Special Issue "Metallomics"

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Grasso Giuseppe

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, Catania, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: metalloproteases; metal ions involved in neurodegenerative diseases; biomolecular interactions; enzymes activity modulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Life on Earth has evolved according to existing environmental conditions as living organisms started to use the available elements found on the Earth crust. As the environment changed, passing from reducing conditions to more oxidized ones, life has adapted accordingly. Several elements, such as copper, zinc, and iron, suddenly became more available and living organisms started to use their unique characteristics for a wide variety of purposes. Evolution has created the great variety of living organisms that we observe today, but the foundation on which such variety thrives is the natural abundance of elements and their chemical bioavailability. Metallome is the term currently used to describe the distribution of metal ions in every cellular compartment, and the study of the metallome in living organisms is a very challenging task. Indeed, the determination of the free metal ions concentrations is not sufficient to understand metals homeostasis, as a detailed knowledge of all the metal species present in a certain biological environment is necessary in order to ascertain metal activities and their roles in biomolecular processes. Moreover, many proteins are involved in the control of metal homeostasis and utilize metal ions to carry out specific functions and, therefore, studying the proteome alone can be misleading. Analogously, other omics, such as the genome, the transcriptome, and the metabolome are intrinsically intertwined with the metallome, thus, a comprehensive analysis of the entirety of metal species within a cell or tissue type, which is metallomics, is now considered one of the most important and promising fields of investigation for scientists. In this Special Issue, we want to focus on various aspects of metallomics, as we hope that by monitoring the wide variety of metal ions destinies in living organisms, scientists will be able to provide a fundamental contribution to unveil some physiological and/or pathological biomolecular mechanisms that are involved with life and diseases.

Prof. Dr. Grasso Giuseppe
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • metal ions
  • metalloproteins
  • metalloproteases
  • metalloenzymes
  • metal complex
  • metallostasis

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Metals Are Main Actors in the Biological World
Metals 2017, 7(10), 422; doi:10.3390/met7100422
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
The word “metallomics” was introduced for the first time in 2004 [1] to describe the emerging scientific field of investigation addressing the role that metal ions have in the biological world, including their trafficking, uptake, transport, and storage.[...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallomics)

Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Distribution and Excretion of Arsenic Metabolites after Oral Administration of Seafood-Related Organoarsenicals in Rats
Metals 2016, 6(10), 231; doi:10.3390/met6100231
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Less information is available on the metabolism of organic arsenicals compared to inorganic arsenic in mammals. In the present study, we investigated tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion in rats of organoarsenicals, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC) and trimethylarsine oxide
[...] Read more.
Less information is available on the metabolism of organic arsenicals compared to inorganic arsenic in mammals. In the present study, we investigated tissue distribution, metabolism and excretion in rats of organoarsenicals, dimethylarsinic acid (DMAV), arsenobetaine (AB), arsenocholine (AC) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAOV). Among these animals, arsenic concentrations in red blood cells (RBCs) and spleen increased remarkably only in the DMAV group. Hepatic arsenic concentration increased significantly only in the AC group. Approximately 17%, 72% and 60% of the dose was excreted in urine in two days in the DMAV, AB and AC groups, respectively; virtually the entire dose was excreted in urine in one day in the TMAOV group. On the other hand, approximately 18%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 0.1% of the dose was excreted in feces in two days in the DMAV, AB, AC and TMAOV groups, respectively. A large amount of arsenic was accumulated in RBCs in the form of protein-bound dimethylarsinous acid (DMAIII), and dimethylmonothioarsinic acid (DMMTAV), a reportedly toxic thio-arsenical, was found in urine and fecal extract in the DMAV group. These results suggest that intake of DMAV is a potential health hazard, given that the metabolites of DMAV, such as DMAIII and DMMTAV, are known to be highly toxic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallomics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of a Novel Gold(III) Complex with O,O′-Diethyl Ester of Ethylenediamine-N,N′-Di-2-(4-Methyl)Pentanoic Acid
Metals 2016, 6(9), 226; doi:10.3390/met6090226
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A novel gold(III) complex, [AuCl2{(S,S)-Et2eddl}]PF6, ((S,S)-Et2eddl = O,O′-diethyl ester of ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(4-methyl)pentanoic acid) was synthesized and characterized by IR, 1D (
[...] Read more.
A novel gold(III) complex, [AuCl2{(S,S)-Et2eddl}]PF6, ((S,S)-Et2eddl = O,O′-diethyl ester of ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(4-methyl)pentanoic acid) was synthesized and characterized by IR, 1D (1H and 13C), and 2D (H,H-COSY and H,H-NOESY) NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. Density functional theory calculations confirmed that (R,R)-N,N′ diastereoisomer was energetically the most stable isomer. In vitro antitumor action of ligand precursor [(S,S)-H2Et2eddl]Cl2 and corresponding gold(III) complex was determined against tumor cell lines: human adenocarcinoma (HeLa), human colon carcinoma (LS174), human breast cancer (MCF7), non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line (A549), and non-cancerous cell line human embryonic lung fibroblast (MRC-5) using microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) assay. The results indicate that both ligand precursor and gold(III) complex have showed very good to moderate cytotoxic activity against all tested malignant cell lines. The highest activity was expressed by [AuCl2{(S,S)-Et2eddl}]PF6 against the LS174 cells, with IC50 value of 7.4 ± 1.2 µM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallomics)
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Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Molecular Docking and Aberration-Corrected STEM of Palladium Nanoparticles on Viral Templates
Metals 2016, 6(9), 200; doi:10.3390/met6090200
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 25 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Viral templates are highly versatile biotemplates used for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Rotavirus VP6 self-assembles into nanotubular hollow structures with well-defined diameters and variable lengths, serving as a nucleic acid-free biotemplate to synthesize metal nanoparticles of controlled size, shape, and orientation. Molecular
[...] Read more.
Viral templates are highly versatile biotemplates used for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Rotavirus VP6 self-assembles into nanotubular hollow structures with well-defined diameters and variable lengths, serving as a nucleic acid-free biotemplate to synthesize metal nanoparticles of controlled size, shape, and orientation. Molecular docking simulations show that exposed residues (H173-S240-D242 and N200-N310) of VP6 have the ability to specifically bind Pd(II) ions, which serve as nucleation sites for the growth and stabilization of palladium nanoclusters. Using VP6 nanotubes as biotemplates allows for obtaining small Pd particles of 1–5 nm in diameter. Advanced electron microscopy imaging and characterization through ultra-high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy (UHR-FE-SEM) and spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM) at a low voltage dose (80 kV) reveals, with high spatial resolution, the structure of Pd nanoparticles attached to the macromolecular biotemplates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallomics)
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Open AccessArticle Interaction and Binding Modes of bis-Ruthenium(II) Complex to Synthetic DNAs
Metals 2016, 6(6), 141; doi:10.3390/met6060141
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 10 June 2016 / Accepted: 11 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2032 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
[μ-(linker)L2(dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine)2(phenanthroline)2Ru(II)2]2+ with linker: 1,3-bis-(4-pyridyl)-propane, L: PF6 (bis-Ru-bpp) was synthesized and their binding properties to a various polynucleotides were investigated by spectroscopy, including normal absorption, circular
[...] Read more.
[μ-(linker)L2(dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine)2(phenanthroline)2Ru(II)2]2+ with linker: 1,3-bis-(4-pyridyl)-propane, L: PF6 (bis-Ru-bpp) was synthesized and their binding properties to a various polynucleotides were investigated by spectroscopy, including normal absorption, circular dichroism(CD), linear dichroism(LD), and luminescence techniques in this study. On binding to polynucleotides, the bis-Ru-bpp complex with poly[d(A-T)2], and poly[d(I-C)2] exhibited a negative LDr signal whose intensity was as large as that in the DNA absorption region, followed by a complicated LDr signal in the metal-to-ligand charge transfer region. Also, the emission intensity and equilibrium constant of the bis-Ru-bpp complex with poly[d(A-T)2], and poly[d(I-C)2] were enhanced. It was reported that both of dppz ligand of the bis-Ru-bpp complex intercalated between DNA base-pairs when bound to native, mixed sequence DNA. Observed spectral properties resemble to those observed for poly[d(A-T)2] and poly[d(I-C)2], led us to be concluded that both dppz ligands intercalate between alternated AT and IC bases-pairs In contrast when bis-Ru-bpp complex was bound to poly[d(G-C)2], the magnitude of the LDr in the dppz absorption region, as well as the emission intensity, was half in comparison to that of bound to poly[d(A-T)2], and poly[d(I-C)2]. Therefore the spectral properties of the bis-Ru-bpp-poly[d(G-C)2] complex suggested deviation from bis-intercalation model in the poly[d(G-C)2] case. These results can be explained by a model whereby one of the dppz ligands is intercalated while the other is exposed to solvent or may exist near to phosphate. Also it is indicative that the amine group of guanine in the minor groove provides the steric hindrance for incoming intercalation binder and it also takes an important role in a difference in binding of bis-Ru-bpp bound to poly[d(A-T)2] and poly[d(I-C)2]. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallomics)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Parameters Influencing Zinc in Experimental Systems in Vivo and in Vitro
Metals 2016, 6(3), 71; doi:10.3390/met6030071
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 17 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, the role of zinc in biological systems has been a subject of intense research. Despite wide increase in our knowledge and understanding of zinc homeostasis, numerous questions remain to be answered, encouraging further research. In particular, the quantification of intracellular
[...] Read more.
In recent years, the role of zinc in biological systems has been a subject of intense research. Despite wide increase in our knowledge and understanding of zinc homeostasis, numerous questions remain to be answered, encouraging further research. In particular, the quantification of intracellular zinc ions and fluctuation, as well as the function of zinc in signaling processes are being intensely investigated. The determination of free intracellular zinc ions is difficult and error-prone, as concentrations are extremely low (in the pico- to nanomolar range), but techniques exist involving fluorescent probes and sensors. In spite of zinc deficiency being accepted as a global problem, causing death and disease worldwide, to date there are no markers to reliably assess a person’s zinc status. This review summarizes the difficulties and major pitfalls when working with zinc in in vitro and in vivo research. Additionally, it specifies important aspects for zinc substitution and supplementation, including the bioavailability of zinc and its intestinal absorption. In particular, it is intended to help researchers with yet minor experience working with zinc efficiently set up experiments and avoid commonly occurring mistakes, starting with the choice and preparation of reagents and instrumentation, and concluding with possibilities for measuring the status of zinc in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallomics)
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Open AccessReview Iron, Aging, and Neurodegeneration
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2070-2092; doi:10.3390/met5042070
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 2 November 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron is a trace element of considerable interest to both chemistry and biology. In a biological context its chemistry is vital to the roles it performs. However, that same chemistry can contribute to a more deleterious role in a variety of diseases. The
[...] Read more.
Iron is a trace element of considerable interest to both chemistry and biology. In a biological context its chemistry is vital to the roles it performs. However, that same chemistry can contribute to a more deleterious role in a variety of diseases. The brain is a very sensitive organ due to the irreplaceable nature of neurons. In this regard regulation of brain iron chemistry is essential to maintaining neuronal viability. During the course of normal aging, the brain changes the way it deals with iron and this can contribute to its susceptibility to disease. Additionally, many of the known neurodegenerative diseases have been shown to be influenced by changes in brain iron. This review examines the role of iron in the brain and neurodegenerative diseases and the potential role of changes in brain iron caused by aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallomics)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: ZnT3 Gene Deletion Reduces TBI-Induced Hippocampal Neurogenesis
Authors: Bo Young Choi 1, Jin Hee Kim 1, In Yeol Kim 1, Bo Eun Lee 1, Song Hee Lee 1, Ara Kho 1, Min Sohn 2, Sang Won Suh 1,*
Affiliation: 1Department of Physiology, Hallym University, College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea
2Inha University, Department of Nursing, Incheon, Korea
Abstract: Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) throughout life. The highest amount of vesicular zinc is present in the mossy fiber terminals of the DG cells. Therefore, our recent studies have investigated the hypothesis that hippocampal vesicular zinc is an essential element for modulating adult neurogenesis. Using a zinc chelator, we demonstrated that a possible correlation between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in the hippocampus after several brain insults including epilepsy, hypoglycemia or traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, to further evaluate our hypothesis that vesicular zinc is important in TBI-induced neurogenesis, we used zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) gene deletion mice. ZnT3 is localized in the vesicular membrane and sequester zinc into synaptic vesicle. Thus, ZnT3 gene deletion mice (ZnT3-/-) showed devoid vesicular zinc in the hippocampus. ZnT3 gene deletion mice was subjected to a weight drop rodent model which mimics human TBI. BrdU (50mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected twice per day for 4 consecutive days starting 3 days after the TBI. Incorporation of the thymidine analog BrdU was used to mark dividing progenitor cells. DCX immunostaining was used to evaluate their differentiation into neuroblasts. Neurogenesis was examined by BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after TBI. In the wild type (WT) mice, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX immunopositive cells was significantly increased at 1 week after TBI. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX immunopositive cells after TBI was significantly reduced in ZnT3-/- mice compared to WT mice. The present study suggests that ZnT3 and vesicular zinc are important to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the adult hippocampus after traumatic brain insult.

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