Special Issue "Metallomics"
A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)
Life on Earth has evolved according to existing environmental conditions as living organisms started to use the available elements found on the Earth crust. As the environment changed, passing from reducing conditions to more oxidized ones, life has adapted accordingly. Several elements, such as copper, zinc, and iron, suddenly became more available and living organisms started to use their unique characteristics for a wide variety of purposes. Evolution has created the great variety of living organisms that we observe today, but the foundation on which such variety thrives is the natural abundance of elements and their chemical bioavailability. Metallome is the term currently used to describe the distribution of metal ions in every cellular compartment, and the study of the metallome in living organisms is a very challenging task. Indeed, the determination of the free metal ions concentrations is not sufficient to understand metals homeostasis, as a detailed knowledge of all the metal species present in a certain biological environment is necessary in order to ascertain metal activities and their roles in biomolecular processes. Moreover, many proteins are involved in the control of metal homeostasis and utilize metal ions to carry out specific functions and, therefore, studying the proteome alone can be misleading. Analogously, other omics, such as the genome, the transcriptome, and the metabolome are intrinsically intertwined with the metallome, thus, a comprehensive analysis of the entirety of metal species within a cell or tissue type, which is metallomics, is now considered one of the most important and promising fields of investigation for scientists. In this Special Issue, we want to focus on various aspects of metallomics, as we hope that by monitoring the wide variety of metal ions destinies in living organisms, scientists will be able to provide a fundamental contribution to unveil some physiological and/or pathological biomolecular mechanisms that are involved with life and diseases.
Prof. Dr. Grasso Giuseppe
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- metal ions
- metal complex
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Authors: Bo Young Choi 1, Jin Hee Kim 1, In Yeol Kim 1, Bo Eun Lee 1, Song Hee Lee 1, Ara Kho 1, Min Sohn 2, Sang Won Suh 1,*
Affiliation: 1Department of Physiology, Hallym University, College of Medicine, Chuncheon, Korea
2Inha University, Department of Nursing, Incheon, Korea
Abstract: Neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) throughout life. The highest amount of vesicular zinc is present in the mossy fiber terminals of the DG cells. Therefore, our recent studies have investigated the hypothesis that hippocampal vesicular zinc is an essential element for modulating adult neurogenesis. Using a zinc chelator, we demonstrated that a possible correlation between synaptic zinc localization and high rates of neurogenesis in the hippocampus after several brain insults including epilepsy, hypoglycemia or traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, to further evaluate our hypothesis that vesicular zinc is important in TBI-induced neurogenesis, we used zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) gene deletion mice. ZnT3 is localized in the vesicular membrane and sequester zinc into synaptic vesicle. Thus, ZnT3 gene deletion mice (ZnT3-/-) showed devoid vesicular zinc in the hippocampus. ZnT3 gene deletion mice was subjected to a weight drop rodent model which mimics human TBI. BrdU (50mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected twice per day for 4 consecutive days starting 3 days after the TBI. Incorporation of the thymidine analog BrdU was used to mark dividing progenitor cells. DCX immunostaining was used to evaluate their differentiation into neuroblasts. Neurogenesis was examined by BrdU, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining 1 week after TBI. In the wild type (WT) mice, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX immunopositive cells was significantly increased at 1 week after TBI. However, the number of BrdU, Ki67 and DCX immunopositive cells after TBI was significantly reduced in ZnT3-/- mice compared to WT mice. The present study suggests that ZnT3 and vesicular zinc are important to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the adult hippocampus after traumatic brain insult.