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Water, Volume 8, Issue 12 (December 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Exploration of an Optimal Policy for Water Resources Management Including the Introduction of Advanced Sewage Treatment Technologies in Zaozhuang City, China
Water 2016, 8(12), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120608
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such
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Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Water Policy Collection)
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Open AccessArticle Beyond the Clean Water Rule: Impacts of a Non-Jurisdictional Ditch on Headwater Stream Discharge and Water Chemistry
Water 2016, 8(12), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120607
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 19 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ephemeral drainage ditches in upland areas, such as those draining roads, are excluded from the jurisdiction of the U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA). While several studies have shown that road drainage and/or development in forested watersheds can impact water quality, the direct physical
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Ephemeral drainage ditches in upland areas, such as those draining roads, are excluded from the jurisdiction of the U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA). While several studies have shown that road drainage and/or development in forested watersheds can impact water quality, the direct physical and chemical impacts of a single drainage ditch have not been identified. In this study, we measured water chemistry (silicon, calcium, and sulfate) and magnitude of discharge from one such feature and at the outlet of the catchment it is within. We found that discharge from the drainage ditch was sometimes over 10% of the larger stream into which it drains, despite the small relative size of the ditch catchment (1.1 ha) compared to the main catchment (43 ha). Furthermore, we observed sharp decreases in silicon and calcium and increases in sulfate concentrations downstream from the drainage ditch across longitudinal sampling of the stream network. This illustrates the impacts of a common feature in high relief, forested areas that when aggregated over the landscape are likely responsible for regional water quality impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Assessment of the Physically-Based 2D/1D Model “TRENOE” for Urban Stormwater Quantity and Quality Modelling
Water 2016, 8(12), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120606
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 December 2016 / Published: 21 December 2016
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Abstract
The widespread use of separate stormwater systems requires better understanding of the interactions between urban landscapes and drainage systems. This paper describes a novel attempt of developing urban 2D-surface and 1D-drainage model “TRENOE” for urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling. The physically-based TREX
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The widespread use of separate stormwater systems requires better understanding of the interactions between urban landscapes and drainage systems. This paper describes a novel attempt of developing urban 2D-surface and 1D-drainage model “TRENOE” for urban stormwater quantity and quality modelling. The physically-based TREX model and the conceptual CANOE model are integrated into the TRENOE platform, highlighting that the roofs of buildings are represented separately from the surface model, but simulated as virtual “sub-basins” in the CANOE model. The modelling approach is applied to a small urban catchment near Paris (Le Perreux sur Marne, 0.12 km2). Simulation scenarios are developed for assessing the influences of different “internal” (model structure, numerical issues) and “external” (parameters, input data) factors on model performance. The adequate numerical precision and the detailed information of land use data are identified as crucial elements of water quantity modelling. Contrarily, the high-resolution topographic data and the common variations of the water flow parameters are not equally significant at the scale of a small urban catchment. Concerning water quality modelling, particle size distribution is revealed to be an important factor, while the empirical USLE equations need to be completed by a raindrop detachment process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle How Governance Regimes Shape the Implementation of Water Reuse Schemes
Water 2016, 8(12), 605; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120605
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
The governance dimensions of water reuse scheme development and operation, such as policies and regulatory frameworks, and public involvement and stakeholder collaboration, can serve to both facilitate and constrain wider adoption of water reuse practices. This paper explores the significance and underlying structure
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The governance dimensions of water reuse scheme development and operation, such as policies and regulatory frameworks, and public involvement and stakeholder collaboration, can serve to both facilitate and constrain wider adoption of water reuse practices. This paper explores the significance and underlying structure of the key governance challenges facing the water reuse sector in Europe. It presents empirical evidence from interviews and focus group sessions conducted at four water reuse schemes: an indirect potable reuse scheme at Torreele (Belgium), the urban reuse of treated municipal wastewater at the London Olympic Park (United Kingdom) and at Sabadell (Spain), and the reuse of agro-industrial effluent for irrigation at Capitanata (Italy). The findings underscore the importance of clarity in policy arrangements around water reuse, as well as of the financial competitiveness of reuse projects compared to alternative water supply options. Operators of water reuse schemes expressed a preference for water quality standards, which focus on appropriateness for use rather than over-emphasise the waters’ origin so that unnecessary treatment and costs can be avoided. Positive public support was widely acknowledged as an important factor in the success or failure of water reuse schemes. We conclude that constructive institutional relationships underpin many of the challenges faced by reuse scheme operators and that greater emphasis should be given to building confidence and gaining trust in water service providers through early identification of how governance regimes shape the viability of new schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Riverbed Clogging and Sustainability of Riverbank Filtration
Water 2016, 8(12), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120604
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
Clogging refers to a reduction of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. Due to difficulties in determining the thickness of the clogging layer, the leakage coefficient (L) is introduced and used to quantify the recoverable portion of bank filtrate. L was determined at several riverbank filtration
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Clogging refers to a reduction of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. Due to difficulties in determining the thickness of the clogging layer, the leakage coefficient (L) is introduced and used to quantify the recoverable portion of bank filtrate. L was determined at several riverbank filtration (RBF) sites in field tests and using an analytical solution. Results were compared with data from similar experiments in the early 1970s and 1991–1993. In the 1980s, severe river water pollution in conjunction with high water abstraction led to partly unsaturated conditions beneath the riverbed. A leakage coefficient L of 5 × 10−7 s−1 was determined. After water quality improvement, L increased to 1–1.5 × 10−6 s−1. An alternative, cost and time efficient method is presented to estimate accurate leakage coefficients. The analytical solution is based on groundwater level monitoring data from observation wells next to the river, which can later feed into numerical models. The analytical approach was able to reflect long-term changes as well as seasonal variations. Recommendations for its application are given based on experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Potential Future Climate and Climate Extremes in the Brazos Headwaters Basin, Texas
Water 2016, 8(12), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120603
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
Texas’ fast-growing economy and population, coupled with cycles of droughts due to climate change, are creating an insatiable demand for water and an increasing need to understand the potential impacts of future climates and climate extremes on the state’s water resources. The objective
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Texas’ fast-growing economy and population, coupled with cycles of droughts due to climate change, are creating an insatiable demand for water and an increasing need to understand the potential impacts of future climates and climate extremes on the state’s water resources. The objective of this study was to determine potential future climates and climate extremes; and to assess spatial and temporal changes in precipitation (Prec), and minimum and maximum temperature (Tmin and Tmax, respectively), in the Brazos Headwaters Basin under three greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) for three future periods: 2020s (2011–2030), 2055s (2046–2065), and 2090s (2080–2099). Daily gridded climate data obtained from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) were used to downscale outputs from 15 General Circulation Models (GCMs) using the Long Ashton Research Station–Weather Generator (LARS-WG) model. Results indicate that basin average Tmin and Tmax will increase; however, annual precipitation will decrease for all periods. Annual precipitation will decrease by up to 5.2% and 6.8% in the 2055s and 2090s, respectively. However, in some locations in the basin, up to a 14% decrease in precipitation is projected in the 2090s under the A2 (high) emissions scenario. Overall, the northwestern and southern part of the Brazos Headwaters Basin will experience greater decreases in precipitation. Moreover, precipitation indices of the number of wet days (prec ≥ 5 mm) and heavy precipitation days (prec ≥ 10 mm) are projected to slightly decrease for all future periods. On the other hand, Tmin and Tmax will increase by 2 and 3 °C on average in the 2055s and 2090s, respectively. Mostly, projected increases in Tmin and Tmax will be in the upper range in the southern and southeastern part of the basin. Temperature indices of frost (Tmin < 0 °C) and ice days (Tmax < 0 °C) are projected to decrease, while tropical nights (Tmin > 20 °C) and summer days (Tmax > 25 °C) are expected to increase. However, while the frequency distribution of metrological drought shows slight shifts towards the dry range, there was no significant difference between the baseline and projected metrological drought frequency and severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use, Climate, and Water Resources)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Membrane Material and Surface Pore Size on the Fouling Properties of Submerged Membranes
Water 2016, 8(12), 602; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120602
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
We aimed to investigate the relationship between membrane material and the development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) using membranes with different pore sizes and hydrophilicities. Batch filtration tests were performed using submerged single hollow fiber membrane ultrafiltration (UF) modules with
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We aimed to investigate the relationship between membrane material and the development of membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) using membranes with different pore sizes and hydrophilicities. Batch filtration tests were performed using submerged single hollow fiber membrane ultrafiltration (UF) modules with different polymeric membrane materials including cellulose acetate (CA), polyethersulfone (PES), and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with activated sludge taken from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The three UF hollow fiber membranes were prepared by a non-solvent-induced phase separation method and had similar water permeabilities and pore sizes. The results revealed that transmembrane pressure (TMP) increased more sharply for the hydrophobic PVDF membrane than for the hydrophilic CA membrane in batch filtration tests, even when membranes with similar permeabilities and pore sizes were used. PVDF hollow fiber membranes with smaller pores had greater fouling propensity than those with larger pores. In contrast, CA hollow fiber membranes showed good mitigation of membrane fouling regardless of pore size. The results obtained in this study suggest that the surface hydrophilicity and pore size of UF membranes clearly affect the fouling properties in MBR operation when using activated sludge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Soft Measurement Modeling Based on Chaos Theory for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Water 2016, 8(12), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120581
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The precision of soft measurement for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is always restricted due to various factors in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To solve this problem, a new soft measurement modeling method based on chaos theory is proposed and is applied to
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The precision of soft measurement for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is always restricted due to various factors in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To solve this problem, a new soft measurement modeling method based on chaos theory is proposed and is applied to BOD measurement in this paper. Phase space reconstruction (PSR) based on Takens embedding theorem is used to extract more information from the limited datasets of the chaotic system. The WWTP is first testified as a chaotic system by the correlation dimension (D), the largest Lyapunov exponents (λ1), the Kolmogorov entropy (K) of the BOD and other water quality parameters time series. Multivariate chaotic time series modeling method with principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural network (ANN) is then adopted to estimate the value of the effluent BOD. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has higher accuracy and better prediction ability than the corresponding modeling approaches not based on chaos theory. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Predicting the Specific Energy Consumption of Reverse Osmosis Desalination
Water 2016, 8(12), 601; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120601
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Desalination is often considered an approach for mitigating water stress. Despite the abundance of saline water worldwide, additional energy consumption and increased costs present barriers to widespread deployment of desalination as a municipal water supply. Specific energy consumption (SEC) is a common measure
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Desalination is often considered an approach for mitigating water stress. Despite the abundance of saline water worldwide, additional energy consumption and increased costs present barriers to widespread deployment of desalination as a municipal water supply. Specific energy consumption (SEC) is a common measure of the energy use in desalination processes, and depends on many operational and water quality factors. We completed multiple linear regression and relative importance statistical analyses of factors affecting SEC using both small-scale meta-data and municipal-scale empirical data to predict the energy consumption of desalination. Statistically significant results show water quality and initial year of operations to be significant and important factors in estimating SEC, explaining over 80% of the variation in SEC. More recent initial year of operations, lower salinity raw water, and higher salinity product water accurately predict lower values of SEC. Economic analysis revealed a weak statistical relationship between SEC and cost of water production. Analysis of associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions revealed important considerations of both electricity source and SEC in estimating the GHG-related sustainability of desalination. Results of our statistical analyses can aid decision-makers by predicting the SEC of desalination to a reasonable degree of accuracy with limited data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Membranes for Water Treatment)
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Open AccessReview Indicator and Pathogen Removal by Low Impact Development Best Management Practices
Water 2016, 8(12), 600; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120600
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
Microbial contamination in urban stormwater is one of the most widespread and challenging water quality issues in developed countries. Low impact development (LID) best management practices (BMPs) restore pre-urban hydrology by treating and/or harvesting urban runoff and stormwater, and can be designed to
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Microbial contamination in urban stormwater is one of the most widespread and challenging water quality issues in developed countries. Low impact development (LID) best management practices (BMPs) restore pre-urban hydrology by treating and/or harvesting urban runoff and stormwater, and can be designed to remove many contaminants including pathogens. One particular type of LID BMP, stormwater biofilters (i.e., vegetated media filters, also known as bioinfiltration, bioretention, or rain gardens), is becoming increasingly popular in urban environments due to its multiple co-benefits (e.g., improved hydrology, water quality, local climate and aesthetics). However, increased understanding of the factors influencing microbial removal in biofilters is needed to effectively design and implement biofilters for microbial water quality improvement. This paper aims to provide a holistic view of microbial removal in biofilter systems, and reviews the effects of various design choices such as filter media, vegetation, infauna, submerged zones, and hydraulic retention time on microbial removal. Limitations in current knowledge and recommendations for future research are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in Water)
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Open AccessArticle Application of a Classifier Based on Data Mining Techniques in Water Supply Operation
Water 2016, 8(12), 599; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120599
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
Data mining technology is applied to extract the water supply operation rules in this study. Five characteristic attributes—reservoir storage water, operation period number, water demand, runoff, and hydrological year—are chosen as the dataset, and these characteristic attributes are applied to build a mapping
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Data mining technology is applied to extract the water supply operation rules in this study. Five characteristic attributes—reservoir storage water, operation period number, water demand, runoff, and hydrological year—are chosen as the dataset, and these characteristic attributes are applied to build a mapping relation with the optimal operation mode calculated by dynamic programming (DP). A Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) neural network and a classification and regression tree (CART) are chosen as data mining algorithms to build the LM neural network classifier and CART decision tree classifier, respectively. In order to verify the classification effect of the LM and CART, the two classifiers are applied to the operation mode recognition for the Heiquan reservoir, which is located in the Qinghai Province of China. The accuracies of the two classifiers are 73.6% and 86.9% for the training sample, and their accuracies are 65.8% and 83.3%, respectively, for the test sample, which indicates that the classification result of the CART classifier is better than that of the LM neural network classifier. Thus, the CART classifier is chosen to guide the long-series water supply operation. Compared to the operation result with the other operation scheme, the result shows that the water deficit index of the CART is mostly closest to the DP scheme, which indicates that the CART classifier can guide reservoir water supply operation effectively. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Development of Sustainable Saltwater-Based Food Production Systems: A Review of Established and Novel Concepts
Water 2016, 8(12), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120598
Received: 16 October 2016 / Revised: 17 November 2016 / Accepted: 8 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant
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The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant collapse. Global aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of the food industry and currently accounts for approximately 45.6% of the world’s fish consumption. However, the rapid development of extensive and semi-extensive systems, particularly intensive marine-fed aquaculture, has resulted in worldwide concern about the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of such systems. In recent years, there has been a significant amount of research conducted on the development of sustainable saltwater-based food production systems through mechanical (e.g., recirculatory aquaculture (RAS) systems) methods and ecosystem-based approaches (e.g., integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA)). This review article will examine the potential negative impacts of monocultural saltwater aquaculture operations and review established (RAS) and novel (IMTA; constructed wetlands; saltwater aquaponics) saltwater-based food production systems and discuss their (potential) contribution to the development of sustainable and environmentally-friendly systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aquaponics: Toward a Sustainable Water-Based Production System?)
Open AccessArticle Generation of a Design Flood-Event Scenario for a Mountain River with Intense Sediment Transport
Water 2016, 8(12), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120597
Received: 13 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
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Abstract
International directives encourage the incorporation of sediment transport analyses into flood risk assessment, in recognition of the significant role played by sediment in flood hazard. However, examples of risk analysis frameworks incorporating the effect of sediment transport are still not widespread in the
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International directives encourage the incorporation of sediment transport analyses into flood risk assessment, in recognition of the significant role played by sediment in flood hazard. However, examples of risk analysis frameworks incorporating the effect of sediment transport are still not widespread in the literature, resulting in a lack of clear guidelines. This manuscript considers a study site in the Italian Alps and presents a hydro-morphologic model for generation of flood scenarios towards hazard assessment. The analysis is concentrated on a design flood event with 100-year return period, for which an outflowing discharge is computed as a result of the river modeling. However, it is also argued how suitable model input parameter values can be obtained from analyses of river flows in a yearly duration curve. Modeling tools are discussed with respect to their capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis are site-specific, but the proposed methodology can be exported to other hydro-graphic basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stream Channel Stability, Assessment, Modeling, and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle Pricing Unmetered Irrigation Water under Asymmetric Information and Full Cost Recovery
Water 2016, 8(12), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120596
Received: 18 September 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
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Abstract
The objective of this study is to define an efficient pricing scheme for irrigation water in conditions of unmetered water use. The study is based on a principal-agent model and identifies a menu of contracts, defined as a set of payments and share
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The objective of this study is to define an efficient pricing scheme for irrigation water in conditions of unmetered water use. The study is based on a principal-agent model and identifies a menu of contracts, defined as a set of payments and share of irrigated area, able to provide incentives for an efficient use of the resource by maximizing social welfare. The model is applied in the case study of the Çukas region (Albania) where irrigation water is not metered. The results demonstrate that using a menu of contracts makes it possible to define a second best solution that may improve the overall social welfare derived from irrigation water use compared with the existing pricing structure, though, in the specific case study, the improvement is small. Furthermore, the results also suggest that irrigation water pricing policy needs to take into account different farm types, and that appropriate contract-type pricing schemes have a potential role in providing incentives to farmers to make irrigation choices to the social optimum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Economics and Policy)
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Open AccessReview Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach
Water 2016, 8(12), 595; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120595
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 4 December 2016 / Accepted: 7 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic
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A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the paper reviews the evaluation criteria used by different studies for decision making given their significant difference and the importance of a comprehensive set of criteria to complete a rigorous evaluation. In addition, a comprehensive set of water supply and demand management options are not considered together for a comparative assessment to prioritise best options for a certain area and time. Further, performance of these options needs to be evaluated for a range of uncertainties arising from changes of spatial and temporal variables of the system. While this paper highlights the important aspects that need to be included in a comprehensive policy evaluation framework, available studies collectively present a rich set of information to support it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Supply and Drainage for Sustainable Built Environment)
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