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Water 2016, 8(12), 600; doi:10.3390/w8120600

Indicator and Pathogen Removal by Low Impact Development Best Management Practices

Orange County Environmental Resources, Orange, CA 92865, USA
Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Costa Mesa, CA 92626, USA
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 25 October 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 10 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogens in Water)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2931 KB, uploaded 19 December 2016]   |  


Microbial contamination in urban stormwater is one of the most widespread and challenging water quality issues in developed countries. Low impact development (LID) best management practices (BMPs) restore pre-urban hydrology by treating and/or harvesting urban runoff and stormwater, and can be designed to remove many contaminants including pathogens. One particular type of LID BMP, stormwater biofilters (i.e., vegetated media filters, also known as bioinfiltration, bioretention, or rain gardens), is becoming increasingly popular in urban environments due to its multiple co-benefits (e.g., improved hydrology, water quality, local climate and aesthetics). However, increased understanding of the factors influencing microbial removal in biofilters is needed to effectively design and implement biofilters for microbial water quality improvement. This paper aims to provide a holistic view of microbial removal in biofilter systems, and reviews the effects of various design choices such as filter media, vegetation, infauna, submerged zones, and hydraulic retention time on microbial removal. Limitations in current knowledge and recommendations for future research are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilter; recreational water quality; indicator bacteria; pathogen; stormwater; urban runoff biofilter; recreational water quality; indicator bacteria; pathogen; stormwater; urban runoff

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Peng, J.; Cao, Y.; Rippy, M.A.; Afrooz, A.R.M.N.; Grant, S.B. Indicator and Pathogen Removal by Low Impact Development Best Management Practices. Water 2016, 8, 600.

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