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Water 2016, 8(12), 572; doi:10.3390/w8120572

Water Balance and Level Change of Lake Babati, Tanzania: Sensitivity to Hydroclimatic Forcings

1
Department of Physical Geography, and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7012, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
3
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Karl-Erich Lindenschmidt
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 5 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2708 KB, uploaded 5 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

We develop and present a novel integrated water balance model that accounts for lake water—groundwater interactions, and apply it to the semi-closed freshwater Lake Babati system, Northern Tanzania, East Africa. The model was calibrated and used to evaluate the lake level sensitivity to changes in key hydro-climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and cloudiness. The lake response to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) output on possible future climate outcomes was evaluated, an essential basis in understanding future water security and flooding risk in the region. Results show high lake level sensitivity to cloudiness. Increased focus on cloud fraction measurement and interpretation could likely improve projections of lake levels and surface water availability. Modelled divergent results on the future (21st century) development of Lake Babati can be explained by the precipitation output variability of CMIP5 models being comparable to the precipitation change needed to drive the water balance model from lake dry-out to overflow; this condition is likely shared with many other East African lake systems. The developed methodology could be useful in investigations on change-driving processes in complex climate—drainage basin—lake systems, which are needed to support sustainable water resource planning in data scarce tropical Africa. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lake Babati; water balance; lake level sensitivity; cloudiness; hydroclimatic forcings; East Africa Lake Babati; water balance; lake level sensitivity; cloudiness; hydroclimatic forcings; East Africa
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mbanguka, R.P.; Lyon, S.W.; Holmgren, K.; Girons Lopez, M.; Jarsjö, J. Water Balance and Level Change of Lake Babati, Tanzania: Sensitivity to Hydroclimatic Forcings. Water 2016, 8, 572.

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