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Special Issue "Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Pieter J. Stuyfzand

1 KWR Watercycle Research Institute PO Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, Netherlands
2 Technical University Delft, Faculty of CEG, Dept. Geoscience and Engineering P.O. Box 5048, 2600 GA Delft, Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +31-6-1094-5021
Interests: managed aquifer recharge; systems analysis; coastal aquifers; tracer hydrogeology; hydrogeochemical aspects of water supply; groundwater quality
Guest Editor
Dr. Niels Hartog

1 KWR Watercycle Research Institute,Groningenhaven 7, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
2 Environmental Hydrogeology Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Geosciences, University of Utrecht, Princetonplein 9, P.O. Box 80021, 3508 TA UTRECHT, The Netherlands
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +31-30-606-9652|+31-31-6-53436286
Interests: water-rock interaction; aquifer storage and recovery; managed aquifer recharge; subsurface water treatment; redox chemistry; geochemical characterization; contaminant remediation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After an earlier Special Issue in the open access journal Water, on the “Policy and Economics of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) and Water Banking”, a second Special Issue on MAR is aiming at hydrogeochemical and water quality management aspects. The hydrogoechemical aspects include the benefits of self-purification during aquifer recharge and storage, including bank filtration, and problems due to undesired water–aquifer interactions due to mixing with ambient groundwater. Water quality also impacts on rates of clogging of infiltration and injection systems and, hence, on the quantity and viability of recharge. The efficiency of water recovery from short- and long-term water storage or banking in brackish aquifers depends on mixing and the quality of recovered water.

Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) comprises use of techniques such as infiltration basins, recharge wells for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) and River Bank Filtration (RBF), which can contribute to solving water crises due to climate change, growing water demands, and deteriorating water quality. Important advantages of these techniques consist of (1) enhancing recharge rates to secure water supplies; (2) the transformation of unreliable, often polluted surface water into hygienically safe groundwater of much better quality; and (3) subterranean storage, which protects the water against evaporation losses, algae blooms, and atmospheric fallout of pollutants. Disadvantages may consist of cumbersome clogging phenomena, water losses due to mixing with brackish groundwater, and natural reactions with the porous medium. The latter may necessitate a post-treatment. In addition, surface waters to be stored may contain emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine dirsruptors, and nanoparticles, the behavior of which, in aquifer systems, is still poorly understood. Furthermore, pathogen removal in MAR systems needs validation through use of improved measurement methods and challenge testing methodologies for robust risk assessment.

MAR programs are important to water management in the context of effluent reuse, whether for potable and non-potable purposes. 

The introduction of MAR systems, therefore, raises many technical and scientific questions, in additon to those related to policy and management. This Special Issue invites papers, including case studies, that relate to these questions.

Prof. Dr. Pieter J. Stuyfzand
Dr. Niels Hartog
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Managed Aquifer Recharge
  • self-purification
  • leaching
  • priority pollutants. heavy metals, micro-organisms, radioactivity
  • salinity, mixing, attenuation
  • reactive transport
  • redox environment
  • risk assessment
  • pre-treatment and post-treatment
  • Geochemistry in MAR
  • Aquifer microbiology and health aspects
  • Monitoring and management
  • Hydraulics, clogging, recovery efficiency
  • Bank filtration, infiltration systems, soil aquifer treatment 
  • Innovation in well injection and recovery systems 
  • Design and performance of seawater intrusion barriers
  • Advances in engineering and geotechnical aspects
  • Geophysics and aquifer characterisation 
  • MAR and water reuse
  • Water quality and selection of pre- and post- treatments 

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Water Quality Considerations on the Rise as the Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems Widens
Water 2017, 9(10), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9100808
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique
[...] Read more.
Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique in making alternative water resources available, such as reuse of communal effluents for agriculture, industry and even indirect potable reuse. As exemplified by the papers in this Special Issue, consideration of water quality plays a major role in developing the full potential for MAR application, ranging from the improvement of water quality to operational issues (e.g., well clogging) or sustainability concerns (e.g., infiltration of treated waste water). With the application of MAR expanding into a wider range of conditions, from deserts to urban and coastal areas, and purposes, from large scale strategic storage of desalinated water and the reuse of waste water, the importance of these considerations are on the rise. Addressing these appropriately will contribute to a greater understanding, operational reliability and acceptance of MAR applications, and lead to a range of engineered MAR systems that help increase their effectiveness to help secure the availability of water at the desired quality for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Prediction of Iron Release during Riverbank Filtration
Water 2017, 9(5), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9050317
Received: 19 February 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 30 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
At many sites, anoxic conditions and dissolution of iron and manganese are already present, or are likely to develop during riverbank filtration (RBF). A prediction of iron and manganese mobilization during riverbank filtration is required to evaluate the need for further water treatment.
[...] Read more.
At many sites, anoxic conditions and dissolution of iron and manganese are already present, or are likely to develop during riverbank filtration (RBF). A prediction of iron and manganese mobilization during riverbank filtration is required to evaluate the need for further water treatment. Different methods have been tested at RBF sites in Germany: water and sediment analysis, batch and column experiments using river water, sequential extraction, and the mass balance approach. At these sites, a “wash out” effect was observed, resulting in a gradual decrease in iron concentrations between the riverbank and the abstraction well over two decades. Hydrogeochemical exchange processes in the aquifer can cause a long-term release of iron and manganese even if the organics concentration in the river water is low. Contrary to common expectations, high iron concentrations are often dominated by the portion of landside groundwater, whereas iron concentrations in bank filtrate often undergo a long-term decline. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Integrated Aquifer Storage and Recovery and Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (ASRRO) on a Coastal Groundwater System
Water 2017, 9(4), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040273
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (13921 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) of local, freshwater surpluses is a potential solution for freshwater supply in coastal areas, as is brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) of relatively shallow groundwater in combination with deeper membrane concentrate disposal. A more sustainable and reliable freshwater
[...] Read more.
Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) of local, freshwater surpluses is a potential solution for freshwater supply in coastal areas, as is brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) of relatively shallow groundwater in combination with deeper membrane concentrate disposal. A more sustainable and reliable freshwater supply may be achieved by combining both techniques in one ASRRO system using multiple partially penetrating wells (MPPW). The impact of widespread use of ASRRO on a coastal groundwater system was limited based on regional groundwater modelling but it was shown that ASRRO decreased the average chloride concentration with respect to the autonomous scenario and the use of BWRO. ASRRO was successful in mitigating the local negative impact (saltwater plume formation) caused by the deep disposal of membrane concentrate during BWRO. The positive impacts of ASRRO with respect to BWRO were observed in the aquifer targeted for ASR and brackish water abstraction (Aquifer 1), but foremost in the deeper aquifer targeted for membrane concentrate disposal (Aquifer 2). The formation of a horizontal freshwater barrier was found at the top of both aquifers, reducing saline seepage. The disposal of relatively fresh concentrate in Aquifer 2 led to brackish water outflow towards the sea. The net abstraction in Aquifer 1 enforced saltwater intrusion, especially when BWRO was applied. The conclusion of this study is that ASRRO can provide a sustainable alternative for BWRO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evaluation of Clogging during Sand-Filtered Surface Water Injection for Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR): Pilot Experiment in the Llobregat Delta (Barcelona, Spain)
Water 2017, 9(4), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040263
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 April 2017 / Published: 8 April 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3312 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aquifer storage and recovery system of Sant Joan Despí (SJD) in the Llobregat Basin (Barcelona, Spain) has been injecting potable water since its construction in 1969. In order to increase the environmental and economic sustainability of the process, the substitution of potable
[...] Read more.
The aquifer storage and recovery system of Sant Joan Despí (SJD) in the Llobregat Basin (Barcelona, Spain) has been injecting potable water since its construction in 1969. In order to increase the environmental and economic sustainability of the process, the substitution of potable water by sand-filtered surface water (SFSW) has been considered. This study aims at assessing the clogging potential of SFSW by reproducing the aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system in a column-type pilot system. Developed clogging of a metallic screen simulating a well screen in the ASR was observed by direct visualization and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and was measured by the pilot column head loss and by the analysis of extracellular polymeric substances formed. The results show that although there is a detectable clogging formation, the experiment could run with no flow limitation, suggesting that SFSW could be a feasible candidate water for aquifer injection in a real well demonstration phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Adsorptive Removal of Carbamazepine and Diatrizoate in Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Amended Sand Column Mimicing Managed Aquifer Recharge
Water 2017, 9(4), 250; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9040250
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sorption–desorption of recalcitrant pharmaceuticals in sand/soil columns can be used to infer performance of managed aquifer recharge. Removal of carbamazepine (CBZ) and diatrizoate (DTZ) from synthetic wastewater, containing 100 µg·L−1 of each pharmaceuticals, was studied in recirculating sand columns amended with
[...] Read more.
The sorption–desorption of recalcitrant pharmaceuticals in sand/soil columns can be used to infer performance of managed aquifer recharge. Removal of carbamazepine (CBZ) and diatrizoate (DTZ) from synthetic wastewater, containing 100 µg·L−1 of each pharmaceuticals, was studied in recirculating sand columns amended with uncoated or methacrylic acid (MAA) coated magnetite nanoparticles. Removal of CBZ and DTZ in MAA-magnetite column (68.34% and 61.91%, respectively) was much higher than that with uncoated magnetite (53.47% and 50.26%, respectively). Rapid decrease of dissolved organic carbon concentrations across nanoparticle amended columns (between 42.28% and 50.08% on Day 1), followed by slow recuperation suggests adsorption–desorption dynamics and competition of dissolved organic matter for sorption sites. Core-level binding energy and charge analysis for Fe(2s) and O(1s) in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests involvement of physisorption process on the NP surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Advancing Sequential Managed Aquifer Recharge Technology (SMART) Using Different Intermediate Oxidation Processes
Water 2017, 9(3), 221; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030221
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems are an efficient barrier for many contaminants. The biotransformation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) strongly depends on the redox conditions as well as on the dissolved organic carbon availability. Oxic and oligotrophic conditions are favored for enhanced TOrCs
[...] Read more.
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems are an efficient barrier for many contaminants. The biotransformation of trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) strongly depends on the redox conditions as well as on the dissolved organic carbon availability. Oxic and oligotrophic conditions are favored for enhanced TOrCs removal which is obtained by combining two filtration systems with an intermediate aeration step. In this study, four parallel laboratory-scale soil column experiments using different intermittent aeration techniques were selected to further optimize TOrCs transformation during MAR: no aeration, aeration with air, pure oxygen and ozone. Rapid oxygen consumption, nitrate reduction and dissolution of manganese confirmed anoxic conditions within the first filtration step, mimicking traditional bank filtration. Aeration with air led to suboxic conditions, whereas oxidation by pure oxygen and ozone led to fully oxic conditions throughout the second system. The sequential system resulted in an equal or better transformation of most TOrCs compared to the single step bank filtration system. Despite the fast oxygen consumption, acesulfame, iopromide, iomeprol and valsartan were degraded within the first infiltration step. The compounds benzotriazole, diclofenac, 4-Formylaminoantipyrine, gabapentin, metoprolol, valsartan acid and venlafaxine revealed a significantly enhanced removal in the systems with intermittent oxidation compared to the conventional treatment without aeration. Further improvement of benzotriazole and gabapentin removal by using pure oxygen confirmed potential oxygen limitation in the second column after aeration with air. Ozonation resulted in an enhanced removal of persistent compounds (i.e., carbamazepine, candesartan, olmesartan) and further increased the attenuation of gabapentin, methylbenzotriazole, benzotriazole, and venlafaxine. Diatrizoic acid revealed little degradation in an ozone–MAR hybrid system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Assessing the Impact of Recycled Water Quality and Clogging on Infiltration Rates at A Pioneering Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) Site in Alice Springs, Northern Territory (NT), Australia
Water 2017, 9(3), 179; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030179
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infiltration techniques for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), such as soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can facilitate low-cost water recycling and supplement groundwater resources. However there are still challenges in sustaining adequate infiltration rates in the presence of lower permeability sediments, especially when wastewater containing
[...] Read more.
Infiltration techniques for managed aquifer recharge (MAR), such as soil aquifer treatment (SAT) can facilitate low-cost water recycling and supplement groundwater resources. However there are still challenges in sustaining adequate infiltration rates in the presence of lower permeability sediments, especially when wastewater containing suspended solids and nutrients is used to recharge the aquifer. To gain a better insight into reductions in infiltration rates during MAR, a field investigation was carried out via soil aquifer treatment (SAT) using recharge basins located within a mixture of fine and coarse grained riverine deposits in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia. A total of 2.6 Mm3 was delivered via five SAT basins over six years; this evaluation focused on three years of operation (2011–2014), recharging 1.5 Mm3 treated wastewater via an expanded recharge area of approximately 38,400 m2. Average infiltration rates per basin varied from 0.1 to 1 m/day due to heterogeneous soil characteristics and variability in recharge water quality. A treatment upgrade to include sand filtration and UV disinfection (in 2013) prior to recharge improved the average infiltration rate per basin by 40% to 100%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Observations and Prediction of Recovered Quality of Desalinated Seawater in the Strategic ASR Project in Liwa, Abu Dhabi
Water 2017, 9(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9030177
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (8744 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To be able to overcome water shortages, Abu Dhabi Emirate started an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project with desalinated seawater (DSW) as source water near Liwa. It is the largest DSW-ASR project in the world (stored volume ~10 Mm3/year), and
[...] Read more.
To be able to overcome water shortages, Abu Dhabi Emirate started an Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) project with desalinated seawater (DSW) as source water near Liwa. It is the largest DSW-ASR project in the world (stored volume ~10 Mm3/year), and should recover potable water for direct use. DSW is infiltrated into a desert dune sand aquifer using “sand-covered gravel-bed” recharge basins. In this study, we evaluate the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical stratification of the (sub)oxic target aquifer, and water quality changes of DSW during trial infiltration runs. We predict water quality changes of DSW after 824 d of infiltration, during 90 d of intensive recovery (67% recovered) without storage (scenario A), as well as after 10 years of storage (scenario B, with significant bubble drift). Monitoring of preceding trials revealed a lack of redox reactions; little carbonate dissolution and Ca/Na exchange; much SiO2 dissolution; a strong mobilization of natural AsO43−, B, Ba, F, CrO42−, Mo, Sr and V from the (sub)oxic aquifer; and immobilization of PO4, Al, Cu, Fe and Ni from DSW. The Easy-Leacher model was applied in forward and reverse mode including lateral bubble drift, to predict water quality of the recovered water. We show that hydrogeochemical modeling of a complex ASR-system can be relatively easy and straightforward, if aquifer reactivity is low and redox reactions can be ignored. The pilot observations and modeling results demonstrate that in scenario A recovered water quality still complies with Abu Dhabi’s drinking water standards (even up to 85% recovery). For scenario B, however, the recovery efficiency declines to 60% after which various drinking water standards are exceeded, especially the one for chromium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Raw Water Quality and Pretreatment in Managed Aquifer Recharge for Drinking Water Production in Finland
Water 2017, 9(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020138
Received: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in Finland is the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from surface waters. A typical MAR procedure consists of the infiltration of surface water into a Quaternary glaciofluvial esker with subsequent withdrawal of the MAR
[...] Read more.
The main objective of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in Finland is the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from surface waters. A typical MAR procedure consists of the infiltration of surface water into a Quaternary glaciofluvial esker with subsequent withdrawal of the MAR treated water from wells a few hundred meters downstream. The infiltrated water should have a residence time of at least approximately one month before withdrawal to provide sufficient time for the subsurface processes needed to break down or remove humic substances. Most of the Finnish MAR plants do not have pretreatment and raw water is infiltrated directly into the soil. The objectives of this paper are to present MAR experiences and to discuss the need for and choice of pretreatment. Data from basin, sprinkling, and well infiltration processes are presented. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations of the raw waters presented here varied from 6.5 to 11 mg/L and after MAR the TOC concentrations of the abstracted waters were approximately 2 mg/L. The overall reduction of organic matter in the treatment (with or without pretreatment) was 70%-85%. Mechanical pretreatment can be used for clogging prevention. Turbidity of the Finnish lakes used as raw water does not necessitate pretreatment in basin and sprinkling infiltration, however, pretreatment in well infiltration needs to be judged separately. River waters may have high turbidity requiring pretreatment. Biodegradation of NOM in the saturated groundwater zone consumes dissolved oxygen. Thus, a high NOM concentration may create conditions for dissolution of iron and manganese from the soil. These conditions may be avoided by the addition of chemical pretreatment. Raw waters with TOC content up to at least approximately 8 mg/L were infiltrated without any considerations of chemical pretreatment, which should be evaluated based on local conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Maximizing Infiltration Rates by Removing Suspended Solids: Results of Demonstration Testing of Riverbed Filtration in Orange County, California †
Water 2017, 9(2), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020119
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clogging due to the accumulation of suspended solids is a major constraint that limits the capacity of Orange County Water District’s (OCWD) surface water recharge system. In order to decrease clogging and increase system capacity, OCWD is testing the ability of riverbed filtration
[...] Read more.
Clogging due to the accumulation of suspended solids is a major constraint that limits the capacity of Orange County Water District’s (OCWD) surface water recharge system. In order to decrease clogging and increase system capacity, OCWD is testing the ability of riverbed filtration to reduce suspended solids concentrations and improve recharge rates. Riverbed filtration is achieved through a shallow subsurface collector system placed approximately one meter below the surface. Filtered water from the collector system is conveyed by gravity to the receiving recharge basin. Initial results show that riverbed filtration is highly effective in removing suspended solids in the recharge water, which in turn also greatly increases the recharge capacity of the receiving basin. Some other water quality benefits are also achieved. Data collected thus far indicate that it will be cost-effective to use this approach at a larger scale to capture and recharge increased quantities of storm flow obtained from the Santa Ana River. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Controlling the Formation of the Reaction Zone around an Injection Well during Subsurface Iron Removal
Water 2017, 9(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020087
Received: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tracer and pump tests including depth dependent water sampling were performed to investigate the flow conditions inside and in the vicinity of an injection well with two screen segments used for subsurface iron removal (SIR). A high resolution groundwater flow model of the
[...] Read more.
Tracer and pump tests including depth dependent water sampling were performed to investigate the flow conditions inside and in the vicinity of an injection well with two screen segments used for subsurface iron removal (SIR). A high resolution groundwater flow model of the well and the adjacent aquifer with vertically varying dissolved iron concentration was calibrated and used to plan measures to manipulate the vertical outflow distribution of injected oxygen enriched water. The optimized injection regime was adopted in a pilot SIR test with the aim of increasing the treatment efficacy through a depth specific injection of water using an inflatable packer. When water was injected conventionally above the pump, the outward migration of the oxygen enriched water was non-uniform and disproportional to the iron concentration and resulted in an early iron breakthrough in the lower screen. The proportion of water injected into the lower iron-rich part of the aquifer increased as a packer was placed inside the well to seal 4/5 of the upper well screen length. Thereby, the efficiency coefficient increased by 50% and iron removal by 25%. The treatment efficiency at the site suffered from low alkalinity and pH-values below 5. Higher efficiency coefficients may have been achieved by the addition of alkalis prior to injection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle The Use of Stable Water Isotopes as Tracers in Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) and in Regional Water Systems
Water 2017, 9(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020073
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 12 January 2017 / Published: 24 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the feasibility of tracing and quantifying the progress of different water sources along the water–effluent–SAT (Soil Aquifer Treatment) chain using 2H and 18O isotopes. The research was conducted at the Dan Region Reclamation Plant (Shafdan), which reclaims ~135
[...] Read more.
This study examines the feasibility of tracing and quantifying the progress of different water sources along the water–effluent–SAT (Soil Aquifer Treatment) chain using 2H and 18O isotopes. The research was conducted at the Dan Region Reclamation Plant (Shafdan), which reclaims ~135 MCM/year of effluent for irrigation. Water samples representing different stages along the chain were taken in two surveys during 2010–2011 and 2014. δ18O and δ2H values were used for mixing ratios (MR) calculations, and compared with calculated MRs using chloride and carbamazepine concentrations. The results showed a relative enrichment of 18O and 2H in the Israeli water system compared to the regional groundwater, due to the addition of massive quantities of desalinated water. A linear correlation for δ2H vs. δ18O with a slope of 4.5 was found for the different freshwater sources and their mixing products, suggesting evaporation-mixing effects. MR values indicate on the spreading of new type of effluent originating from desalinated water in the aquifer. A dilution model explains the isotopic compositions in the water system and of the Shafdan effluents. Water isotopes have an advantage over other tracers, due to the ability to predict their ratio in the supply system and in the effluent, based on mass balance calculations and on knowledge of water supply volumes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Testing of Recharge Wells in a Coastal Aquifer: Summary of Field Scale Pilot Tests
Water 2017, 9(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010053
Received: 9 October 2016 / Revised: 8 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 14 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surplus water from seawater desalination plants along the Israeli Coast can be injected underground for seasonal storage. Two pilot projects were established to simulate the movement of air bubbles and changes in the well hydraulic parameters during pumping and recharging. The study showed
[...] Read more.
Surplus water from seawater desalination plants along the Israeli Coast can be injected underground for seasonal storage. Two pilot projects were established to simulate the movement of air bubbles and changes in the well hydraulic parameters during pumping and recharging. The study showed that it is impossible to remove the smaller air bubbles (dissolved air) that are created during the injection process, even when the injection pipe is fully saturated. The pumping tests showed that there were large differences in the well hydraulic parameters between the pumping and the recharge tests despite that they were conducted at the same well. Two mechanisms are responsible for the reduction in the aquifer coefficients during the recharge event. The first mechanism is the pressures that the injected water needs to overcome; the aquifer pressure and the pore water pressure it is supposed to replace at the time of the injection. The second mechanism is the pressure that the injected water needs to overcome the clogging process. It is expressed as the high water level inside the recharge well in comparison to the small rising of the water level in the observation wells. This research gives good insight into the injection mechanism through wells and is essential for any further development of injection facilities and for the operation and management protocols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Humic Acid on the Transport and Deposition of Colloidal Silica under Different Hydrogeochemical Conditions
Water 2017, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9010010
Received: 26 October 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The transport and deposition of colloids in aquifers plays an important role in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes. Here, the processes of colloidal silica transport and deposition were studied by displacing groundwater with recharge water. The results showed that significant amounts of colloidal
[...] Read more.
The transport and deposition of colloids in aquifers plays an important role in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) schemes. Here, the processes of colloidal silica transport and deposition were studied by displacing groundwater with recharge water. The results showed that significant amounts of colloidal silica transport occurred when native groundwater was displaced by HA solution. Solution contains varying conditions of ionic strength and ion valence. The presence of humic acid could affect the zeta potential and size of the colloidal silica, which led to obvious colloidal silica aggregation in the divalent ion solution. Humic acid increased colloidal silica transport by formation of non-adsorbing aqueous phase silica–HA complexes. The experimental and modeling results showed good agreement, indicating that the essential physics were accurately captured by the model. The deposition rates were less than 10−8 s−1 in deionized water and monovalent ion solution. Moreover, the addition of Ca2+ and increase of IS resulted in the deposition rates increasing by five orders of magnitude to 10−4 s−1. In all experiments, the deposition rates decreased in the presence of humic acid. Overall, the promotion of humic acid in colloidal silica was strongly associated with changes in water quality, indicating that they should receive greater attention during MAR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Riverbed Clogging and Sustainability of Riverbank Filtration
Water 2016, 8(12), 604; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120604
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
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Abstract
Clogging refers to a reduction of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. Due to difficulties in determining the thickness of the clogging layer, the leakage coefficient (L) is introduced and used to quantify the recoverable portion of bank filtrate. L was determined at several riverbank filtration
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Clogging refers to a reduction of riverbed hydraulic conductivity. Due to difficulties in determining the thickness of the clogging layer, the leakage coefficient (L) is introduced and used to quantify the recoverable portion of bank filtrate. L was determined at several riverbank filtration (RBF) sites in field tests and using an analytical solution. Results were compared with data from similar experiments in the early 1970s and 1991–1993. In the 1980s, severe river water pollution in conjunction with high water abstraction led to partly unsaturated conditions beneath the riverbed. A leakage coefficient L of 5 × 10−7 s−1 was determined. After water quality improvement, L increased to 1–1.5 × 10−6 s−1. An alternative, cost and time efficient method is presented to estimate accurate leakage coefficients. The analytical solution is based on groundwater level monitoring data from observation wells next to the river, which can later feed into numerical models. The analytical approach was able to reflect long-term changes as well as seasonal variations. Recommendations for its application are given based on experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Transport of Silica Colloid through Saturated Porous Media under Different Hydrogeochemical and Hydrodynamic Conditions Considering Managed Aquifer Recharge
Water 2016, 8(12), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120555
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 23 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
Colloids may have an important role in regulating the structure and function of groundwater ecosystems, and may influence the migration of low solubility contaminants in groundwater. There is, however, a degree of uncertainty about how colloids behave under the variable hydrogeochemical and hydrodynamic
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Colloids may have an important role in regulating the structure and function of groundwater ecosystems, and may influence the migration of low solubility contaminants in groundwater. There is, however, a degree of uncertainty about how colloids behave under the variable hydrogeochemical and hydrodynamic conditions that occur during managed aquifer recharge. We used an online monitoring system to monitor the transport of silica colloid in saturated porous media under different hydrogeochemical conditions, including a range of pH values (5, 7, and 9), ionic strengths (<0.0005, 0.02, and 0.05 M), cation valences (Na+, Ca2+), flow rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/min). The results showed that silica colloid was more likely to deposit on the surface of porous media in acidic conditions (pH = 5) than in alkaline conditions (pH = 9), indicating that the risks of pollution from colloidal interactions would be higher when the pH of the recharge water was higher. Colloid deposition occurred when the ionic strength of the colloidal suspension increased, and bivalent cations had a greater effect than monovalent cations. This suggests that bivalent cation-rich recharge water might affect the porosity of the porous medium because of colloid deposition during the managed aquifer recharge process. As the flow rate increased, the migration ability of silica colloid increased. We simulated the migration of silica colloid in porous media with the COMSOL Multiphysics model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Quantifying Apparent Groundwater Ages near Managed Aquifer Recharge Operations Using Radio-Sulfur (35S) as an Intrinsic Tracer
Water 2016, 8(11), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8110474
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
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Abstract
The application of the cosmogenic radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S) as a chronometer near spreading basins is evaluated at two well-established Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) sites: the Atlantis facility (South Africa) and Orange County Water District’s (OCWD’s) Kraemer Basin (Northern Orange County, CA,
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The application of the cosmogenic radioisotope sulfur-35 (35S) as a chronometer near spreading basins is evaluated at two well-established Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) sites: the Atlantis facility (South Africa) and Orange County Water District’s (OCWD’s) Kraemer Basin (Northern Orange County, CA, USA). Source water for both of these sites includes recycled wastewater. Despite lying nearer to the outlet end of their respective watersheds than to the headwaters, 35S was detected in most of the water sampled, including from wells found close to the spreading ponds and in the source water. Dilution with 35S-dead continental SO4 was minimal, a surprising finding given its short ~3 month half-life. The initial work at the Atlantis MAR site demonstrated that remote laboratories could be set up and that small volume samples—saline solutions collected after the resin elution step from the recently developed batch method described below—can be stored and transported to the counting laboratory. This study also showed that the batch method needed to be altered to remove unknown compounds eluted from the resin along with SO4. Using the improved batch method, times series measurements of both source and well water from OCWD’s MAR site showed significant temporal variations. This result indicates that during future studies, monthly to semi-monthly sampling should be conducted. Nevertheless, both of these initial studies suggest the 35S chronometer may become a valuable tool for managing MAR sites where regulations require minimum retention times. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of ASR Clogging Investigations at Three Australian ASR Sites in a Bayesian Context
Water 2016, 8(10), 442; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8100442
Received: 13 August 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
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Abstract
When evaluating uncertainties in developing an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system, under normal budgetary constraints, a systematic approach is needed to prioritise investigations. Three case studies where field trials have been undertaken, and clogging evaluated, reveal the changing perceptions of viability of
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When evaluating uncertainties in developing an aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) system, under normal budgetary constraints, a systematic approach is needed to prioritise investigations. Three case studies where field trials have been undertaken, and clogging evaluated, reveal the changing perceptions of viability of ASR from a clogging perspective as a result of the progress of investigations. Two stormwater and one recycled water ASR investigations in siliceous aquifers are described that involved different strategies to evaluate the potential for clogging. This paper reviews these sites, as well as earlier case studies and information relating water quality, to clogging in column studies. Two novel theoretical concepts are introduced in the paper. Bayesian analysis is applied to demonstrate the increase in expected net benefit in developing a new ASR operation by undertaking clogging experiments (that have an assumed known reliability for predicting viability) for the injectant treatment options and aquifer material from the site. Results for an example situation demonstrate benefit cost ratios of experiments ranging from 1.5 to 6 and apply if decisions are based on experimental results whether success or failure are predicted. Additionally, a theoretical assessment of clogging rates characterised as acute and chronic is given, to explore their combined impact, for two operating parameters that define the onset of purging for recovery of reversible clogging and the onset of occasional advanced bore rehabilitation to address recovery of chronic clogging. These allow the assessment of net recharge and the proportion of water purged or redeveloped. Both analyses could inform economic decisions and help motivate an improved investigation methodology. It is expected that aquifer heterogeneity will result in differing injection rates among wells, so operational experience will ultimately be valuable in differentiating clogging behaviour under different aquifer conditions for the same water type. This paper was originally presented at ISMAR9, Mexico City 20–24 June 2016. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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Open AccessReview Assessment of Managed Aquifer Recharge through Modeling—A Review
Water 2016, 8(12), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/w8120579
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1287 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is the purposeful recharge of an aquifer for later recovery or environmental benefits and represents a valuable method for sustainable water resources management. Models can be helpful tools for the assessment of MAR systems. This review encompasses a survey
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Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is the purposeful recharge of an aquifer for later recovery or environmental benefits and represents a valuable method for sustainable water resources management. Models can be helpful tools for the assessment of MAR systems. This review encompasses a survey and an analysis of case studies which apply flow and transport models to evaluate MAR. The observed modeling objectives include the planning or optimization of MAR schemes as well as the identification and quantification of geochemical processes during injection, storage and recovery. The water recovery efficiency and the impact of the injected water on the ambient groundwater are further objectives investigated in the reviewed studies. These objectives are mainly solved by using groundwater flow models. Unsaturated flow models, solute transport models, reactive geochemical models as well as water balance models are also frequently applied and often coupled. As each planning step to setup a new MAR facility requires cost and time investment, modeling is used to minimize hazard risks and assess possible constraints of the system such as low recovery efficiency, clogging and geochemical processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality Considerations for Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems)
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