional biomaterials

- New metals and alloys for application in medicine and biology

- Advanced production techniques for metallic biomaterials

- Mechanical properties of metallic biomaterials

- Anti-microbial and infection-resistant implants and metallic biomaterials

- Biomaterial-tissue interfaces

- Mechanical properties of metallic biomaterials

- Coatings and surface treatments of metallic biomaterials

- Biodegradable metallic biomaterials including magnesium, zinc, iron, and their alloys

- New areas of application for metallic biomaterials

- Surface patterning of metallic biomaterials

Professor Harrie Weinans
Dr. Amir A Zadpoor
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • Porous metals
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Metal surface treatment
  • Implants
  • Tissue ingrowth
  • Resorbable metals

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Nanocrystalline β-Ta Coating Enhances the Longevity and Bioactivity of Medical Titanium Alloys
Metals 2016, 6(9), 221; doi:10.3390/met6090221
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
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Abstract
A β-Ta nanocrystalline coating was engineered onto a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using a double cathode glow discharge technique to improve the corrosion resistance and bioactivity of this biomedical alloy. The new coating has a thickness of ~40 μm and exhibits a compact and homogeneous
[...] Read more.
A β-Ta nanocrystalline coating was engineered onto a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using a double cathode glow discharge technique to improve the corrosion resistance and bioactivity of this biomedical alloy. The new coating has a thickness of ~40 μm and exhibits a compact and homogeneous structure composed of equiaxed β-Ta grains with an average grain size of ~22 nm, which is well adhered on the substrate. Nanoindentation and scratch tests indicated that the β-Ta coating exhibited high hardness combined with good resistance to contact damage. The electrochemical behavior of the new coating was systematically investigated in Hank’s physiological solution at 37 °C. The results showed that the β-Ta coating exhibited a superior corrosion resistance as compared to uncoated Ti-6Al-4V and commercially pure tantalum, which was attributed to a stable passive film formed on the β-Ta coating. The in vitro bioactivity was studied by evaluating the apatite-forming capability of the coating after seven days of immersion in Hank’s physiological solution. The β-Ta coating showed a higher apatite-forming ability than both uncoated Ti-6Al-4V and commercially pure Ta, suggesting that the β-Ta coating has the potential to enhance functionality and increase longevity of orthopaedic implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evaluation of Chill Cast Co-Cr Alloys for Biomedical Applications
Metals 2016, 6(8), 188; doi:10.3390/met6080188
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
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Abstract
Binary Co-Cr alloys containing various Cr contents were vacuum induction melted and cast into wedge-shaped copper molds. It was intended to develop a microstructure (1) free from interdendritic segregation and porosity; (2) having minimal intermetallic precipitates; and (3) suitable for biomedical applications. The
[...] Read more.
Binary Co-Cr alloys containing various Cr contents were vacuum induction melted and cast into wedge-shaped copper molds. It was intended to develop a microstructure (1) free from interdendritic segregation and porosity; (2) having minimal intermetallic precipitates; and (3) suitable for biomedical applications. The resultant microstructures were evaluated from sections obtained longitudinally and centrally in the plane normal to the diverging wedge faces. All ingots showed a dendritic microstructure with some characteristic features. For instance, in Co-20–30 wt. % Cr alloys, the chilled cast microstructures consisted of columnar dendrites without interdendritic segregation, a minimum of intermetallic precipitates, and the presence of a predominantly athermal HCP ε-martensite (>80 vol. %). In addition, the metastable FCC γ-Co phase was identified by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In the case of 35–44 wt. % Cr cobalt alloys, a eutectic constituent including the σ-phase were found to develop in the interdendritic regions. From this work, a Co-20 wt. % Cr alloy was chosen for further investigation after heat treating below the γ/ε transition temperature. The resultant tensile strength and ductility were further improved after applying a heat treatment at 730 °C for 30 min, obtaining values of elongation of 26% as compared with 2.55 < 5 of elongation in the as cast condition. Also, the alloy corrosion resistance in artificial saliva was investigated. It was found that the exhibited corrosion rates for the as-cast and heat-treated conditions are between those reported for other similar systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Specific Yielding of Selective Laser-Melted Ti6Al4V Open-Porous Scaffolds as a Function of Unit Cell Design and Dimensions
Metals 2016, 6(7), 166; doi:10.3390/met6070166
Received: 17 April 2016 / Revised: 3 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 18 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (6286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone loss in the near-vicinity of implants can be a consequence of stress shielding due to stiffness mismatch. This can be avoided by reducing implant stiffness, i.e., by implementing an open-porous structure. Three open-porous designs were therefore investigated (cubic, pyramidal and a twisted
[...] Read more.
Bone loss in the near-vicinity of implants can be a consequence of stress shielding due to stiffness mismatch. This can be avoided by reducing implant stiffness, i.e., by implementing an open-porous structure. Three open-porous designs were therefore investigated (cubic, pyramidal and a twisted design). Scaffolds were fabricated by a selective laser-melting (SLM) process and material properties were determined by conducting uniaxial compression testing. The calculated elastic modulus values for the scaffolds varied between 3.4 and 26.3 GP and the scaffold porosities between 43% and 80%. A proportional linear correlation was found between the elastic modulus and the geometrical parameters, between the elastic modulus and the compressive strengths, as well as between the strut width-to-diameter ratio (a/d) and elastic modulus. Furthermore, we found a power-law relationship between porosity and the modulus of elasticity that characterizes specific yielding. With respect to scaffold porosity, the description of specific yielding behaviour offers a simple way to characterize the mechanical properties of open-porous structures and helps generate scaffolds with properties specific to their intended application. A direct comparison with human bone parameters is also possible. We generated scaffolds with mechanical properties sufficiently close to that of human cortical bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Cr2N Precipitation on the Antibacterial Properties of AISI 430 Stainless Steel
Metals 2016, 6(4), 73; doi:10.3390/met6040073
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 8 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
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Abstract
Based on their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, some commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels have been widely applied as biomaterials, including the austenitic 304 stainless steel, the austenitic 316 stainless steel, the duplex 2205 stainless steel, and the ferritic 430 stainless steel. In
[...] Read more.
Based on their mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance, some commercial Ni-Cr stainless steels have been widely applied as biomaterials, including the austenitic 304 stainless steel, the austenitic 316 stainless steel, the duplex 2205 stainless steel, and the ferritic 430 stainless steel. In order to reduce the occurrence of infections resulting from biomaterial implants, instruments, and medical devices, Cu2+ and Ag2+ ions have been added onto biomaterials for increasing the antibacterial properties, but they are known to damage biofilm. The occurrence of nanoparticles can also improve the antibacterial properties of biomaterials through various methods. In this study, we used Escherichia coli and analyzed the microstructures of American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 430 stainless steel with a 0.18 mass % N alloy element. During a lower temperature aging, the microstructure of the as-quenched specimen is essentially a ferrite and martensite duplex matrix with some Cr2N precipitates formed. Additionally, the antibacterial properties of the alloy for E. coli ranged from 3% to 60%, consistent with the presence of Cr2N precipitates. When aged at a lower temperature, which resulted in nano-Cr2N precipitation, the specimen possessed the highest antibacterial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Influence of Phospholipid-Coated Porous Ti-6Al-4V Material on the Osteosarcoma Cell Line Saos-2 and Primary Human Bone Derived Cells
Metals 2016, 6(3), 66; doi:10.3390/met6030066
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 17 March 2016
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Abstract
Biomaterial surface functionalization remains of great interest in the promotion of cell osteogenic induction. Previous studies highlighted the positive effects of porous Ti-6Al-4V and phospholipid coating on osteoblast differentiation and bone remodeling. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate the
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Biomaterial surface functionalization remains of great interest in the promotion of cell osteogenic induction. Previous studies highlighted the positive effects of porous Ti-6Al-4V and phospholipid coating on osteoblast differentiation and bone remodeling. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate the potential synergistic effects of material porosity and phospholipid coating. Primary human osteoblasts and Saos-2 cells were cultured on different Ti-6Al-4V specimens (mirror-like polished or porous specimens) and were coated or not with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) for three weeks or five weeks. Selected gene expressions (e.g., classical bone markers: alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) and runt-related transcription factor 2) were estimated in vitro. Furthermore, the expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin were examined via fluorescent microscopy at five weeks (immunocytochemistry). Consequently, it was observed that phospholipid coating potentiates preferences for low and high porosities in Saos-2 and primary cells, respectively, at the gene and protein levels. Additionally, RANKL and OPG exhibited different gene expression patterns; primary cells showed dramatically increased RANKL expression, whereas OPG expression was decreased in the presence of POPE. A synergistic effect of increased porosity and phospholipid coating was observed in primary osteoblasts in bone remodeling. This study showed the advantage of primary cells over the standard bone cell model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
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Review

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Open AccessReview The Development of Coronary Artery Stents: From Bare-Metal to Bio-Resorbable Types
Metals 2016, 6(7), 168; doi:10.3390/met6070168
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 26 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional balloon angioplasty is associated with high rates of complications such as coronary dissection and vessel recoil. The deployment of bare-metal stents (BMSs) can overcome these problems and achieve a better patency rate
[...] Read more.
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Conventional balloon angioplasty is associated with high rates of complications such as coronary dissection and vessel recoil. The deployment of bare-metal stents (BMSs) can overcome these problems and achieve a better patency rate than simple balloon angioplasty. It has been shown that the stent design including structure platform, size, length, and strut thickness has a major influence on the clinical results. Even though angioplasty with BMS implantation is widely used in coronary interventions, the restenosis rate due to neointimal hyperplasia remains high. Therefore, drug-eluting stents (DESs) coated with anti-proliferative agents and polymers have been developed to reduce the restenosis rate and improve the clinical outcomes. Although the repeat revascularization rate of DESs is lower than that of BMSs, the long-term stent thrombosis rate is higher than for BMSs. Therefore, new and emerging generations of stents, in which, for example, thinner struts and bioresorbable polymers are used, are available for clinical use. However, there are only a limited number of clinical trials, in which these newer stents have been compared with BMSs and first- and second-generation DESs. The purpose of this review was to provide up-to-date information on the evolution of coronary artery stents from BMSs to DESs to bioresorbable stents (BRSs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview Porous Titanium for Dental Implant Applications
Metals 2015, 5(4), 1902-1920; doi:10.3390/met5041902
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 19 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 21 October 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, an increasing amount of research has focused on the biological and mechanical behavior of highly porous structures of metallic biomaterials, as implant materials for dental implants. Particularly, pure titanium and its alloys are typically used due to their outstanding mechanical and biological
[...] Read more.
Recently, an increasing amount of research has focused on the biological and mechanical behavior of highly porous structures of metallic biomaterials, as implant materials for dental implants. Particularly, pure titanium and its alloys are typically used due to their outstanding mechanical and biological properties. However, these materials have high stiffness (Young’s modulus) in comparison to that of the host bone, which necessitates careful implant design to ensure appropriate distribution of stresses to the adjoining bone, to avoid stress-shielding or overloading, both of which lead to bone resorption. Additionally, many coating and roughening techniques are used to improve cell and bone-bonding to the implant surface. To date, several studies have revealed that porous geometry may be a promising alternative to bulk structures for dental implant applications. This review aims to summarize the evidence in the literature for the importance of porosity in the integration of dental implants with bone tissue and the different fabrication methods currently being investigated. In particular, additive manufacturing shows promise as a technique to control pore size and shape for optimum biological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)
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Other

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Open AccessErratum Erratum: Wally, Z.J.; van Grunsven, W.; Claeyssens, F.; Goodall, R.; Reilly, G.C. Porous Titanium for Dental Implant Applications. Metals 2015, 5, 1902–1920.
Metals 2016, 6(5), 97; doi:10.3390/met6050097
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 14 April 2016 / Published: 25 April 2016
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to the citations in the published paper [1].[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Biomaterials)

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