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Water 2016, 8(12), 591; doi:10.3390/w8120591

The Use of an Orographic Precipitation Model to Assess the Precipitation Spatial Distribution in Lake Kinneret Watershed

1
Hydrologic Research Center, San Diego, CA 92127, USA
2
Israel Oceanographic & Limnological Research, the Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Migdal 14950, Israel
3
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ataur Rahman
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3294 KB, uploaded 13 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

A high-resolution 3-D orographic precipitation model (OPM) forced by Climate Forecast System (CFS) reanalysis fields was developed for the Lake Kinneret watershed (Israel-Syria-Lebanon territories). The OPM was tuned to represent the interaction between the advected and stratiform rainfall, and the local orographic enhancement. The OPM evaluation was focused on the densely instrumented lower part of the watershed. To evaluate the ungauged upper-elevation, bias-adjusted precipitation estimates from the Global-Hydro-Estimator were used. The OPM simulates higher rainfall amounts in the upper-elevation watershed compared to currently used rainfall estimates from an elevation dependent regression. The larger differences are during rain events with southwesterly wind flow and high moisture flux. These conditions, according to the OPM, are conducive to enhanced orographic lifting in the Hermon Mountain. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the higher wind speeds for southwesterly–northwesterly trajectories generate significant orographic lifting and increase the precipitation differences between the lower and upper elevations. View Full-Text
Keywords: orographic precipitation model; Lake Kinneret; Hermon Mountain; CFS; global hydro estimator orographic precipitation model; Lake Kinneret; Hermon Mountain; CFS; global hydro estimator
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shamir, E.; Rimmer, A.; Georgakakos, K.P. The Use of an Orographic Precipitation Model to Assess the Precipitation Spatial Distribution in Lake Kinneret Watershed. Water 2016, 8, 591.

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