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Special Issue "Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective"

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Erik Jeppesen

Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: aquatic ecology with special emphasis on the biological structure and interactions with the nutrient dynamics and climate in lakes; lake restoration; lake re-establishment; palaeoecology; ecosystem modelling
Guest Editor
Dr. Martin Søndergaard

Department of Bioscience and the Arctic Research,Centre, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej, 25, 8600, Silkeborg, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +45-8715-8995

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lakes all around the globe are under severe pressure due to an increasing anthropogenic impact from a growing population in a more developed world. Accordingly, many lakes today are highly eutrophic and suffer from severe blooms of often toxic cyanobacteria, and may be, even more so, in the future unless strong lake management actions are taken.  Recent research has further shown that global warming and subsequent change in water use will further stimulate the eutrophication process in lakes. There is therefore a growing demand for lake restoration and insight in sustainable lake management in the future. The measures to be taken, however, depend on the climate and other local conditions.  This Special Issue addresses lakes restoration and management in a global climate change perspective. It brings together researchers from different parts of the world and climate zones (Denmark, Turkey, USA, Brazil, New Zealand, and Australia) describing how lakes respond to changes in nutrient loading and climate and how actions are taken to combat eutrophication in their regions. We welcome other contributions.

Prof. Dr. Erik Jeppesen
Dr. Martin Søndergaard
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • lake Management
  • lake restoration
  • climate change
  • global change
  • methods
  • examples

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective: An Introduction
Water 2017, 9(2), 122; doi:10.3390/w9020122
Received: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lakes all around the globe are under severe pressure due to an increasing anthropogenic impact from a growing population in a more developed world. Accordingly, today, many lakes are highly eutrophic and suffer from severe blooms of often toxic cyanobacteria and may become
[...] Read more.
Lakes all around the globe are under severe pressure due to an increasing anthropogenic impact from a growing population in a more developed world. Accordingly, today, many lakes are highly eutrophic and suffer from severe blooms of often toxic cyanobacteria and may become even more eutrophic in the future unless strong lake management actions are taken. Recent research has further shown that global warming and subsequent changes in water use will further exacerbate the eutrophication process in lakes. There is therefore a growing demand for lake restoration and insight into sustainable lake management. The measures to be taken, however, depend on the climate and other local conditions. This special issue addresses lake restoration and management with special emphasis on the restoration of eutrophicated lakes within a climate change perspective. The papers included collectively highlight that the ongoing climate change affects lake water quality by (1) changes in external and internal nutrient loading; (2) higher frequency of extreme events (such as hurricanes); (3) temperature‐induced changes in biota, biotic interactions; and (4) water level. Lower nutrient loading is therefore needed in a future warmer world to achieve the same ecological state as today. Several papers discuss lake restoration methods within a climate change perspective and show practical results, notably of various attempts of biomanipulation. Finally, some papers discuss the effects of other anthropogenic stressors and their interaction with climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Restoration of Eutrophic Lakes with Fluctuating Water Levels: A 20-Year Monitoring Study of Two Inter-Connected Lakes
Water 2017, 9(2), 127; doi:10.3390/w9020127
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eutrophication continues to be the most important problem preventing a favorable environmental state and detrimentally impacting the ecosystem services of lakes. The current study describes the results of analyses of 20 year monitoring data from two interconnected Anatolian lakes, Lakes Mogan and Eymir,
[...] Read more.
Eutrophication continues to be the most important problem preventing a favorable environmental state and detrimentally impacting the ecosystem services of lakes. The current study describes the results of analyses of 20 year monitoring data from two interconnected Anatolian lakes, Lakes Mogan and Eymir, receiving sewage effluents and undergoing restoration. The first step of restoration in both lakes was sewage effluent diversion. Additionally, in hypertrophic Lake Eymir, biomanipulation was conducted, involving removal of benthi-planktivorous fish and prohibition of pike fishing. The monitoring period included high (H) and low (L) water levels (WL) enabling elucidation of the effects of hydrological changes on lake restoration. In shallower Lake Mogan, macrophyte abundance increased after the sewage effluent diversion in periods with low water levels even at turbid water. In comparatively deeper Lake Eymir, the first biomanipulation led to a clear water state with abundant macrophyte coverage. However, shortly after biomanipulation, the water clarity declined, coinciding with low water level (LWL) periods during which nutrient concentrations increased. A second biomanipulation was conducted, mostly during high water level (HWL) period, resulting in a major decrease in nutrient concentrations and clearer water, but without an expansion of macrophytes. We conclude that repetitive fish removal may induce recovery but its success may be confounded by high availability of nutrients and adverse hydrological conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Herbivory of Omnivorous Fish Shapes the Food Web Structure of a Chinese Tropical Eutrophic Lake: Evidence from Stable Isotope and Fish Gut Content Analyses
Water 2017, 9(1), 69; doi:10.3390/w9010069
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Studies suggest that, unlike the situation in temperate lakes, high biomasses of omnivorous fish are maintained in subtropical and tropical lakes when they shift from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear water macrophyte-dominated state, and the predation pressure on large-bodied zooplankton therefore
[...] Read more.
Studies suggest that, unlike the situation in temperate lakes, high biomasses of omnivorous fish are maintained in subtropical and tropical lakes when they shift from a turbid phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear water macrophyte-dominated state, and the predation pressure on large-bodied zooplankton therefore remains high. Whether this reflects a higher degree of herbivory in warm lakes than in temperate lakes is debatable. We combined food web studies using stable isotopes with gut content analyses of the most dominant fish species to elucidate similarities and differences in food web structure between a clear water macrophyte-dominated basin (MDB) and a turbid phytoplankton-dominated basin (PDB) of Huizhou West Lake, a shallow tropical Chinese lake. The δ13C–δ15N biplot of fish and invertebrates revealed community-wide differences in isotope-based metrics of the food webs between MDB and PDB. The range of consumer δ15N (NR) was lower in MDB than in PDB, indicating shorter food web length in MDB. The mean nearest neighbor distance (MNND) and standard deviation around MNND (SDNND) were higher in MDB than in PDB, showing a markedly low fish trophic overlap and a more uneven packing of species in niches in MDB than in PDB. The range of fish δ13C (CR) of consumers was more extensive in MDB than in PDB, indicating a wider feeding range for fish in MDB. Mixing model results showed that macrophytes and associated periphyton constituted a large fraction of basal production sources for the fish in MDB, while particulate organic matter (POM) contributed a large fraction in PDB. In MDB, the diet of the dominant fish species, crucian carp (Carassius carassius), consisted mainly of vegetal matter (macrophytes and periphyton) and zooplankton, while detritus was the most important food item in PDB. Our results suggest that carbon from macrophytes with associated periphyton may constitute an important food resource for omnivorous fish, and this may strongly affect the feeding niche and the strength of the top-down trophic cascade between fish and zooplankton in the restored, macrophyte-dominated basin of the lake. This dual effect (consumption of macrophytes and zooplankton) may reduce the chances of maintaining the clear water state at the prevailing nutrient levels in the lake, and regular removal of large crucian carp may therefore be needed to maintain a healthy ecosystem state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Repeated Fish Removal to Restore Lakes: Case Study of Lake Væng, Denmark—Two Biomanipulations during 30 Years of Monitoring
Water 2017, 9(1), 43; doi:10.3390/w9010043
Received: 19 August 2016 / Revised: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3626 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake water quality. Here, we present and analyse 30 years of chemical and biological data from the shallow and 16 ha large Lake Væng, Denmark, which has
[...] Read more.
Biomanipulation by fish removal has been used in many shallow lakes as a method to improve lake water quality. Here, we present and analyse 30 years of chemical and biological data from the shallow and 16 ha large Lake Væng, Denmark, which has been biomanipulated twice with a 20-year interval by removing roach (Rutilus rutilus) and bream (Abramis brama). After both biomanipulations, Lake Væng shifted from a turbid, phytoplankton-dominated state to a clear, water macrophyte-dominated state. Chlorophyll a was reduced from 60–80 μg·L−1 to 10–30 μg·L−1 and the coverage of submerged macrophytes, dominated by Elodea canadensis, increased from <0.1% to 70%–80%. Mean summer total phosphorus was reduced from about 0.12 to 0.07 mg·L−1 and total nitrogen decreased from 1.0 to 0.4 mg·L−1. On a seasonal scale, phosphorus and chlorophyll concentrations changed from a summer maximum during turbid conditions to a winter maximum under clear conditions. The future of Lake Væng is uncertain and a relatively high phosphorus loading via the groundwater, and the accumulation of a mobile P pool in the sediment make it likely that the lake eventually will return to turbid conditions. Repeated fish removals might be a relevant management strategy to apply in shallow lakes with a relatively high external nutrient loading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Exposed Artificial Substrate on the Competition between Phytoplankton and Benthic Algae: Implications for Shallow Lake Restoration
Water 2017, 9(1), 24; doi:10.3390/w9010024
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1183 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Phytoplankton and benthic algae coexist in shallow lakes and the outcome of the competition between these two photoautotrophs can markedly influence water clarity. It is well established that exposed artificial substrate in eutrophic waters can remove nutrients and fine particles from the water
[...] Read more.
Phytoplankton and benthic algae coexist in shallow lakes and the outcome of the competition between these two photoautotrophs can markedly influence water clarity. It is well established that exposed artificial substrate in eutrophic waters can remove nutrients and fine particles from the water column via the attached periphyton canopy. However, the effects of the introduction of artificial substrate on the competition between planktonic and benthic primary producers remain to be elucidated. We conducted a short-term outdoor mesocosm experiment to test the hypothesis that the nutrient and light changes induced by exposed artificial substrate (polythene nets) would benefit the benthic algae. Artificial substrate significantly reduced total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and water clarity improved, the latter due to the substrate-induced reduction of both organic and inorganic suspended solids. Consequently, as judged from changes in chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations in water and sediment, respectively, exposed artificial substrate significantly reduced the phytoplankton biomass, while benthic algae biomass increased. Our results thus indicate that exposed artificial substrate may be used as a tool to re-establish benthic primary production in eutrophic shallow lakes after an external nutrient loading reduction, paving the way for a benthic- or a macrophyte-dominated system. Longer term and larger scale experiments are, however, needed before any firm conclusions can be drawn on this. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Response of Vallisneria natans to Increasing Nitrogen Loading Depends on Sediment Nutrient Characteristics
Water 2016, 8(12), 563; doi:10.3390/w8120563
Received: 4 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1116 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High nitrogen (N) loading may contribute to recession of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes; yet, its influences vary depending on environmental conditions. In August 2013, we conducted a 28-day factorial-designed field mesocosm experiment in Lake Taihu at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem
[...] Read more.
High nitrogen (N) loading may contribute to recession of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes; yet, its influences vary depending on environmental conditions. In August 2013, we conducted a 28-day factorial-designed field mesocosm experiment in Lake Taihu at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research (TLLER) to examine the effects of high N loading on the growth of Vallisneria natans in systems with contrasting sediment types. We ran the experiments with two levels of nutrient loading—present-day external nutrient loading (average P: 5 μg·L−1·day−1, N: 130 μg·L−1·day−1) and P: 5 μg·L−1·day−1, and with three times higher N loading (N: 390 μg·L−1·day−1) and used sediment with two contrasting nutrient levels. V. natans growth decreased significantly with increasing N loading, the effect being dependent, however, on the nutrient status of the sediment. In low nutrient sediment, relative growth rates, leaf biomass and root biomass decreased by 11.9%, 18.2% and 23.3%, respectively, at high rather than low N loading, while the decline was larger (44.0%, 32.7% and 41.8%, respectively) when using high nutrient sediment. The larger effect in the nutrient-rich sediment may reflect an observed higher shading of phytoplankton and excess nutrient accumulation in plant tissue, though potential toxic effects of the high-nutrient sediment may also have contributed. Our study confirms the occurrence of a negative effect of increasing N loading on submerged plant growth in shallow nutrient-enriched lakes and further shows that this effect is augmented when the plants grow in nutrient-rich sediment. External N control may, therefore, help to protect or restore submerged macrophytes, especially when the sediment is enriched with nutrients and organic matter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Implications of Human Activities, Land Use Changes and Climate Variability in Mediterranean Lakes of Greece
Water 2016, 8(11), 483; doi:10.3390/w8110483
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3923 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lakes in the Mediterranean climate zone experience high variation in rainfall and are vulnerable to changes in climate, land cover and anthropogenically induced effects on water level and salinity. This paper presents the results from the analyses of spatiotemporal changes of land cover/uses
[...] Read more.
Lakes in the Mediterranean climate zone experience high variation in rainfall and are vulnerable to changes in climate, land cover and anthropogenically induced effects on water level and salinity. This paper presents the results from the analyses of spatiotemporal changes of land cover/uses at catchment scale of two connected lakes in Greece that have recently exhibited a dramatic loss of water volume, and investigates the potential role of climate change as a main driver of the lake water loss. The classification of the historical land cover/uses was based on a series of LANDSAT images from 1972 to 2011. Changes in the landscape structure were assessed using landscape metrics that were calculated with FRAGSTATS software. Climate data and temporal series of water level, conductivity and chloride concentration, were analyzed to investigate the potential role of climate variability to the lake hydrology and water quality. The results showed that between 1972 and 2011 almost 28% of Lake Vegoritis and 13% of Lake Petron were replaced by cultivations and reed beds. Landscape metrics showed that the lake catchment’s area is highly fragmented, indicating a heterogeneous spatial pattern and degradation of the rural habitats. Regarding the climatic factors, it appears that precipitation follows a declining trend correlating with water level fluctuations. The water level in Lake Vegoritis also correlated with the conductivity and chloride concentration, indicating a relationship between hydrological alteration and water quality. Overall, a combined effect of climate- and human-induced land cover changes appeared to be responsible for the drastic environmental changes that urge the need for implementing effective restoration and mitigation measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Climate Change Will Make Recovery from Eutrophication More Difficult in Shallow Danish Lake Søbygaard
Water 2016, 8(10), 459; doi:10.3390/w8100459
Received: 11 September 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Complex lake ecosystem models can assist lake managers in developing management plans counteracting the eutrophication symptoms that are expected to be a result of climate change. We applied the ecological model PCLake based on 22 years of data from shallow, eutrophic Lake Søbygaard,
[...] Read more.
Complex lake ecosystem models can assist lake managers in developing management plans counteracting the eutrophication symptoms that are expected to be a result of climate change. We applied the ecological model PCLake based on 22 years of data from shallow, eutrophic Lake Søbygaard, Denmark and simulated multiple combinations of increasing temperatures (0–6 °C), reduced external nutrient loads (0%–98%) with and without internal phosphorus loading. Simulations suggest nitrogen to be the main limiting nutrient for primary production, reflecting ample phosphorus release from the sediment. The nutrient loading reduction scenarios predicted increased diatom dominance, accompanied by an increase in the zooplankton:phytoplankton biomass ratio. Simulations generally showed phytoplankton to benefit from a warmer climate and the fraction of cyanobacteria to increase. In the 6 °C warming scenario, a nutrient load reduction of as much as 60% would be required to achieve summer chlorophyll-a levels similar to those of the baseline scenario with present-day temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Restoration of Shallow Lakes in Subtropical and Tropical China: Response of Nutrients and Water Clarity to Biomanipulation by Fish Removal and Submerged Plant Transplantation
Water 2016, 8(10), 438; doi:10.3390/w8100438
Received: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 5 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1019 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fish removal has been used to restore temperate lakes, and positive effects on ecological state and water clarity have frequently been recorded in many lakes. Recently, a supplementary measure, transplantation of submerged macrophytes after fish removal, has been applied to restore warm Chinese
[...] Read more.
Fish removal has been used to restore temperate lakes, and positive effects on ecological state and water clarity have frequently been recorded in many lakes. Recently, a supplementary measure, transplantation of submerged macrophytes after fish removal, has been applied to restore warm Chinese shallow lakes in order to compensate for the expected lack of increasing grazing control of phytoplankton after the biomanipulation. These measures have successfully shifted turbid warm lakes to a clear water state, but little is known about the responses to restoration of key physico-chemical variables. We analyzed the seasonal variation in nutrient concentrations in two subtropical and one tropical biomanipulated shallow Chinese lakes subjected to restoration. In all three lakes, a marked decline occurred in the concentrations of lake total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total suspended solids (TSS), and chlorophyll a (Chl a), while the transparency (SD:WD ratio, Secchi depth to water depth ratio) increased. A clear water state was established, lasting so far for 7 to 23 months, and TN, TP, Chl a, and TSS levels in the three restored lakes decreased to, on average, 49%, 58%, 41%, and 18% of the level prior to restoration and/or the level in a reference lake, respectively, while the annual mean SD:WD ratio exhibited a 1.5–4 fold increase. In conclusion, lake restoration by transplantation of submerged macrophytes after fish removal had major positive effects on the physico-chemical variables in our study lakes. However, continuous control of omnivorous and herbivorous fish biomass is recommended as the fish typically present in warm, shallow lakes to some extent feed on submerged macrophytes, when available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Trends and Temporal Synchrony in Plankton Richness, Diversity and Biomass Driven by Re-Oligotrophication and Climate across 17 Danish Lakes
Water 2016, 8(10), 427; doi:10.3390/w8100427
Received: 27 August 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (9322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A two-decade (1989–2008) time series of lake phyto- and zooplankton, water characteristics and climate in 17 Danish lakes was analysed to examine the long term changes and the effects of lake restoration efforts. The analyses of the pair-wise correlations across time series revealed
[...] Read more.
A two-decade (1989–2008) time series of lake phyto- and zooplankton, water characteristics and climate in 17 Danish lakes was analysed to examine the long term changes and the effects of lake restoration efforts. The analyses of the pair-wise correlations across time series revealed a strong synchrony in climatic variables among the lakes. A significant, but weak increase in air temperature was observed and resulted in a corresponding increase in surface water temperature only in summer. Lake physico-chemical variables had weaker synchrony than climatic variables. Synchrony in water temperature and stratification was stronger than lake chemistry as the former is mostly affected by atmospheric energy flux. Synchrony in the taxonomic richness of the plankton groups and phytoplankton biomass was apparent, to a similar degree as observed for lake chemistry. The synchrony and the temporal trends in lake chemistry and plankton were more pronounced for the lakes with strong re-oligotrophication. Phytoplankton biomass decreased and plankton richness increased in these lakes, with a shift from Chlorophyta dominance towards more heterogeneous phytoplankton communities. Notably, a widespread significant positive trend in plankton richness was observed not only in lakes with strong re-oligotrophication but across all lakes. The widespread increase in plankton richness coincided with widespread decrease in phosphate and total nitrogen concentrations, as well as with the trends in climate indicating a likely joint effect of nutrient reduction and climate in driving lake plankton. However, temporal changes and synchrony as well as the recovery of richness and composition of lake plankton more coherently corresponded with the nutrient loading reduction across the Danish landscape, while the role of climate control of the lake plankton was less pronounced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Artificial Recharge on Hydrochemistry: A Comparison of Two Fluvial Gravel Pit Lakes with Different Post-Excavation Uses in The Netherlands
Water 2016, 8(9), 409; doi:10.3390/w8090409
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gravel pit lakes form when gravel deposits are excavated below the water table. We studied two fluvial gravel pit lakes called De Lange Vlieter (DLV Lake) and the Boschmolen Plas (BP Lake), in the Meuse River valley (The Netherlands). Water from the Meuse
[...] Read more.
Gravel pit lakes form when gravel deposits are excavated below the water table. We studied two fluvial gravel pit lakes called De Lange Vlieter (DLV Lake) and the Boschmolen Plas (BP Lake), in the Meuse River valley (The Netherlands). Water from the Meuse River is pumped only into the DLV Lake that is used for drinking water production. The mean values, the linear trends and seasonal patterns of time series data (2003–2014), of temperature, pH, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate were compared using one-way tests of variance and tests of differences. The effects of river water infiltration on DLV Lake are (1) a change in lake water temperature; (2) an increase in nitrate concentration (3) an increase in phosphate concentration and (4) a decrease in sulphate concentration. The effects of the air blowers in DLV Lake are (1) mixing of lake water; (2) decreasing pH in spring and summer (3) water oxygenation. Linear regression analysis shows an initially increasing nitrate concentration in DLV Lake that can be explained by the input of nitrate rich Meuse river water. Instead decreasing nitrate and phosphate concentrations in BP Lake and Meuse River reflect a diminished use of fertilizers. The gravel pit lake water temperature does not reflect climatic changes but the use of DLV Lake for artificial recharge has an impact on the seasonal and long-term trends in hydrochemistry. This poses a challenge to lake managers to find the right balance between reduction of eutrophication and accumulation of nutrients and sulphate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Heavy Metal Contamination in the Surface Layer of Bottom Sediments in a Flow-Through Lake: A Case Study of Lake Symsar in Northern Poland
Water 2016, 8(8), 358; doi:10.3390/w8080358
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
River-lake systems most often behave as hydrographic units, which undergo complex interactions, especially in the contact zone. One such interaction pertains to the role of a river in the dispersal of trace elements carried into and out of a lake. In this study,
[...] Read more.
River-lake systems most often behave as hydrographic units, which undergo complex interactions, especially in the contact zone. One such interaction pertains to the role of a river in the dispersal of trace elements carried into and out of a lake. In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of rivers on the accumulation of heavy metals in bottom sediments of natural lakes comprised in postglacial river-lake systems. The results showed that a river flowing through a lake is a key factor responsible for the input of the majority of available fraction of heavy metals (Zn, Mn, Cd and Ni) into the water body and for their accumulation along the flow of river water in the lake. The origin of other accumulated elements were the linear and point sources in catchments. In turn, the Pb content was associated with the location of roads in the direct catchment, while the sediment structure (especially size of fraction and density) could have affected the accumulation of Cr and Zn, which indicated correlations between these metals and fine fraction. Our results suggest that lakes act as filters and contribute to the self-purification of water that flows through them. As a result, the content of most metals in lake sediments showed a decrease by approx. 75% between the upstream (inflow) and downstream (outflow) sections. The increased content of two metals only, such as chromium and cadmium (higher by 2.0 and 2.5 times, respectively, after passing through the lake), was due to the correlation of the metals with fine sand. Both the content and distribution pattern of heavy metals in lake sediments are indicative of the natural response of aquatic ecosystems to environmental stressors, such as pollutant import with river water or climate change. The complex elements creating the water ecosystem of each lake can counteract stress by temporarily removing pollutants such as toxic metals form circulation and depositing them mostly around the delta. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Is Recovery of Large-Bodied Zooplankton after Nutrient Loading Reduction Hampered by Climate Warming? A Long-Term Study of Shallow Hypertrophic Lake Søbygaard, Denmark
Water 2016, 8(8), 341; doi:10.3390/w8080341
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 26 July 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2789 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Nutrient fluctuations and climate warming can synergistically affect trophic dynamics in lakes, resulting in enhanced symptoms of eutrophication, thereby potentially counteracting restoration measures. We performed a long-term study (23 years) of zooplankton in Danish Lake Søbygaard, which is in recovery after nutrient loading
[...] Read more.
Nutrient fluctuations and climate warming can synergistically affect trophic dynamics in lakes, resulting in enhanced symptoms of eutrophication, thereby potentially counteracting restoration measures. We performed a long-term study (23 years) of zooplankton in Danish Lake Søbygaard, which is in recovery after nutrient loading reduction, but now faces the effects of climate warming. We hypothesized that the recovery of large-bodied zooplankton after nutrient loading reduction would be hampered by climate warming through indirect effects on fish size structure. We found a shift in macrozooplankton from initial dominance of Daphnia spp. towards Bosmina spp. as well as a decline in the body size of copepods and an increase in the abundance of nauplii. These changes coincided with the increase in small sized fish as a result of rising water temperature. Despite a reduction in body size, the total biomass of cladocerans increased coinciding with a diminished fish catch per unit effort (CPUE), and likely then an overall reduction in the predation on zooplankton. A cascading effect to phytoplankton was evidenced by enhanced zooplankton:phytoplankton and cladoceran:phytoplankton ratios and a decrease in Chl-a:TP and Chl-a:TN ratios. Our results indicate that climate warming, through changes in the size structure of fish community, has major effects on zooplankton size structure. In Lake Søbygaard, the decline in zooplankton size did not prevent, but modulated, the positive cascading effect on phytoplankton through an expected diminished fish CPUE related to nutrient loading reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Small Boreal Lake Ecosystem Evolution under the Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors: Results of Multidisciplinary Long-Term Study
Water 2016, 8(8), 316; doi:10.3390/w8080316
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 19 July 2016 / Published: 26 July 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Small aquatic ecosystems of the boreal zone are known to be most sensitive indicators of on-going environmental change as well as local anthropogenic pressure, while being highly vulnerable to external impacts. Compared to rather detailed knowledge of the evolution of large and small
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Small aquatic ecosystems of the boreal zone are known to be most sensitive indicators of on-going environmental change as well as local anthropogenic pressure, while being highly vulnerable to external impacts. Compared to rather detailed knowledge of the evolution of large and small lakes in Scandinavia and Canada, and large lakes in Eurasia, highly abundant small boreal lakes of northwest Russia have received very little attention, although they may become important centers of attraction of growing rural population in the near future. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary, multi-annual study of a small boreal humic lake of NW Russia. A shallow (3 m) and a deep (16 m) site of this lake were regularly sampled for a range of chemical and biological parameters. Average multi-daily, summer-time values of the epilimnion (upper oxygenated) layer of the lake provided indications of possible trends in temperature, nutrients, and bacterio-plankton concentration that revealed the local pollution impact in the shallow zone and overall environmental trend in the deep sampling point of the lake. Organic phosphorus, nitrate, and lead were found to be most efficient tracers of local anthropogenic pollution, especially visible in the surface layer of the shallow site of the lake. Cycling of trace elements between the epilimnion and hypolimnion is tightly linked to dissolved organic matter speciation and size fractionation due to the dominance of organic and organo-ferric colloids. The capacity of lake self-purification depends on the ratio of primary productivity to mineralization of organic matter. This ratio remained >1 both during winter and summer periods, which suggests a high potential of lake recovery from the input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and local anthropogenic pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Long-Term Water Level Variation in Dongting Lake, China
Water 2016, 8(7), 306; doi:10.3390/w8070306
Received: 28 March 2016 / Revised: 1 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4563 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The water level of Dongting Lake has changed because of the combined impact of climatic change and anthropogenic activities. A study of the long-term statistical properties of water level variations at Chenglingji station will help with the management of water resources in Dongting
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The water level of Dongting Lake has changed because of the combined impact of climatic change and anthropogenic activities. A study of the long-term statistical properties of water level variations at Chenglingji station will help with the management of water resources in Dongting Lake. In this case, 54 years of water level data for Dongting Lake were analyzed with the non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test, Sen’s slope test, and the Pettitt test. The results showed the following: (1) Trends in annual maximum lake water level (WLM), annual mean lake water level (WL), and annual minimum lake water level (WLm) increased from 1961 to 2014; however, the three variables showed different trends from 1981 to 2014; (2) The annual change trends in Dongting Lake between 1961–2014 and 1981–2014 were found to be from approximately 0.90 cm/year to −2.27 cm/year, 1.65 cm/year to −0.79 cm/year, and 4.58 cm/year to 2.56 cm/year for WLM, WL, and WLm, respectively; (3) A greater degree of increase in water level during the dry season (November–April) was found from 2003 to 2014 than from 1981 to 2002, but a smaller degree of increase, even to the point of decreasing, was found during the wet season (May–October); (4) The measured discharge data and numerical modeling results showed the operation of Three Gorge Reservoir (TGR) pushed to influence partly the recent inter-annual variation of water level in Dongting Lake region, especially in the flood and dry seasons. The analysis indicated that the water level of Dongting Lake has changed in the long term with decreasing of range between WLM and WLm, and may decrease the probability of future drought and flood events. These results can provide useful information for the management of Dongting Lake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
Open AccessArticle Extreme Weather Events and Climate Variability Provide a Lens to How Shallow Lakes May Respond to Climate Change
Water 2016, 8(6), 229; doi:10.3390/w8060229
Received: 17 March 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 25 May 2016 / Published: 28 May 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Shallow lakes, particularly those in low-lying areas of the subtropics, are highly vulnerable to changes in climate associated with global warming. Many of these lakes are in tropical cyclone strike zones and they experience high inter-seasonal and inter-annual variation in rainfall and runoff.
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Shallow lakes, particularly those in low-lying areas of the subtropics, are highly vulnerable to changes in climate associated with global warming. Many of these lakes are in tropical cyclone strike zones and they experience high inter-seasonal and inter-annual variation in rainfall and runoff. Both of those factors strongly modulate sediment–water column interactions, which play a critical role in shallow lake nutrient cycling, water column irradiance characteristics and cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom (CyanoHAB) dynamics. We illustrate this with three examples, using long-term (15–25 years) datasets on water quality and plankton from three shallow lakes: Lakes Okeechobee and George (Florida, USA) and Lake Taihu (China). Okeechobee and Taihu have been impacted repeatedly by tropical cyclones that have resulted in large amounts of runoff and sediment resuspension, and resultant increases in dissolved nutrients in the water column. In both cases, when turbidity declined, major blooms of the toxic CyanoHAB Microcystis aeruginosa occurred over large areas of the lakes. In Lake George, periods of high rainfall resulted in high dissolved color, reduced irradiance, and increased water turnover rates which suppress blooms, whereas in dry periods with lower water color and water turnover rates there were dense cyanobacteria blooms. We identify a suite of factors which, from our experience, will determine how a particular shallow lake will respond to a future with global warming, flashier rainfall, prolonged droughts and stronger tropical cyclones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)
Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China)
Water 2016, 8(3), 86; doi:10.3390/w8030086
Received: 8 December 2015 / Revised: 24 January 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 4 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2033 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations), to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential
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Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations), to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April) and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B) based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA) was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5)) to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus) to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related), domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Restoration and Management in a Climate Change Perspective)

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