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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Modulation of Gut Microbiota of Overweight Mice by Agavins and Their Association with Body Weight Loss
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 821; doi:10.3390/nu9090821
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high-fat (HF5) diet for
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Agavins consumption has led to accelerated body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated with body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high-fat (HF5) diet for five weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST + A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10), for five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t test, p < 0.05), increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t test, p < 0.05). After diet shifting, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increased its diversity, and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST + A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST + O10) led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio, as well as higher SCFA levels (p < 0.1). Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced the extent of diversity, and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins opens opportunities to explore new probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Avocado Consumption Increases Macular Pigment Density in Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 919; doi:10.3390/nu9090919 (registering DOI)
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Lutein is selectively incorporated into the macula and brain. Lutein levels in the macula (macular pigment; MP) and the brain are related to better cognition. MP density (MPD) is a biomarker of brain lutein. Avocados are a bioavailable source of lutein. This study
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Lutein is selectively incorporated into the macula and brain. Lutein levels in the macula (macular pigment; MP) and the brain are related to better cognition. MP density (MPD) is a biomarker of brain lutein. Avocados are a bioavailable source of lutein. This study tests the effects of the intake of avocado on cognition. This was a six-month, randomized, controlled trial. Healthy subjects consumed one avocado (n = 20, 0.5 mg/day lutein, AV) vs. one potato or one cup of chickpeas (n = 20, 0 mg/day lutein, C). Serum lutein, MPD, and cognition were assessed at zero, three, and six months. Primary analyses were conducted according to intent-to-treat principles, with repeated-measures analysis. At six months, AV increased serum lutein levels by 25% from baseline (p = 0.001). C increased by 15% (p = 0.030). At six months, there was an increase in MPD from baseline in AV (p = 0.001) and no increase in C. For both groups, there was an improvement in memory and spatial working memory (p = 0.001; p = 0.032, respectively). For AV only there was improved sustained attention (p = 0.033), and the MPD increase was related to improved working memory and efficiency in approaching a problem (p = 0.036). Dietary recommendations including avocados may be an effective strategy for cognitive health. Full article
Open AccessArticle Consumption of a High Quantity and a Wide Variety of Vegetables Are Predicted by Different Food Choice Motives in Older Adults from France, Italy and the UK
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 923; doi:10.3390/nu9090923
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Consumption of a high quantity and wide variety of vegetables is currently recommended for health. Dietary variety can be low, however, particularly for older adults. This study investigated the affective factors associated with the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed by older
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Background: Consumption of a high quantity and wide variety of vegetables is currently recommended for health. Dietary variety can be low, however, particularly for older adults. This study investigated the affective factors associated with the quantity and variety of vegetables consumed by older adults in France, Italy and the UK. Methods: Adults aged 65 years plus completed questionnaires on self-reported vegetable intake (quantity and variety), liking for vegetables, attitudes towards intake, and demographic variables. Results: In 497 older adults (France, n = 187, Italy, n = 152, UK, n = 158), higher quantities of vegetables consumed were associated with a higher age, affluence score and liking for vegetables, and a lower importance in consumption of familiarity (smallest β = 0.11, p = 0.03). Greater variety was associated with a higher liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = −0.11, p < 0.01). Higher quantity and variety combined (quantity × variety) was associated with a higher age, liking and importance of health benefits, and a lower importance of familiarity (smallest β = 0.14, p = 0.02). Country-specific effects were also found (smallest β = 0.20, p < 0.01). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a role for liking and a lower concern for eating familiar foods in vegetable consumption, and a particular role for concern for health benefits in the consumption of a greater variety of vegetables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle A Vote for School Lunches: School Lunches Provide Superior Nutrient Quality than Lunches Obtained from Other Sources in a Nationally Representative Sample of US Children
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 924; doi:10.3390/nu9090924
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Childhood obesity is an ongoing public health program. As such, a major public health research objective is to identify potential targets for intervention; one such area is school lunches (SL). The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) serves over 31 million children each day;
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Childhood obesity is an ongoing public health program. As such, a major public health research objective is to identify potential targets for intervention; one such area is school lunches (SL). The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) serves over 31 million children each day; the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is uniquely positioned to allow researchers to assess diet quality in federal nutrition assistance programs. The objective of the study was to investigate whether lunches provided by schools provide different nutritional value than lunches obtained elsewhere. In a nationally representative sample of 2190 children, consumption of a school-provided lunch (SL) was associated with greater nutritional quality compared to lunches obtained elsewhere across both age and income categories. Children who were eligible for no-cost school lunch, but did not participate in the NSLP consumed approximately 60% more energy, 58% more total fat, 60% more saturated fat, 50% more solid fat, 61% more sodium, double the amount of added sugars and less than half the amount of fruit than NSLP participants (all p < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that though widely criticized, school lunches provide superior nutrient quality than lunches obtained from other sources, particularly for low-income children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Vinegar’s Aqueous Extract Stimulates Insulin Secretion and Exerts Hepatoprotective Effect on STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 925; doi:10.3390/nu9090925
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: An aqueous extract (AE) of vinegar made from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. can improve postprandial glucose levels in normoglycaemic rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate its antihyperglycaemic activity further using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Methods: AE was administered
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Background: An aqueous extract (AE) of vinegar made from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. can improve postprandial glucose levels in normoglycaemic rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate its antihyperglycaemic activity further using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Methods: AE was administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats twice daily at three doses (1000, 500, and 250 mg/kg b.w.) for 12 days p.o. Several biochemical analyses and a histological study of the pancreas and liver were performed, accompanied by a cell culture assay. Results: As compared to diabetic control (DC), AE at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w. caused significant reduction (p < 0.05) of blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides levels, with positive improvement of serum insulin levels. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining of the pancreas suggested no β-cell regeneration, despite significant increase in insulin production. AE-treated groups, however, showed overall restoration of the hepatic histoarchitecture of STZ-induced liver damage, suggesting a possible hepatoprotective effect. The pancreatic effect of AE was further studied through RIN-5F cell culture, which revealed a positive stimulatory effect on insulin release at a basal glucose concentration (1.1 mM). Conclusion: Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar’s aqueous extract exerts its antihyperglycaemic activity, at least in part, through insulin stimulatory and hepatoprotective effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reduced Mortality in Maintenance Haemodialysis Patients on High versus Low Dialysate Magnesium: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 926; doi:10.3390/nu9090926
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Although low magnesium levels have been associated with an increased mortality in dialysis patients, they are kept low by routinely-used dialysates containing 0.50 mmol/L magnesium. Thus, we investigated the impact of a higher dialysate magnesium concentration on mortality. Methods: 25 patients on
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Background: Although low magnesium levels have been associated with an increased mortality in dialysis patients, they are kept low by routinely-used dialysates containing 0.50 mmol/L magnesium. Thus, we investigated the impact of a higher dialysate magnesium concentration on mortality. Methods: 25 patients on high dialysate magnesium (HDM) of 0.75 mmol/L were 1:2 matched to 50 patients on low dialysate magnesium (LDM) of 0.50 mmol/L and followed up for 3 years with regards to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients were matched according to age, gender, a modified version of the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), and smoking status. Results: During the follow-up period, five patients died in the HDM and 18 patients in the LDM group. Patients in the HDM group had significantly higher ionized serum magnesium levels than matched controls (0.64 ± 0.12 mmol/L vs. 0.57 ± 0.10 mmol/L, p = 0.034). Log rank test showed no difference between treatment groups for all-cause mortality. After adjustment for age and CCI, Cox proportional hazards regression showed that HDM independently predicted a 65% risk reduction for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13, 0.97). Estimated 3-year probability of death from a cardiovascular event was 14.5% (95% CI: 7.9, 25.8) in the LDM group vs. 0% in the HDM group. Log rank test found a significant group difference for cardiovascular mortality (χ2 = 4.15, p = 0.042). Conclusions: Our data suggests that there might be a beneficial effect of an increased dialysate magnesium on cardiovascular mortality in chronic dialysis patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Resveratrol as a Natural Autophagy Regulator for Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 927; doi:10.3390/nu9090927
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders over the age of 65 years old. Although several underlying mechanisms for explaining the pathogenesis of AD are elucidated, the effective supplements or drugs for the intervention of AD are still limited.
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders over the age of 65 years old. Although several underlying mechanisms for explaining the pathogenesis of AD are elucidated, the effective supplements or drugs for the intervention of AD are still limited. Recently, impaired autophagy associated with miRNA dysfunction has been reported to involve in aging and aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the activation of autophagy through effectively regulating miRNAs may become a potential target for the prevention or treatment of AD. Mounting evidence from in vitro and in vivo AD models has demonstrated that resveratrol, one of polyphenolic compounds, can exert neuroprotective role in neurodegenerative diseases especially AD. In this review, the regulation of miRNAs and autophagy using resveratrol during the prevention and treatment of AD are systematically discussed, which will be beneficial to establish a target for the direct link between pharmacological intervention and AD in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 928; doi:10.3390/nu9090928
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the
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Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB) intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day), total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day), and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq) than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01); however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.01). We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98), HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87), and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80) in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings) intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving) intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response. Full article
Open AccessArticle Discrepancy between Knowledge and Perceptions of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake Compared with the Omega-3 Index
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 930; doi:10.3390/nu9090930
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Little is known about the relationship between perceptions of nutrient adequacy and biomarkers of nutrition status. This cross-sectional study of U.S. and German adults (n = 200; 18–80 years) compared dietary practices, knowledge, and beliefs of omega-3 fatty acids (O3-FA) with the
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Little is known about the relationship between perceptions of nutrient adequacy and biomarkers of nutrition status. This cross-sectional study of U.S. and German adults (n = 200; 18–80 years) compared dietary practices, knowledge, and beliefs of omega-3 fatty acids (O3-FA) with the omega-3 index (O3-I), an erythrocyte-based biomarker associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. More than half of adults believed that O3-FAs are beneficial for heart and brain health and could correctly identify the food sources of O3-FA. However, the mean O3-I in the U.S. (4.3%) and Germany (5.5%) puts the majority of adults sampled (99%) in intermediate or high CVD-risk categories. More Americans were considered at high CVD-risk (40%) when compared with Germans (10%). In the U.S., but not Germany, women had a significantly higher O3-I than men (4.8% vs. 3.8%, p < 0.001). In the intermediate CVD-risk group, about one-third of adults in both countries (30% in the U.S. and 27% in Germany) believed their diet was adequate in O3-FA. Notably, mean O3-I concentrations did not significantly differ with dietary perceptions of adequacy. More adults in Germany (26%) than in the U.S. (10%) believed that dietary supplements are needed to achieve a balanced diet. In spite of adequate knowledge about food sources and a consistent belief that O3-FA are important for health, very few participants had O3-I concentrations in the range for CVD protection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ginseng Extract G115 Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Depression in Mice by Increasing Brain BDNF Levels
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 931; doi:10.3390/nu9090931
Received: 16 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
The decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported in alcohol use disorder and major depression. The effective treatment of these comorbid diseases remains undiscovered. Nutraceutical products are therefore proposed as an alternative approach to overcome this challenge. Ginseng extract G115, the
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The decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported in alcohol use disorder and major depression. The effective treatment of these comorbid diseases remains undiscovered. Nutraceutical products are therefore proposed as an alternative approach to overcome this challenge. Ginseng extract G115, the standardized extract of Panax ginseng, is a widely-used nutraceutical that is beneficial for various central nervous system disorders. This study aimed to determine the antidepressant effect of ginseng extract G115 in ethanol-treated mice models. Mice received either water, amitriptyline, or various doses of G115 (p.o.) followed by water or ethanol (i.p.) for 8 days. The antidepressant activity was evaluated using forced swimming test. BDNF levels were measured from hippocampal and prefrontal cortex tissues. The results demonstrated that the increase of immobility time in depressant mice induced by ethanol was reversed by both G115 and amitriptyline treatment. A significant increase of BDNF levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was observed in ethanol-treated mice receiving G115. Taken together, this study provides scientific information on the use of G115 as an antidepressant that could be further used as a dietary supplement in comorbid alcohol use and major depressive disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Sources of High Sodium Intake in Turkey: SALTURK II
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 933; doi:10.3390/nu9090933
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in
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Previous research has shown daily salt intakes in Turkey to be far above the recommended limits. Knowing the sources of dietary salt could form a basis for preventive strategies aimed towards salt reduction. This study aimed to investigate dietary sources of salt in Turkey. A sub-group (n = 657) was selected from the PatenT2 study population, which represented the urban and rural areas of 4 major cities (Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, and Konya). A questionnaire inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, medical histories, detailed histories of diet, and salt consumption was completed. Participants were asked to collect a 24-h urine sample and to record their food intake (dietary recall) on the same day. Of 925 participants selected, 657 (71%) provided accurate 24-h urine collections, based on creatinine excretion data. The mean daily 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 252.0 ± 92.2 mmol/day, equal to daily salt intake of 14.8 ± 5.4 g. Of the 657 participants with accurate 24-h urine collections, 464 (70%) provided fully completed dietary recalls. Among these 464 participants, there was a significant difference between the 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based salt intake estimation (14.5 ± 5.1 g/day) and the dietary recall-based salt intake estimation (12.0 ± 7.0 g/day) (p < 0.001). On the other hand, a positive correlation was obtained between the dietary recall-based daily salt intake and 24-h urinary sodium excretion-based daily salt intake (r = 0.277, p < 0.001). Bread was the main source of salt (34%) followed by salt added during cooking and preparing food before serving (30%), salt from various processed foods (21%), and salt added at the table during food consumption (11%). Conclusively, this study confirmed a very high salt intake of the adult population in four major cities in Turkey. The present findings support the emerging salt reduction strategy in Turkey by promoting lower salt content in baked bread, and less salt use in habitual food preparation and during food consumption in the home. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Cholesterol in the Elderly Chinese Population: An Analysis of CNHS 2010–2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 934; doi:10.3390/nu9090934
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
Dietary cholesterol intake increased dramatically over the past two decades in the elderly Chinese population. However, the nationwide dietary cholesterol intake and its related factors seldom been investigated. Based on data from 16,594 participants aged 60 years or older (49.0% male, 54.8% urban
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Dietary cholesterol intake increased dramatically over the past two decades in the elderly Chinese population. However, the nationwide dietary cholesterol intake and its related factors seldom been investigated. Based on data from 16,594 participants aged 60 years or older (49.0% male, 54.8% urban residents) from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNHS) 2010–2012, we aimed to describe the intake of cholesterol and major food contributions, as well as its association with serum cholesterol level and relationship with protein intake. Mean daily cholesterol intake for all participants was 217.4 mg, the mean cholesterol intakes in urban and rural areas were 264.0 mg and 168.8 mg, respectively. Cholesterol intake levels varied by age, gender, BMI and region (p < 0.001). In addition, the proportion of all participants who consumed greater than 300 mg of cholesterol per day was 26.6%. Eggs, red meats, and seafood were the top three food sources and their contributions to total daily cholesterol intake were 57.7%, 24.0% and 10.9% respectively. Serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were related to dietary cholesterol intake, with each 100 mg increase in dietary cholesterol intake apparently leading to a 0.035 mmol/L (p = 0.001) increase in serum TC and a 0.038 mmol/L (p < 0.001) increase in LDL-C. The partial correlation coefficients between dietary cholesterol and total protein, high-quality protein, intake of protein per kilogram body weight (BW), and high-quality protein percentage were 0.538, 0.580, 0.426, and 0.548, respectively, after adjusting for age, gender, and energy, fat and carbohydrate intakes (p < 0.001). In conclusion, there was a substantial urban-rural difference in cholesterol intake. Eggs and red meat were the main sources of dietary cholesterol intake. Serum TC and LDL-C were associated with dietary cholesterol and the response was linear. Dietary cholesterol intake was closely related to the intake of high-quality protein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Prenatal Folic Acid Supplementation Programs Offspring Lipid Metabolism by Aberrant DNA Methylation in Hepatic ATGL and Adipose LPL in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 935; doi:10.3390/nu9090935
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
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Abstract
The effects of maternal prenatal folic acid supplementation (FAS) on offspring lipid metabolism in adulthood remains unclear, although prenatal FAS is compulsively suggested in many countries. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with control (CON) or FAS diets before and during pregnancy. Male offspring
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The effects of maternal prenatal folic acid supplementation (FAS) on offspring lipid metabolism in adulthood remains unclear, although prenatal FAS is compulsively suggested in many countries. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with control (CON) or FAS diets before and during pregnancy. Male offspring of CON and FAS dams were further divided into two groups at seven weeks for CON and high-fat (HF) diet interventions for eight weeks in adulthood (n = 10). The interactive effects of maternal prenatal FAS and offspring HF in adulthood on lipid metabolism and DNA methylation of genes involved in lipids metabolism were assessed. The male offspring of FAS dams had elevated serum and liver triglyceride level when fed with HF compared to the male offspring of CON dams. The mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic ATGL and adipose LPL were significantly decreased in offspring of FAS dams than in offspring of CON dams. Furthermore, maternal prenatal FAS resulted in elevated DNA methylation levels in the promoter and first exon region of hepatic ATGL and adipose LPL in offspring. Maternal FAS exacerbated the adverse effects of HF on lipid metabolism in offspring through inducing aberrant DNA methylation levels of hepatic ATGL and adipose LPL. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication A Research Communication Brief: Gluten Analysis in Beef Samples Collected Using a Rigorous, Nationally Representative Sampling Protocol Confirms That Grain-Finished Beef Is Naturally Gluten-Free
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 936; doi:10.3390/nu9090936
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
Knowing whether or not a food contains gluten is vital for the growing number of individuals with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Questions have recently been raised about whether beef from conventionally-raised, grain-finished cattle may contain gluten. To date, basic principles of
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Knowing whether or not a food contains gluten is vital for the growing number of individuals with celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Questions have recently been raised about whether beef from conventionally-raised, grain-finished cattle may contain gluten. To date, basic principles of ruminant digestion have been cited in support of the prevailing expert opinion that beef is inherently gluten-free. For this study, gluten analysis was conducted in beef samples collected using a rigorous nationally representative sampling protocol to determine whether gluten was present. The findings of our research uphold the understanding of the principles of gluten digestion in beef cattle and corroborate recommendations that recognize beef as a naturally gluten-free food. Full article
Open AccessArticle Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) Induced Macrophages Activation through GPR120-Mediated Raf-ERK1/2-IKKβ-NF-κB p65 Signaling Pathways
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 937; doi:10.3390/nu9090937
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
Objectives: To investigate the immunomodulatory effect and molecular mechanisms of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, a typical kind of n-3PUFAs) on RAW264.7 cells. Methods: A variety of research methods, including the RAW264.7 cells culture, cell proliferation assays, morphologic observations, measurements of NO production, cytokine assays,
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Objectives: To investigate the immunomodulatory effect and molecular mechanisms of Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, a typical kind of n-3PUFAs) on RAW264.7 cells. Methods: A variety of research methods, including the RAW264.7 cells culture, cell proliferation assays, morphologic observations, measurements of NO production, cytokine assays, nuclear protein extractions, western blot analyses and NF-κB p65 immunofluorescence assays were used in this study. Results: The results showed that EPA could increase the proliferation index and enhance the release of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. Western blotting results revealed that the protein level of GPR120 increased significantly in RAW264.7 cells after EPA treatment. Meanwhile, EPA elevated the phosphorylation status of Raf, which may act as an upstream regulator of EPA-induced phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, the phosphorylated ERK1/2 may then promote IKKβ in endochylema and translocate the NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus, thus regulating the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytokines. Conclusions: EPA (0.6–3.0 μmol) activates RAW264.7 cells through GPR120-mediated Raf-ERK1/2-IKKβ-NF-κB p65 signaling pathways. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Red Meat and Flavonoid Consumption on Cancer Prevention: The Korean Cancer Screening Examination Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 938; doi:10.3390/nu9090938
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 5 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
Markedly increased red meat consumption is a cancer risk factor, while dietary flavonoids may help prevent the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of red meat and flavonoid consumption with cancer risk, based on data from 8024 subjects,
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Markedly increased red meat consumption is a cancer risk factor, while dietary flavonoids may help prevent the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of red meat and flavonoid consumption with cancer risk, based on data from 8024 subjects, drawn from the 2004–2008 Cancer Screening Examination Cohort of the Korean National Cancer Center. Hazard ratios (HRs) were obtained by using a Cox proportional hazard model. During the mean follow-up period of 10.1 years, 443 cases were newly diagnosed with cancer. After adjusting for age, there was a significant correlation between cancer risk and the daily intake of ≥43 g of red meat per day (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01, 1.71; p = 0.045), and total flavonoid intake tended to decrease cancer risk (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.49, 0.99; highest vs. lowest quartile; p-trend = 0.073) in men. Following multivariable adjustment, there were no statistically significant associations between flavonoid intake and overall cancer risk in individuals with high levels of red meat intake. Men with low daily red meat intake exhibited an inverse association between flavonoid consumption and cancer incidence (HR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21, 0.80; highest vs. lowest; p-trend = 0.017). Additional research is necessary to clarify the effects of flavonoid consumption on specific cancer incidence, relative to daily red meat intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Salt Use Behaviours of Ghanaians and South Africans: A Comparative Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 939; doi:10.3390/nu9090939
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Salt consumption is high in Africa and the continent also shares the greatest burden of hypertension. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviours (KAB) amongst adults from two African countries—Ghana and South Africa—which have distributed different public health messages related to
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Salt consumption is high in Africa and the continent also shares the greatest burden of hypertension. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviours (KAB) amongst adults from two African countries—Ghana and South Africa—which have distributed different public health messages related to salt. KAB was assessed in the multinational longitudinal World Health Organisation (WHO) study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-SAGE) Wave 2 (2014–2015). Respondents were randomly selected across both countries—Ghana (n = 6746; mean age 58 years old; SD 17; 41% men; 31% hypertensive) and South Africa (n = 3776, mean age 54 years old; SD 17; 32% men; 45% hypertensive). South Africans were more likely than Ghanaians to add salt to food at the table (OR 4.80, CI 4.071–5.611, p < 0.001) but less likely to add salt to food during cooking (OR 0.16, CI 0.130–0.197, p < 0.001). South Africans were also less likely to take action to control their salt intake (OR 0.436, CI 0.379–0.488, p < 0.001). Considering the various salt reduction initiatives of South Africa that have been largely absent in Ghana, this study supports additional efforts to raise consumer awareness on discretionary salt use and behaviour change in both countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
Open AccessArticle The Satiating Properties of Pork are not Affected by Cooking Methods, Sousvide Holding Time or Mincing in Healthy Men—A Randomized Cross-Over Meal Test Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 941; doi:10.3390/nu9090941
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
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Abstract
Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and
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Low temperature long time (LTLT) sous-vide cooking may modify meat proteins in a way that could promote satiety. We investigated the effects of (1) cooking method (LTLT 58 °C vs. oven 160 °C), (2) LTLT holding time (17 h vs. 72 min), and (3) pork structure, LTLT 58 °C for 17 h (minced vs. roast) on appetite regulation and in vitro protein digestibility. In a cross-over study, 37 healthy men consumed four meals containing pork: LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 72 min; LTLT-cooked roast, 58 °C, 17 h; and, oven-cooked roast, 160 °C to a core temperature of 58 °C and LTLT-cooked minced patties, 58 °C, 17 h. Ad libitum energy intake (EI) after three hours was the primary endpoint. Moreover, subjective appetite sensations were assessed. Protein digestibility was determined in an in vitro simulated digestion model. Ad libitum EI did not differ between the meals. Furthermore, appetite ratings were not clearly affected. LTLT cooking for 72 min increased the proteolytic rate in the early gastric phase during digestion as compared to LTLT cooking for 17 h or oven cooking. In conclusion, LTLT cooking, LTLT holding time, and pork structure did not affect ad libitum EI. However, LTLT cooking at 58 °C for 72 min seemed to enhance in vitro protein digestibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Food Consumption Patterns among U.S. Children from Birth to 23 Months of Age, 2009–2014
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 942; doi:10.3390/nu9090942
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
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Abstract
Early dietary patterns can have long-term health consequences. This study describes food consumption patterns among US children ≤23 months. We used one 24 h dietary recall from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 to estimate the percentage of children ≤23 months
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Early dietary patterns can have long-term health consequences. This study describes food consumption patterns among US children ≤23 months. We used one 24 h dietary recall from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 to estimate the percentage of children ≤23 months who consumed selected food/beverage categories on any given day by age and race/Hispanic origin. Among 0 to 5 month olds, 42.9% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 37.0%, 49.1%) consumed breast milk, with non-Hispanic blacks less likely (21.2%, 95% CI: 13.2%, 32.2%) compared with non-Hispanic whites (49.0%, 95% CI: 39.0%, 59.1%) (p < 0.001). The percentage of children consuming vegetables was 57.4%, 48.2%, and 45.1% for ages 6 to 11, 12 to 18 and 19 to 23 months, respectively (p < 0.01 for trend). The percentage of children consuming sugar-sweetened beverages was 6.6%, 31.8% and 38.3% for ages 6 to 11, 12 to 18 and 19 to 23 months, respectively (p < 0.01 for trend). Among children aged ≥6 months, lower percentages of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic children consumed vegetables, and higher percentages consumed sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% juice compared with non-Hispanic white children, although differences were not always statistically significant. Compared with children in the second year of life, a higher percentage of children 6 to 11 months of age consumed vegetables and a lower percentage consumed 100% juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks, or sweets; with differences by race/Hispanic origin. These data may be relevant to the upcoming 2020–2025 federal dietary guidelines. Full article
Open AccessArticle Increases in Alcohol Intakes Are Concurrent with Higher Energy Intakes: Trends in Alcohol Consumption in Australian National Surveys from 1983, 1995 and 2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 944; doi:10.3390/nu9090944
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
This research aimed to provide the first assessment of the contribution of alcohol to Australian adults’ diets over time and determine if people reporting alcohol had higher total dietary energy intakes. Secondary analyses of cross-sectional national nutrition surveys from 1983, 1995, and 2011/12
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This research aimed to provide the first assessment of the contribution of alcohol to Australian adults’ diets over time and determine if people reporting alcohol had higher total dietary energy intakes. Secondary analyses of cross-sectional national nutrition surveys from 1983, 1995, and 2011/12 for adults 18 years (n = 26,675) and over were conducted. Alcoholic beverage intake and diet were assessed using 24-h recalls. The proportion of participants reporting alcohol consumption declined over time and in 1983, 1995, and 2011/12 was 52.0%, 44.2%, and 39.8%, respectively, for men (p < 0.001) and 31.6%, 25.7%, and 25.7%, respectively, for women (p < 0.001). A decline in alcohol intake was seen between 1983 and 2012 for all subpopulations, except for women aged over 45 years, for whom alcohol intake increased. Energy intake was higher for participants reporting alcohol intake and the mean difference (SD) in energy intake for those reporting alcohol versus non-consumers was +1514 kJ (462) for men and +1227 kJ (424) for women. Consistent with apparent consumption data, reported alcohol intake for the total population decreased over time. As those reporting alcohol had much higher energy intakes than non-consumers, promoting alcohol intakes consistent with national recommendations may have important implications for the prevention of obesity, particularly for middle-aged women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Sufficiency of Canadian Children Did Not Improve Following the 2010 Revision of the Dietary Guidelines That Recommend Higher Intake of Vitamin D: An Analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 945; doi:10.3390/nu9090945
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
In 2010, the dietary guidelines for vitamin D for Canadians and Americans aged 1–70 years were revised upward. It is unknown whether the vitamin D status of Canadian children improved after 2010. We compared the prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D
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In 2010, the dietary guidelines for vitamin D for Canadians and Americans aged 1–70 years were revised upward. It is unknown whether the vitamin D status of Canadian children improved after 2010. We compared the prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration of ≥50 nmol/L), 25(OH)D concentration and the frequency of consuming vitamin D-rich foods among children aged 6–18 years-old using data from the nationally representative 2007/2009 and 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Surveys. Associations of sociodemographic, anthropometric, seasonal, and regional variables with achieving vitamin D sufficiency, 25(OH)D concentration, and consumption of vitamin D-rich foods were assessed using multiple logistic and linear regression models. 79% and 68% of children in 2007/2009 and 2012/2013 respectively, were vitamin D sufficient. The main dietary source of vitamin D was milk. Between 2007/2009 and 2012/2013, the frequency of milk and fish consumption declined, but egg and red meat consumption was unchanged. Age, income, weight status, season and ethnicity were associated with 25(OH)D concentration and vitamin D sufficiency. Vitamin D status declined after the upward revision of dietary guidelines for vitamin D, consequently, dietary intake was inadequate to meet sufficiency. Public health initiatives to promote vitamin D-rich foods and supplementation for Canadian children are needed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of Age and Race on Outcomes of a Program to Prevent Excess Weight Gain and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 947; doi:10.3390/nu9090947
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain and reduces loss-of-control (LOC)-eating in adults. However, IPT was not superior to health-education (HE) for preventing excess weight gain and reducing LOC-eating over 1-year in adolescent girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders. Limited
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Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain and reduces loss-of-control (LOC)-eating in adults. However, IPT was not superior to health-education (HE) for preventing excess weight gain and reducing LOC-eating over 1-year in adolescent girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders. Limited data suggest that older and non-White youth may be especially responsive to IPT. In secondary analyses, we examined if age or race moderated weight and LOC-eating outcomes. The 113 participants (12–17 years; 56.6% White) from the original trial were re-contacted 3 years later for assessment. At baseline and follow-up visits through 3 years, we assessed BMI, adiposity by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and LOC-eating presence. In linear mixed models, baseline age moderated 3-year BMI outcome; older girls in IPT had the lowest 3-year BMI gain compared to younger girls in IPT and all girls in HE, p = 0.04. A similar pattern was observed for adiposity. Race moderated 3-year LOC-eating; non-White girls in IPT were most likely to abstain from LOC-eating at 3 years compared to all other girls, p = 0.04. This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests future studies should determine if IPT is especially efficacious at reducing LOC-eating in older, non-White adolescents. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemopreventive Potential of Ethanolic Extracts of Luobuma Leaves (Apocynum venetum L.) in Androgen Insensitive Prostate Cancer
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 948; doi:10.3390/nu9090948
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Luobuma (Apocynum venetum L. (AVL)) is a popular beverage in Asia and has been reportedly to be associated with the bioactivities such as cardiotonic, diuretic, antioxidative, and antihypertensive. However, its biofunction as chemoprevention activity is seldom addressed. Herein, we aimed to characterize
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Luobuma (Apocynum venetum L. (AVL)) is a popular beverage in Asia and has been reportedly to be associated with the bioactivities such as cardiotonic, diuretic, antioxidative, and antihypertensive. However, its biofunction as chemoprevention activity is seldom addressed. Herein, we aimed to characterize the anti-androgen-insensitive-prostate-cancer (anti-AIPC) bioactive compounds of Luobuma, and to investigate the associated molecular mechanisms. Activity-guided-fractionation (antioxidative activity and cell survivability) of Luobuma ethanolic extracts was performed to isolate and characterize the major bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Plant sterols (lupeol, stigamasterol and β-sitosterol) and polyphenolics (isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin) were identified. Lupeol, a triterpene found in the fraction (F8) eluted by 10% ethyl acetate/90% hexane and accounted for 19.3% (w/w) of F8, inhibited the proliferation of PC3 cells. Both lupeol and F8 induced G2/M arrest, inhibition of β-catenin signaling, regulation of apoptotic signal molecules (cytochrome c, Bcl-2, P53, and caspase 3 and 8), and suppression DNA repair enzyme expression (Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG)). To our knowledge, our study is the first report that lupeol inhibited the expression of UNG to elicit the cytotoxicity against androgen-insensitive-prostate-cancer cells. Collectively, Luobuma, which contains several antitumor bioactive compounds, holds the potential to be a dietary chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Strawberries Improve Pain and Inflammation in Obese Adults with Radiographic Evidence of Knee Osteoarthritis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 949; doi:10.3390/nu9090949
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is a significant public health burden in U.S. adults. Among its many risk factors, obesity is a key player, causing inflammation, pain, impaired joint function, and reduced quality of life. Dietary polyphenols and other bioactive
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Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is a significant public health burden in U.S. adults. Among its many risk factors, obesity is a key player, causing inflammation, pain, impaired joint function, and reduced quality of life. Dietary polyphenols and other bioactive compounds in berries, curcumin, and tea have shown effects in ameliorating pain and inflammation in OA, but few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary strawberries on pain, markers of inflammation, and quality of life indicators in obese adults with OA of the knee. In a randomized, double-blind cross-over trial, adults with radiographic evidence of knee OA (n = 17; body mass index (BMI): (mean ± SD) 39.1 ± 1.5; age (years): 57 ± 7) were randomized to a reconstituted freeze-dried strawberry beverage (50 g/day) or control beverage daily, each for 12 weeks, separated by a 2-week washout phase (total duration, 26 weeks). Blood draws and assessments of pain and quality of life indicators were conducted using the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), Measures of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP), and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) questionnaires, which were completed at baseline and at weeks 12, 14, and 26 of the study. Among the serum biomarkers of inflammation and cartilage degradation, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 were significantly decreased after strawberry vs. control treatment (all p < 0.05). Strawberry supplementation also significantly reduced constant, intermittent, and total pain as evaluated by the ICOAP questionnaire as well as the HAQ-DI scores (all p < 0.05). No effects of treatment were noted on serum C-reactive protein (CRP), nitrite, glucose, and lipid profiles. Dietary strawberries may have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in obese adults with established knee OA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Coffee Consumption and Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Liver Cancer: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 950; doi:10.3390/nu9090950
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort and case-control studies regarding the association between coffee intake and biliary tract cancer (BTC) and liver cancer risk. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases from
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Background: A meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort and case-control studies regarding the association between coffee intake and biliary tract cancer (BTC) and liver cancer risk. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases from the earliest available online indexing year to March 2017. The dose–response relationship was assessed by a restricted cubic spline model and multivariate random-effect meta-regression. A stratified and subgroup analysis by smoking status and hepatitis was performed to identify potential confounding factors. Results: We identified five studies on BTC risk and 13 on liver cancer risk eligible for meta-analysis. A linear dose–response meta-analysis did not show a significant association between coffee consumption and BTC risk. However, there was evidence of inverse correlation between coffee consumption and liver cancer risk. The association was consistent throughout the various potential confounding factors explored including smoking status, hepatitis, etc. Increasing coffee consumption by one cup per day was associated with a 15% reduction in liver cancer risk (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88). Conclusions: The findings suggest that increased coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of liver cancer, but not BTC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Urinary Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio Tracks the Changes in Salt Intake during an Experimental Feeding Study Using Standardized Low-Salt and High-Salt Meals among Healthy Japanese Volunteers
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 951; doi:10.3390/nu9090951
Received: 6 June 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
The Na/K ratio is considered to be a useful index, the monitoring of which allows an effective Na reduction and K increase, because practical methods (self-monitoring devices and reliable individual estimates from spot urine) are available for assessing these levels in individuals. An
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The Na/K ratio is considered to be a useful index, the monitoring of which allows an effective Na reduction and K increase, because practical methods (self-monitoring devices and reliable individual estimates from spot urine) are available for assessing these levels in individuals. An intervention trial for lowering the Na/K ratio has demonstrated that a reduction of the Na/K ratio mainly involved Na reduction, with only a small change in K. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between dietary Na intake and the urinary Na/K molar ratio, using standardized low- and high-salt diets, with an equal dietary K intake, to determine the corresponding Na/K ratio. Fourteen healthy young adult volunteers ingested low-salt (3 g salt per day) and high-salt (20 g salt per day) meals for seven days each. Using a portable urinary Na/K meter, participants measured their spot urine at each voiding, and 24-h urine was collected on the last day of each diet period. On the last day of the unrestricted, low-salt, and high-salt diet periods, the group averages of the 24-h urine Na/K ratio were 4.2, 1.0, and 6.9, while the group averages of the daily mean spot urine Na/K ratio were 4.2, 1.1, and 6.6, respectively. The urinary Na/K ratio tracked changes in dietary salt intake, and reached a plateau approximately three days after each change in diet. Frequent monitoring of the spot urine Na/K ratio may help individuals adhere to an appropriate dietary Na intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Average Sodium Content of Prepacked Foods in Slovenia during 2011–2015
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 952; doi:10.3390/nu9090952
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
A voluntary gradual reduction in the salt content of processed foods was proposed Slovenia in 2010. Our objective was to determine the sodium content of prepacked foods in 2015 and to compare these results with data from 2011. Labelled sodium content and 12-month
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A voluntary gradual reduction in the salt content of processed foods was proposed Slovenia in 2010. Our objective was to determine the sodium content of prepacked foods in 2015 and to compare these results with data from 2011. Labelled sodium content and 12-month sales data were collected for prepacked foods (N = 5759) from major food stores in Slovenia. The average and sales-weighted sodium content, as well as the share in total sodium sales (STSS) were calculated for different food category levels, particularly focusing on processed meat and derivatives (STSS: 13.1%; 904 mg Na/100 g), bread (9.1%; 546 mg), cheese (5.1%; 524 mg), and ready-to-eat meals (2.2%; 510 mg). Reduced sale-weighted sodium content was observed in cheese (57%), a neutral trend was observed in processed meat and derivatives (99%) and bread (100%), and an increase in sodium content was found in ready meals (112%). Similar trends were observed for average sodium levels, but the difference was significant only in the case of ready meals. No statistically significant changes were observed for the matched products, although about one-third of the matched products had been reformulated by lowering the sodium level by more than 3.8%. Additional efforts are needed to ensure salt reduction in processed foods in Slovenia. Such efforts should combine closer collaboration with the food industry, additional consumer education, and setting specific sodium content targets (limits) for key food categories. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Digestion of Two Purple-Fleshed Potato Cultivars on Anthocyanin Composition and Cytotoxicity in Colonic Cancer and Non-Tumorigenic Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 953; doi:10.3390/nu9090953
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
A dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model was used to digest cooked tubers from purple-fleshed Amachi and Leona potato cultivars to study anthocyanin biotransformation in the stomach, small intestine and colonic vessels. Colonic Caco-2 cancer cells and non-tumorigenic colonic CCD-112CoN cells were tested for
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A dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model was used to digest cooked tubers from purple-fleshed Amachi and Leona potato cultivars to study anthocyanin biotransformation in the stomach, small intestine and colonic vessels. Colonic Caco-2 cancer cells and non-tumorigenic colonic CCD-112CoN cells were tested for cytotoxicity and cell viability after 24 h exposure to colonic fecal water (FW) digests (0%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 100% FW in culture media). After 24 h digestion, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 36 and 15 anthocyanin species throughout the GI vessels for Amachi and Leona, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentration was over thirty-fold higher in Amachi compared to Leona digests but seven-fold higher anthocyanin concentrations were noted for Leona versus Amachi in descending colon digests. Leona FW showed greater potency to induce cytotoxicity and decrease viability of Caco-2 cells than observed with FW from Amachi. Amachi FW at 100% caused cytotoxicity in non-tumorigenic cells while FW from Leona showed no effect. The present findings indicate major variations in the pattern of anthocyanin breakdown and release during digestion of purple-fleshed cultivars. The differing microbial anthocyanin metabolite profiles in colonic vessels between cultivars could play a significant role in the impact of FW toxicity on tumor and non-tumorigenic cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Vitamin C Intake is Inversely Associated with Cardiovascular Mortality in a Cohort of Spanish Graduates: the SUN Project
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 954; doi:10.3390/nu9090954
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
Observational studies have found a protective effect of vitamin C on cardiovascular health. However, results are inconsistent, and residual confounding by fiber might be present. The aim of this study was to assess the association of vitamin C with the incidence of cardiovascular
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Observational studies have found a protective effect of vitamin C on cardiovascular health. However, results are inconsistent, and residual confounding by fiber might be present. The aim of this study was to assess the association of vitamin C with the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) while accounting for fiber intake and adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. We followed up 13,421 participants in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (University of Navarra follow-up) (SUN) cohort for a mean time of 11 years. Information was collected at baseline and every two years through mailed questionnaires. Diet was assessed with a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Incident CVD was defined as incident fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction, fatal or non-fatal stroke, or death due to any cardiovascular cause. CVM was defined as death due to cardiovascular causes. Events were confirmed by physicians in the study team after revision of medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the associations of (a) energy-adjusted and (b) fiber-adjusted vitamin C intake with CVD and CVM. We found energy-adjusted vitamin C was inversely associated with CVD and CVM after adjusting for several confounding factors, including fiber from foods other than fruits and vegetables, and adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. On the other hand, when vitamin C was adjusted for total fiber intake using the residuals method, we found a significant inverse association with CVM (HR (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the third tertile compared to the first tertile, 0.30 (0.12–0.72), but not with CVD in the fully adjusted model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Fish and Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 955; doi:10.3390/nu9090955
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
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Abstract
Findings on the association between long-term intake of fish or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) are inconsistent in observational studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to separately examine the associations between fish consumption
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Findings on the association between long-term intake of fish or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) are inconsistent in observational studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to separately examine the associations between fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs with the risk of AF. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Seven prospective cohort studies covering 206,811 participants and 12,913 AF cases were eligible. The summary relative risk of AF for the highest vs. lowest category of fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs was 1.01(95% confidence interval: 0.94–1.09) and 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.09), respectively. These null associations persisted in subgroup and dose-response analyses. There was little evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that neither long-term intake of fish, nor of n-3 PUFAs were significantly associated with lower risk of AF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle Low Docosahexaenoic Acid, Dihomo-Gamma-Linolenic Acid, and Arachidonic Acid Levels Associated with Long-Term Mortality in Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in Different Nutritional Statuses
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 956; doi:10.3390/nu9090956
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
The clinical significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in various nutritional statuses remains unclear. For this study, we enrolled 267 patients with ADHF admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit at Juntendo University hospital between April 2012
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The clinical significance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in various nutritional statuses remains unclear. For this study, we enrolled 267 patients with ADHF admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit at Juntendo University hospital between April 2012 and March 2014. The association between long-term mortality, the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), and levels of PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), and arachidonic acid (AA) was investigated. The median age was 73 (64–82) years, and mortality was 29% (62 patients). The event-free survival rates for all-cause death were higher in patients with high PUFA levels or GNRI than in those with low PUFA levels or GNRI (p < 0.05 for all). In particular, high DGLA in the low-GNRI group and high DHA or AA in the high-GNRI group were associated with high event-free survival (p < 0.05 for all). After accounting for confounding variables, DHA, DGLA, and AA, but not EPA, were associated with long-term mortality (p < 0.01 for all). This study concludes that in patients with ADHF, decreased levels of DHA, DGLA, and AA are independently associated with long-term mortality in the various nutritional statuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Dietary Protein and Gender on Food Reinforcement
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 957; doi:10.3390/nu9090957
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary protein may alter reward-driven eating behavior. However, the link between protein and food reinforcement is not known. We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein alters food reinforcement in healthy adults. In a randomized
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Recent evidence suggests that increasing dietary protein may alter reward-driven eating behavior. However, the link between protein and food reinforcement is not known. We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein alters food reinforcement in healthy adults. In a randomized crossover study, 11 women (age = 25 ± 7 years; Body Mass Index (BMI) = 21 ± 2 kg/m2) and 10 men (age = 22 ± 2 years; BMI = 24 ± 2 kg/m2) consumed normal (15%) and high (30%) protein meals. Food reinforcement was assessed using a computer-based choice task (operant responding with concurrent log2(x) reinforcement schedules) 4 h after lunch. We found that food reinforcement was greater in men than women (p < 0.05) and greater for sweet than savory snack foods (p < 0.02). Gender interacted with dietary protein level (p = 0.03) and snack food type (p < 0.0001). Specifically, we found that increasing dietary protein decreased the reinforcing value of savory foods in women. The reinforcing value for sweet foods did not interact with dietary protein or gender. These results demonstrate the differential effects of dietary protein on the reinforcing value for energy-dense, highly palatable snack foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Paulownia fortunei Flowers Attenuates Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance in Obesity Mice by AMPK Pathway
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 959; doi:10.3390/nu9090959
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 1 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
The flavonoid-rich extract from Paulownia fortunei flowers (EPF) has been reported to prevent obesity and other lipid metabolism disease. However, the mechanism of its protective effects is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the
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The flavonoid-rich extract from Paulownia fortunei flowers (EPF) has been reported to prevent obesity and other lipid metabolism disease. However, the mechanism of its protective effects is not yet clear. The objective of this study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of EPF in obese mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male h ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing the EPF (50 or 100 mg/kg) for eight weeks. EPF reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in livers and levels of lipid, glucose and insulin in plasma as well as reduced insulin resistance as compared with the HFD group. EPF significantly decreased serum aminotransferase activity of the HFD group. We observed that EPF administration significantly increased the level of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and prevented fat deposits in livers and HepG2 cells, but these effects were blocked by compound C (an AMPK inhibitor). The protective effects of EPF were probably associated with the decrease in HMGCR, SREBP-1c and FAS expressions and the increase in CPT1 and phosphor-IRS-1 expressions. Our results suggest that EPF might be a potential natural candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations induced by HFD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Iodine Intakes of Victorian Schoolchildren Measured Using 24-h Urinary Iodine Excretion
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 961; doi:10.3390/nu9090961
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE
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Mandatory fortification of bread with iodized salt was introduced in Australia in 2009, and studies using spot urine collections conducted post fortification indicate that Australian schoolchildren are now replete. However an accurate estimate of daily iodine intake utilizing 24-h urinary iodine excretion (UIE μg/day) has not been reported and compared to the estimated average requirement (EAR). This study aimed to assess daily total iodine intake and status of a sample of primary schoolchildren using 24-h urine samples. Victorian primary school children provided 24-h urine samples between 2011 and 2013, from which urinary iodine concentration (UIC, μg/L) and total iodine excretion (UIE, μg/day) as an estimate of intake was determined. Valid 24-h urine samples were provided by 650 children, mean (SD) age 9.3 (1.8) years (n = 359 boys). The mean UIE of 4–8 and 9–13 year olds was 94 (48) and 111 (57) μg/24-h, respectively, with 29% and 26% having a UIE below the age-specific EAR. The median (IQR) UIC was 124 (83,172) μg/L, with 36% of participants having a UIC < 100 μg/L. This convenience sample of Victorian schoolchildren were found to be iodine replete, based on UIC and estimated iodine intakes derived from 24-h urine collections, confirming the findings of the Australian Health Survey. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Processing Intensity on Immunologically Active Bovine Milk Serum Proteins
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 963; doi:10.3390/nu9090963
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
Consumption of raw cow’s milk instead of industrially processed milk has been reported to protect children from developing asthma, allergies, and respiratory infections. Several heat-sensitive milk serum proteins have been implied in this effect though unbiased assessment of milk proteins in general is
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Consumption of raw cow’s milk instead of industrially processed milk has been reported to protect children from developing asthma, allergies, and respiratory infections. Several heat-sensitive milk serum proteins have been implied in this effect though unbiased assessment of milk proteins in general is missing. The aim of this study was to compare the native milk serum proteome between raw cow’s milk and various industrially applied processing methods, i.e., homogenization, fat separation, pasteurization, ultra-heat treatment (UHT), treatment for extended shelf-life (ESL), and conventional boiling. Each processing method was applied to the same three pools of raw milk. Levels of detectable proteins were quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry following filter aided sample preparation. In total, 364 milk serum proteins were identified. The 140 proteins detectable in 66% of all samples were entered in a hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting proteomics pattern separated mainly as high (boiling, UHT, ESL) versus no/low heat treatment (raw, skimmed, pasteurized). Comparing these two groups revealed 23 individual proteins significantly reduced by heating, e.g., lactoferrin (log2-fold change = −0.37, p = 0.004), lactoperoxidase (log2-fold change = −0.33, p = 0.001), and lactadherin (log2-fold change = −0.22, p = 0.020). The abundance of these heat sensitive proteins found in higher quantity in native cow’s milk compared to heat treated milk, renders them potential candidates for protection from asthma, allergies, and respiratory infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Allergic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle Collecting Evidence to Inform Salt Reduction Policies in Argentina: Identifying Sources of Sodium Intake in Adults from a Population-Based Sample
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 964; doi:10.3390/nu9090964
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF) in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS
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The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF) in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire) to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often) at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories), as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Probiotic Supplementation in Preterm: Feeding Intolerance and Hospital Cost
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 965; doi:10.3390/nu9090965
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
We hypothesized that giving the probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) DSM 17938 to preterm, formula-fed infants would prevent an early traumatic intestinal inflammatory insult modulating intestinal cytokine profile and reducing the onset of feeding intolerance. Newborn were randomly allocated during
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We hypothesized that giving the probiotic strain Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) DSM 17938 to preterm, formula-fed infants would prevent an early traumatic intestinal inflammatory insult modulating intestinal cytokine profile and reducing the onset of feeding intolerance. Newborn were randomly allocated during the first 48 h of life to receive either daily probiotic (108 colony forming units (CFUs) of L. reuteri DSM 17938) or placebo for one month. All the newborns underwent to gastric ultrasound for the measurement of gastric emptying time. Fecal samples were collected for the evaluation of fecal cytokines. Clinical data on feeding intolerance and weight gain were collected. The costs of hospital stays were calculated. The results showed that the newborns receiving L. reuteri DSM 17938 had a significant decrease in the number of days needed to reach full enteral feeding (p < 0.01), days of hospital stay (p < 0.01), and days of antibiotic treatment (p < 0.01). Statistically significant differences were observed in pattern of fecal cytokine profiles. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, was increased in newborns receiving L. reuteri DSM 17938. Pro-inflammatory cytokines: IL-17, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha levels were increased in newborns given placebo. Differences in the gastric emptying and fasting antral area (FAA) were also observed. Our study demonstrates an effective role for L. reuteri DSM 17938 supplementation in preventing feeding intolerance and improving gut motor and immune function development in bottle-fed stable preterm newborns. Another benefit from the use of probiotics is the reducing cost for the Health Care service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
Open AccessArticle The Starvation Symptom Inventory: Development and Psychometric Properties
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 967; doi:10.3390/nu9090967
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Starvation symptoms are common in patients with anorexia nervosa, and according to the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory for eating disorders, they contribute to maintaining the eating disorder psychopathology. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the design and validation
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Background: Starvation symptoms are common in patients with anorexia nervosa, and according to the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural theory for eating disorders, they contribute to maintaining the eating disorder psychopathology. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the design and validation of the Starvation Symptoms Inventory (SSI); a self-report questionnaire that examines the symptoms of starvation in underweight patients with eating disorders. Methods: 150 female patients with anorexia nervosa were recruited, as well as 341 healthy control subjects, 30 not-underweight patients with an eating disorder, and 15 patients with bipolar depressive episodes. The 150 patients completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and the Brief Symptom Inventory. All participants rated their starvation symptoms on a continuous Likert-type scale (0–6), and reported the number of days in which they had experienced them in the previous 28 days. Results: Principal component analysis identified a single-factor, 15-item scale, which demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.91) and test–retest reliability (r = 0.90). The SSI global score was significantly correlated with eating disorder and general psychopathology, demonstrating good convergent validity. SSI scores were significantly higher in the anorexia nervosa sample than in the healthy control, not-underweight eating disorder and bipolar depressive episode samples. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the SSI is a valid self-report questionnaire that may provide important clinical information regarding symptoms of starvation in patients with anorexia nervosa. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation of Food Folate Digestion and Bioavailability of an Oxidation Product of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 969; doi:10.3390/nu9090969
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 26 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Generating bioavailability data from in vivo studies is time-consuming and expensive. In vitro simulation can help to investigate factors influencing bioavailability or facilitate quantifying the impact of such factors. For folates, an efficient deconjugation of polyglutamates to the corresponding monoglutamates is crucial for
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Generating bioavailability data from in vivo studies is time-consuming and expensive. In vitro simulation can help to investigate factors influencing bioavailability or facilitate quantifying the impact of such factors. For folates, an efficient deconjugation of polyglutamates to the corresponding monoglutamates is crucial for bioavailability and highly dependent on the food matrix. Therefore, the bioaccessibility of folates of different foodstuffs was examined using a simulated digestion model with respect to folate stability and the efficiency of deconjugation. For realistic simulated deconjugation, porcine brush border membrane was used during the phase of the simulated digestion in the small intestine. For a better understanding of folate behaviour during digestion, single folate monoglutamates were also investigated with this in vitro digestion model. The results for bioaccessibility were compared with data from a human bioavailability study. They support the idea that both stability and deconjugation have an influence on bioaccessibility and thus on bioavailability. Tetrahydrofolate is probably lost completely or at least to a high extent and the stability of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate depends on the food matrix. Additionally, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can be oxidised to a pyrazino-s-triazine (MeFox), whose absorption in the human intestinal tract was shown tentatively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Hydrolysates and Peptide Fractions Obtained by Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Selected Heat-Treated Edible Insects
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 970; doi:10.3390/nu9090970
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
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Abstract
This study investigated the effect of heat treatment of edible insects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of peptides obtained by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and absorption process thereof. The antioxidant potential of edible insect hydrolysates was determined as free radical-scavenging activity, ion chelating
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This study investigated the effect of heat treatment of edible insects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of peptides obtained by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and absorption process thereof. The antioxidant potential of edible insect hydrolysates was determined as free radical-scavenging activity, ion chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was expressed as lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity. The highest antiradical activity against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) was noted for a peptide fraction from baked cricket Gryllodes sigillatus hydrolysate (IC50 value 10.9 µg/mL) and that against ABTS•+ (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical) was the highest for raw mealworm Tenebrio molitor hydrolysate (inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) 5.3 µg/mL). The peptides obtained from boiled locust Schistocerca gregaria hydrolysate showed the highest Fe2+ chelation ability (IC50 value 2.57 µg/mL); furthermore, the highest reducing power was observed for raw G. sigillatus hydrolysate (0.771). The peptide fraction from a protein preparation from the locust S. gregaria exhibited the most significant lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory activity (IC50 value 3.13 µg/mL and 5.05 µg/mL, respectively). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Protein and Amino Acid Profiles in Relation to Risk of Dysglycemia: Findings from a Prospective Population-Based Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 971; doi:10.3390/nu9090971
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Considering the limited knowledge on the effects of dietary amino acid intake on dysglycemia, we assessed the possible association of dietary protein and amino acid patterns with the risk of pre-diabetes in a prospective population-based study. Participants without diabetes and pre-diabetes (n
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Considering the limited knowledge on the effects of dietary amino acid intake on dysglycemia, we assessed the possible association of dietary protein and amino acid patterns with the risk of pre-diabetes in a prospective population-based study. Participants without diabetes and pre-diabetes (n = 1878) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 5.8 years. Their dietary protein and amino acid intakes were assessed at baseline (2006–2008); demographic, lifestyle, and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and in follow-up examinations. Pre-diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the risk of pre-diabetes across tertiles of dietary protein and amino acid pattern scores. The mean age of the participants (44.9% men) was 38.3 ± 12.7 years at baseline. Three major amino acid patterns were characterized: (1) higher loads of lysine, methionine, valine, aspartic acids, tyrosine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, alanine, histidine, and serine; (2) higher loads of glycine, cysteine, arginine, and tryptophan; and (3) higher loads of proline and glutamic acid. Dietary total protein intake Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.13, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.92–1.38 and HR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.81–1.23, in the second and third tertile, respectively) was not related to the development of pre-diabetes. The highest score of second dietary amino acid pattern tended to be associated with a decreased risk of pre-diabetes (HR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.65–1.01), whereas the third pattern was related to an increased risk in the fully adjusted model (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.02–1.52; p for trend = 0.05). These novel data suggest that the amino acid composition of an individual’s diet may modify their risk of pre-diabetes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Whey, Soy or Leucine Supplementation with 12 Weeks of Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Histological Attributes in College-Aged Males
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 972; doi:10.3390/nu9090972
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU) or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving) on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the
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We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU) or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving) on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the mean (SE); age = 21 ± 1 years, body mass = 79.2 ± 0.3 kg) were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, lipid-, and organoleptically-matched maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 15), LEU (n = 14), whey protein concentrate (WPC, n = 17), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, n = 14), or soy protein concentrate (SPC, n = 15) group. Participants performed whole-body resistance training three days per week for 12 weeks while consuming supplements twice daily. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous (SQ) fat biopsies were obtained at baseline (T1) and ~72 h following the last day of training (T39). Tissue samples were analyzed for changes in type I and II fiber cross sectional area (CSA), non-fiber specific satellite cell count, and SQ adipocyte CSA. On average, all supplement groups including PLA exhibited similar training volumes and experienced statistically similar increases in total body skeletal muscle mass determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (+2.2 kg; time p = 0.024) and type I and II fiber CSA increases (+394 μm2 and +927 μm2; time p < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively). Notably, all groups reported increasing Calorie intakes ~600–800 kcal/day from T1 to T39 (time p < 0.001), and all groups consumed at least 1.1 g/kg/day of protein at T1 and 1.3 g/kg/day at T39. There was a training, but no supplementation, effect regarding the reduction in SQ adipocyte CSA (−210 μm2; time p = 0.001). Interestingly, satellite cell counts within the WPC (p < 0.05) and WPH (p < 0.05) groups were greater at T39 relative to T1. In summary, LEU or protein supplementation (standardized to LEU content) does not provide added benefit in increasing whole-body skeletal muscle mass or strength above PLA following 3 months of training in previously untrained college-aged males that increase Calorie intakes with resistance training and consume above the recommended daily intake of protein throughout training. However, whey protein supplementation increases skeletal muscle satellite cell number in this population, and this phenomena may promote more favorable training adaptations over more prolonged periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessCommunication Polymethoxyflavones: Novel β-Secretase (BACE1) Inhibitors from Citrus Peels
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 973; doi:10.3390/nu9090973
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 4 September 2017
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Abstract
Beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) generation, and is considered as a prime target for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In search of a candidate for AD prevention, our efforts exploring the natural BACE1 inhibitor
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Beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme1 (BACE1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) generation, and is considered as a prime target for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In search of a candidate for AD prevention, our efforts exploring the natural BACE1 inhibitor have led to the finding of nobiletin, tangeretin, and sinensetin—representative compounds of polymethoxyflavones (PMFs). Tangeretin exhibited the strongest BACE1 inhibition (IC50, 4.9 × 10−5 M), followed by nobiletin and sinensetin with IC50 values of 5.9 × 10−5 M and 6.3 × 10−5 M, respectively. In addition, all compounds reacted in a non-competitive manner with the substrate. Docking analysis results for complexes with BACE1 indicated that SER10 and THR232 residues of BACE1 hydrogen bonded with two oxygen atoms of tangeretin, while three additional BACE1 residues (ALA157, VAL336 and THR232) interacted with three oxygen atoms of nobiletin. Furthermore, sinensetin formed four hydrogen bonds through nitrogen atoms of TYR71, LYS75, and TRP76, and an oxygen atom of TYR198. Furthermore, the lowest-energy conformations of the most proposed complexes of sinensetin, nobiletin, and tangeretin with BACE1 were −7.2, −7.0, and −6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that these polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) might be considered as promising BACE1 inhibitory agents that could lower Aβ production in AD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 975; doi:10.3390/nu9090975
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers (n = 133) age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation), randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day) and
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Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers (n = 133) age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation), randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day) and ARA (200 mg/day) supplement (supplement) or a corn oil supplement (control) until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) cognitive and language composites and Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery VMI) at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21–9.00), B (95% CI), p = 0.045) in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10–17.94), p < 0.001) and girls (11.19 (4.69–17.68), p = 0.001). These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle The Development of a Chinese Healthy Eating Index and Its Application in the General Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 977; doi:10.3390/nu9090977
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) based on the updated Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC-2016) and to apply it in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS-2011) to assess diet quality and its association
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The objective of this study was to develop a Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) based on the updated Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC-2016) and to apply it in the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS-2011) to assess diet quality and its association with typical sociodemographic/economic factors. Data from 14,584 participants (≥2 years) from the CHNS-2011, including three 24-h dietary recalls and additional variables, were used to develop the CHEI. The standard portion size was applied to quantify food consumption. The CHEI was designed as a continuous scoring system, comprising 17 components; the maximum total score is 100. The mean, 1st and 99th percentiles of the CHEI score were 52.4, 27.6 and 78.3, respectively. Young and middle-aged adults scored better than the elderly. Diet insufficiency was chiefly manifested in fruits, dairy, whole grains and poultry; diet excess was mainly reflected in red meat, cooking oils and sodium. The CHEI was positively associated with education and urbanization levels; current smokers and unmarried people obtained relative low CHEI scores. Occupation and body mass index (BMI) were also related to the CHEI. Our findings indicate that the CHEI is capable of recognizing differences in diet quality among the Chinese, and it is sensitive to typical sociodemographic/economic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Combination of Wheat Peptides and Fucoidan Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage through Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Pro-Survival Mechanisms
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 978; doi:10.3390/nu9090978
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Gastritis or peptic ulcer is believed to affect about half of people worldwide. Traditional medications can lead to adverse effects, therefore, alternative nutritional strategies are needed to prevent the development of gastric mucosal damage. A novel combination of two food-grade ingredients, wheat peptides
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Gastritis or peptic ulcer is believed to affect about half of people worldwide. Traditional medications can lead to adverse effects, therefore, alternative nutritional strategies are needed to prevent the development of gastric mucosal damage. A novel combination of two food-grade ingredients, wheat peptides and fucoidan (WPF), was prepared to treat male Sprague Dawley rats for 30 days before gastric mucosal damage was induced by oral administration of ethanol. The serum levels of biomarkers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Biomarkers in stomach tissue were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) was used to investigate protein expression by Western blot. WPF could attenuate ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in an inverse dose-dependent manner, with both ulcer index and pathological index improved. WPF increased superoxide dismutase level and decreased malondialdehyde level. WPF also decreased the levels of interleukin-8, platelet-activating factor, and Caspase 3, while increasing the levels of prostaglandin E-2, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and EGF receptor (EGFR). Furthermore, phosphorylation of EGFR and extracellular signal–regulated kinases was induced by WPF in GES-1 cells. In conclusion, the novel combination of wheat peptides and fucoidan attenuated ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-survival mechanisms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sensory Evaluation of Foods with Added Micronutrient Powder (MNP) “Taburia” to Assess Acceptability among Children Aged 6–24 Months and Their Caregivers in Indonesia
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 979; doi:10.3390/nu9090979
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Although it is generally accepted that the addition of micronutrient powders (MNPs) to foods causes no or negligible changes to organoleptic properties, there are anecdotal reports of low acceptability of the MNP (locally known as “Taburia”) distributed in Indonesia. We hypothesized
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Although it is generally accepted that the addition of micronutrient powders (MNPs) to foods causes no or negligible changes to organoleptic properties, there are anecdotal reports of low acceptability of the MNP (locally known as “Taburia”) distributed in Indonesia. We hypothesized that the organoleptic properties of Taburia do not reduce the acceptability of foods if used as recommended. Acceptability of Taburia and a comparison MNP (MixMe™) were evaluated among 232 children aged 6–24 months and their caregivers. Both caregivers’ perceptions of child acceptance, and their own assessments of organoleptic qualities when added to rice porridge or meals commonly consumed by young children, were assessed. Changes to the organoleptic properties of foods mixed with Taburia and comparison MNP were reported by caregivers, even when following preparation instructions. Taburia was found to enhance texture, sweetness, saltiness, and umami taste, but was also perceived as slightly bitter. Ratings for overall appearance and taste did not differ between rice porridge, plain or with Taburia, but the overall taste of Taburia was preferred over comparison MNP (p = 0.012). Meals consumed by children were preferred without the addition of MNP (p < 0.001). We demonstrate that the addition of Taburia to foods, commonly consumed by Indonesian infants and young children, affects organoleptic properties of the foods, even when prepared according to recommendations. However, these changes are unlikely to be the cause of reported adherence problems in Indonesia. This needs to be taken into consideration for product development and communication strategies promoting adherence. Full article
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Open AccessArticle 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 Attenuates TGF-β-Induced Pro-Fibrotic Effects in Human Lung Epithelial Cells through Inhibition of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 980; doi:10.3390/nu9090980
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fibrotic lung disease of persisting lung injury and ineffective wound repair, with poor prognosis. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelia cells is an early event in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is
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Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fibrotic lung disease of persisting lung injury and ineffective wound repair, with poor prognosis. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelia cells is an early event in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is an acknowledged inducer of EMT. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that serum levels of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D were associated with the presence of fibrosis diseases. We investigated whether vitamin D attenuated TGF-β-induced pro-fibrotic effects through inhibiting EMT in human alveolar epithelia A549 cells. A549 cells were cultured with TGF-β alone or in combination with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3). TGF-β increased the expression of the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and Vimentin), and decreased the expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin). 1α,25(OH)2D3 attenuated these TGF-β-induced alterations. Furthermore, the EMT-related transcription factors (Snail and β-catenin) and the extracellular matrix genes (Collagen I and fibronectin) were inhibited by 1α,25(OH)2D3, while the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) was elevated. In addition, 1α,25(OH)2D3 alleviated the cell migration and the invasion abilities in TGF-β-stimulated A549 cells, determined by the scratch wound healing and transwell assays. Our findings suggested that 1α,25(OH)2D3 inhibited the pro-fibrotic phenotype of lung epithelial cells under TGF-β stimulation and provided new clues in the clinical management of pulmonary fibrosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Protein Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 982; doi:10.3390/nu9090982
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Recently, some studies have focused on the relationship between dietary protein intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the conclusions have been inconsistent. Therefore, in this paper, a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies regarding protein consumption and
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Recently, some studies have focused on the relationship between dietary protein intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the conclusions have been inconsistent. Therefore, in this paper, a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies regarding protein consumption and T2DM risk are conducted in order to present the association between them. We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for cohort studies on dietary protein, high-protein food consumption and risk of T2DM, up to July 2017. A summary of relative risks was compiled by the fixed-effect model or random-effect model. Eleven cohort studies regarded protein intake and T2DM (52,637 cases among 483,174 participants). The summary RR and 95% CI (Confidence Interval) of T2DM was 1.12 (1.08–1.17) in all subjects, 1.13 (1.04–1.24) in men, and 1.09 (1.04–1.15) in women for total protein;1.14 (1.09–1.19) in all subjects, 1.23 (1.09–1.38) in men, and 1.11 (1.03–1.19) in women for animal protein; 0.96 (0.88–1.06) in all subjects, 0.98 (0.72–1.34) in men, and 0.92 (0.86–0.98) in women for plant protein. We also compared the association between different food sources of protein and the risk of T2DM. The summary RR (Relative Risk) and 95% CI of T2DM was 1.22 (1.09–1.36) for red meat, 1.39 (1.29–1.49) for processed meat, 1.03 (0.89–1.17) for fish, 1.03 (0.64–1.67) for egg, 0.89 (0.84–0.94) for total dairy products, 0.87 (0.78–0.96) for whole milk, 0.83 (0.70–0.98) for yogurt, 0.74 (0.59–0.93) in women for soy. This meta-analysis shows that total protein and animal protein could increase the risk of T2DM in both males and females, and plant protein decreases the risk of T2DM in females. The association between high-protein food types and T2DM are also different. Red meat and processed meat are risk factors of T2DM, and soy, dairy and dairy products are the protective factors of T2DM. Egg and fish intake are not associated with a decreased risk of T2DM. This research indicates the type of dietary protein and food sources of protein that should be considered for the prevention of diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modelled Cost-Effectiveness of a Package Size Cap and a Kilojoule Reduction Intervention to Reduce Energy Intake from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Australia
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 983; doi:10.3390/nu9090983
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Interventions targeting portion size and energy density of food and beverage products have been identified as a promising approach for obesity prevention. This study modelled the potential cost-effectiveness of: a package size cap on single-serve sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) >375 mL (package
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Interventions targeting portion size and energy density of food and beverage products have been identified as a promising approach for obesity prevention. This study modelled the potential cost-effectiveness of: a package size cap on single-serve sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) >375 mL (package size cap), and product reformulation to reduce energy content of packaged SSBs (energy reduction). The cost-effectiveness of each intervention was modelled for the 2010 Australia population using a multi-state life table Markov model with a lifetime time horizon. Long-term health outcomes were modelled from calculated changes in body mass index to their impact on Health-Adjusted Life Years (HALYs). Intervention costs were estimated from a limited societal perspective. Cost and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. Total intervention costs estimated in AUD 2010 were AUD 210 million. Both interventions resulted in reduced mean body weight (package size cap: 0.12 kg; energy reduction: 0.23 kg); and HALYs gained (package size cap: 73,883; energy reduction: 144,621). Cost offsets were estimated at AUD 750.8 million (package size cap) and AUD 1.4 billion (energy reduction). Cost-effectiveness analyses showed that both interventions were “dominant”, and likely to result in long term cost savings and health benefits. A package size cap and kJ reduction of SSBs are likely to offer excellent “value for money” as obesity prevention measures in Australia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Ameliorative Effects of a Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction on the AGE-RAGE Axis and Hypertension in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 984; doi:10.3390/nu9090984
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
The clinical value of tocotrienols is increasingly appreciated because of the unique therapeutic effects that are not shared by tocopherols. However, their effect on metabolic syndrome is not well-established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm
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The clinical value of tocotrienols is increasingly appreciated because of the unique therapeutic effects that are not shared by tocopherols. However, their effect on metabolic syndrome is not well-established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil in high-fat-diet-treated rats. Male, post-weaning Sprague Dawley rats were provided high-fat (60% kcal) diet for eight weeks followed by a TRF (60 mg/kg) treatment for another four weeks. Physical, metabolic, and histological changes were compared to those on control and high-fat diets respectively. High-fat feeding for eight weeks induced all hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. The TRF reversed systolic and diastolic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic steatosis, impaired antioxidant defense, and myeloperoxidase hyperactivity triggered by the high-fat diet. It also conferred an inhibitory effect on protein glycation to reduce glycated hemoglobin A1c and advanced glycation end products (AGE). This was accompanied by the suppression of the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) expression in the liver. The treatment effects on visceral adiposity, glycemic control, triglyceride level, as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ expression were negligible. To conclude, treatment with a TRF exhibited protective effects on the cardiovascular and liver health in addition to the amelioration of plasma redox imbalance and AGE-RAGE activation. Further investigation as a therapy for metabolic syndrome is therefore worthwhile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Sex and 25(OH)D Deficiency on Metabolic Function in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 985; doi:10.3390/nu9090985
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Both dietary fat and vitamin D deficiency have been linked with increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. While sex differences in disease prevalence and severity are well known, the impact on disease pathogenesis remains unclear. To further explore the
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Both dietary fat and vitamin D deficiency have been linked with increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. While sex differences in disease prevalence and severity are well known, the impact on disease pathogenesis remains unclear. To further explore the effect of these exposures on metabolic function, C57BL/6 male and female mice were weaned onto one of four diets; low fat vitamin D replete, low fat vitamin D deficient, or two high fat diets, one vitamin D replete and one deficient. Visceral fat, hepatic adiposity, and insulin resistance were measured after five and a half weeks. Vitamin D deficiency, independent of dietary fat, increased hepatic fat accumulation in both sexes (p = 0.003), although did not increase hepatic expression of interleukin-6 (p = 0.92) or tumor necrosis factor-α (p = 0.78). Males were observed to have greater insulin resistance (glucose area under the curve: p < 0.001, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance: p = 0.046), and have greater visceral adiposity (p < 0.001), while female mice had greater hepatic fat accumulation (p < 0.001). This study is the first to demonstrate vitamin D deficiency alone can cause hepatic accumulation while also being the first to observe higher liver fat percentages in female mice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the French NutriNet Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 986; doi:10.3390/nu9090986
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Diet appears to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Some dietary patterns (DP) could increase the risk of triggering or worsening IBS symptoms. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between a posteriori derived
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Background: Diet appears to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Some dietary patterns (DP) could increase the risk of triggering or worsening IBS symptoms. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between a posteriori derived DP and IBS in a large French population, the web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort. Methods: Study population included participants of the NutriNet-Santé study who completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria assessing IBS. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify major DPs based on 29 food groups’ consumption. Associations between DP quintiles and IBS were investigated with multivariable logistic regressions. Results: 44,350 participants were included, with 2423 (5.5%) presenting IBS. Three major DP were extracted using PCA, “healthy,” “western,” and “traditional.” After adjustments on confounders, the “western” DP was positively associated with IBS (OR Q5 vs. Q1 = 1.38, 95% CI 1.19–1.61, p trend < 0.0001) and the “traditional” DP was positively associated with IBS in women (OR Q5 vs. Q1 = 1.29 95% CI 1.08–1.54, p trend = 0.001). Conclusions: In this study, a “western” DP—highly correlated with the consumption of fatty and sugary products and snacks—was associated with a moderate increased risk of IBS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Skeletal Muscle Carnosine Content on Fatigue during Repeated Resistance Exercise in Recreationally Active Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 988; doi:10.3390/nu9090988
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Carnosine is a naturally occurring intramuscular dipeptide that is thought to attenuate fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Carnosine content is influenced by various factors, including gender and diet. Despite research reporting that carnosine content is lower in women compared to men and lower in
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Carnosine is a naturally occurring intramuscular dipeptide that is thought to attenuate fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Carnosine content is influenced by various factors, including gender and diet. Despite research reporting that carnosine content is lower in women compared to men and lower in vegetarians compared to omnivores, no investigations have examined carnosine content in women based on dietary protein intake and its effect on muscle fatigue. Twenty recreationally active women were assigned to either a high (HI; n = 5), moderate (MOD; n = 10), or low (LO; n = 5) group based upon intramuscular carnosine content of the vastus lateralis. Each participant underwent two unilateral maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) of the knee extensors separated by an isokinetic exercise protocol consisting of five sets of 50 repeated maximal unilateral contractions. Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze group differences. Percent decline in rate of force development and peak torque (PT) during the MVICs and changes in PT and mean torque during the muscle-fatiguing protocol were lower in HI compared to both MOD and LO. Additionally, absolute and relative dietary protein intake were greater in HI compared to MOD or LO. Results indicated that greater intramuscular carnosine content was reflective of greater dietary protein intake and that individuals with higher carnosine content displayed a greater attenuation of fatigue compared to those with lower carnosine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relationship between the Nutritional Status of Vitamin A per Trimester of Pregnancy with Maternal Anthropometry and Anemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 989; doi:10.3390/nu9090989
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone
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The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A per trimester of pregnancy, as well as to assess its influence on pre-pregnancy BMI, total gestational weight gain (TGWG) and presence of anemia in women who had previously undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). An analytical, longitudinal and retrospective study comprising 30 pregnant women who had previously undergone RYGB was undertaken. In all trimesters of pregnancy, the serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, stages of vitamin A deficiency (VAD), night blindness (NB), anemia and anthropometric variables were assessed. VAD in pregnancy affected 90% of women, 86.7% developed NB and 82.8% had mild VAD. TGWG above/below the recommended range was related to the low serum concentrations of β-carotene (p = 0.045) in the second trimester and women with TGWG above the recommended range showed 100% of inadequacy of this nutrient in the third trimester. Among the pregnant women with anemia, 90.9% had VAD and 86.4% had NB. This study highlights the importance of monitoring the nutritional status of vitamin A in prenatal care, due to its relationship with TGWG and the high percentage of VAD and NB found since the beginning of pregnancy. It also reaffirms the use of the cut-off <1.05 μmol/L for determining VAD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bariatric Surgery)
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Open AccessArticle Tracking Dietary Patterns over 20 Years from Childhood through Adolescence into Young Adulthood: The Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 990; doi:10.3390/nu9090990
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric
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Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8–15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-h recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005, and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, “Vegetarian-style”, “Western-like”, “High-fat, high-protein”, “Mixed”, and “Snack” DPs were derived at baseline. Applied DP scores for all annual measurements were calculated using factor loading of baseline DPs and energy-adjusted food group intakes. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations. The tracking coefficient represents correlation between baseline dietary pattern scores and all other follow-up dietary pattern scores. We found a moderate tracking for the “Vegetarian-style” (β = 0.44, p < 0.001) and “High-fat, high-protein” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001) DPs in females and “Vegetarian-style” DP (β = 0.30, p < 0.001) in males. The remaining DPs showed poor-to-fair tracking in both sexes. No tracking for “Western-like” DP in females was observed. Assessing overall change in DP scores from childhood to young adulthood showed an increasing trend in adherence to “Vegetarian-style” DP and decreasing trend in adherence to “High-fat, high-protein” DP by age in both sexes (p < 0.001), while “Western-like” and “Mixed” DP scores increased only in males (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that healthy dietary habits established during childhood and adolescence moderately continue into adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Cinnamon Consumption on Glycemic Indicators, Advanced Glycation End Products, and Antioxidant Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 991; doi:10.3390/nu9090991
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of a daily intake of three grams of cinnamon over eight weeks on glycemic indicators, advanced glycation end products, and antioxidant status in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a double-blind, randomized,
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The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of a daily intake of three grams of cinnamon over eight weeks on glycemic indicators, advanced glycation end products, and antioxidant status in patients with type 2 diabetes. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial study, 44 patients with type 2 diabetes, aged 57 ± 8 years, were randomly assigned to take either a three g/day cinnamon supplement (n = 22) or a placebo (n = 22) for eight weeks. We measured the fasting blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobinbA1c, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), carboxymethyl lysine, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde levels at the beginning and the end of the study. Thirty-nine patients (20 in the intervention group and 19 in the control group) completed the study. After an eight-week intervention, changes in the level of fasting blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobinbA1c, HOMA-IR, carboxymethyl lysine, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde were not significant in either group, nor were any significant differences between groups observed in these glycemic and inflammatory indicators at the end of the intervention. Our study revealed that cinnamon supplementation had no significant effects on glycemic and inflammatory indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Emotion-Based Cognition in Mice Is Differentially Influenced by Dose and Chemical Form of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 993; doi:10.3390/nu9090993
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major constituent, and primary omega-3 fatty acid, in the brain. Evidence suggests that DHA consumption may promote cognitive functioning and prevent cognitive decline, and these effects may be particularly relevant in the context of fear or stress. However,
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Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major constituent, and primary omega-3 fatty acid, in the brain. Evidence suggests that DHA consumption may promote cognitive functioning and prevent cognitive decline, and these effects may be particularly relevant in the context of fear or stress. However, the potency and efficacy of dietary DHA may depend on the form of DHA (e.g., phospholipid; PL vs. triglyceride; TG). In this study, we compared in mice the effects of consuming PL and TG forms of DHA on associative, avoidance (fear) based learning and memory. Diets consisted of either no DHA or 1%, 2%, and 4% PL- or TG-DHA. After 4 weeks on the test diets (n = 12/group), we used the 3-day passive avoidance (PA) and elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine fear and fear-associated learning and memory. We found a significant (p < 0.05) diet by time interaction in the PA and EPM. Compared to the control and the 1% TG-DHA group, mice consuming the diet supplemented with 1% PL-DHA displayed a significantly greater latency by test day 2 in the 3-day PA. No differences in latency between any of the groups were observed during trials 1 and 3. Mice consuming the 2% PL-DHA diet spent significantly more time frequenting the open arms during the first minute, but not the last 4 min, of the test. Compared to all other groups, mice fed the 4% TG-DHA diet had increased spleen, liver, and visceral fat weight. Consumption of the lower dose PL-DHA may confer enhanced efficacy, particularly on fear-based learning behavior. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Cross-Sectional Study of Dietary and Genetic Predictors of Blood Folate Levels in Healthy Young Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 994; doi:10.3390/nu9090994
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Since 1998, the U.S. has mandated folic acid (FA) fortification of certain grain products to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Folate intake and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations increased substantially post-intervention, although recent studies raise concerns about the level of
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Since 1998, the U.S. has mandated folic acid (FA) fortification of certain grain products to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Folate intake and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations increased substantially post-intervention, although recent studies raise concerns about the level of ongoing benefit. This study investigated blood folate level determinants in healthy young adults, including intake of naturally occurring food folate, synthetic FA, and the interaction of naturally occurring food folate with a common missense variant in the FOLH1 gene thought to affect absorption. Participants (n = 265) completed the Diet History Questionnaire II, RBC folate testing, and were genotyped for the 484T>C FOLH1 variant. Men reported significantly greater intake of all folate sources except for supplemental FA, but RBC folate levels did not significantly differ by sex. Synthetic FA was a stronger predictor of RBC folate than naturally occurring food folate. In the largest racial group, synthetic FA and the interaction of FOLH1 genotype with naturally occurring food folate significantly predicted RBC folate, with the overall model accounting for 13.8% of the variance in RBC folate levels. Blood folate levels rely on a complex interaction of natural and synthetic folate intake as well as FOLH1 genotype. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deviation of Chinese Adults’ Diet from the Chinese Food Pagoda 2016 and Its Association with Adiposity
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 995; doi:10.3390/nu9090995
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Changing diet in China contributes to a raising prevalence of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the dietary status of Chinese adults (20–59 years old) using the China Food Pagoda (CFP) proposed in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 (CDG), and investigate
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Changing diet in China contributes to a raising prevalence of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the dietary status of Chinese adults (20–59 years old) using the China Food Pagoda (CFP) proposed in the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2016 (CDG), and investigate the association between adiposity and deviation of real diet from CFP using an ordered logistic regression. Results showed that the consumption of fruits, eggs, meat, and poultry increased significantly during 2004–2011, while the consumption of cereal, potatoes, and beans dropped down significantly during the same period (all p < 0.05). Meanwhile, great disparity was detected between real consumption and recommended intake in CFP. In particular, a deficient intake was found for milk and milk products, eggs, and fruit, while over-consumption was observed for cereal, potatoes and beans, meat and poultry, legumes and nuts, oil, and salt. In addition, over-consumption of cereal, legumes and nuts, and salt, as well as under-consumption of vegetables, and meat and poultry, were associated with a higher risk of having high body mass index (BMI), while lower consumption of cereal, potatoes and beans, eggs, and higher consumption of vegetables contributed to low hazard of overweight/obesity (all p < 0.05). The huge disparity between real consumption and the CFP calls for specific health education campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Inadequate Vitamin C Status in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Glycaemic Control, Obesity, and Smoking
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 997; doi:10.3390/nu9090997
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin C (ascorbate) is an essential micronutrient in humans, being required for a number of important biological functions via acting as an enzymatic cofactor and reducing agent. There is some evidence to suggest that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have lower
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Vitamin C (ascorbate) is an essential micronutrient in humans, being required for a number of important biological functions via acting as an enzymatic cofactor and reducing agent. There is some evidence to suggest that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have lower plasma vitamin C concentrations compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The aim of this study was to investigate plasma vitamin C concentrations across the glycaemic spectrum and to explore correlations with indices of metabolic health. This is a cross-sectional observational pilot study in adults across the glycaemic spectrum from NGT to T2DM. Demographic and anthropometric data along with information on physical activity were collected and participants were asked to complete a four-day weighed food diary. Venous blood samples were collected and glycaemic indices, plasma vitamin C concentrations, hormone tests, lipid profiles, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were analysed. A total of 89 participants completed the study, including individuals with NGT (n = 35), prediabetes (n = 25), and T2DM managed by diet alone or on a regimen of Metformin only (n = 29). Plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly lower in individuals with T2DM compared to those with NGT (41.2 µmol/L versus 57.4 µmol/L, p < 0.05) and a higher proportion of vitamin C deficiency (i.e. <11.0 µmol/L) was observed in both the prediabetes and T2DM groups. The results showed fasting glucose (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.001), smoking history (p = 0.003), and dietary vitamin C intake (p = 0.032) to be significant independent predictors of plasma vitamin C concentrations. In conclusion, these results suggest that adults with a history of smoking, prediabetes or T2DM, and/or obesity, have greater vitamin C requirements. Future research is required to investigate whether eating more vitamin C rich foods and/or taking vitamin C supplements may reduce the risk of progression to, and/or complications associated with, T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effects of Common Bean on Adiposity and Lipid Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 998; doi:10.3390/nu9090998
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
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Abstract
In developed countries which are at the epicenter of the obesity pandemic, pulse crop consumption is well below recommended levels. In a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled clinical trials, pulse consumption was associated with improved weight control and reduced
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In developed countries which are at the epicenter of the obesity pandemic, pulse crop consumption is well below recommended levels. In a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled clinical trials, pulse consumption was associated with improved weight control and reduced adiposity, although the underlying mechanisms were a matter of speculation. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most widely consumed pulse crop and was the focus of this investigation. Using outbred genetic models of dietary induced obesity resistance and of dietary induced obesity sensitivity in the rat, the impact of bean consumption was investigated on the efficiency with which consumed food was converted to body mass (food efficiency ratio), body fat accumulation, adipocyte morphometrics, and patterns of protein expression associated with lipid metabolism. Cooked whole bean as well as a commercially prepared cooked bean powders were evaluated. While bean consumption did not affect food efficiency ratio, bean reduced visceral adiposity and adipocyte size in both obesity sensitive and resistant rats. In liver, bean consumption increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, which is the rate limiting step in long chain fatty acid oxidation and also resulted in lower levels of circulating triglycerides. Collectively, our results are consistent with the clinical finding that pulse consumption is anti-obesogenic and indicate that one mechanism by which cooked bean exerts its bioactivity is oxidation of long chain fatty acids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Panax ginseng Leaf Extracts Exert Anti-Obesity Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 999; doi:10.3390/nu9090999
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 10 September 2017
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Abstract
Recent studies have reported that the aerial parts of ginseng contain various saponins, which have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity properties similar to those of ginseng root. However, the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng have not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate
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Recent studies have reported that the aerial parts of ginseng contain various saponins, which have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity properties similar to those of ginseng root. However, the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng have not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-obesity effects of green leaf and dried leaf extracts (GL and DL, respectively) of ginseng in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The administration of GL and DL to HFD-induced obese rats significantly decreased body weight (by 96.5% and 96.7%, respectively), and epididymal and abdominal adipose tissue mass. Furthermore, DL inhibited the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through regulation of the expression of key adipogenic regulators, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-α. In contrast, GL had little effect on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes but greatly increased the protein expression of PPARγ compared with that in untreated cells. These results were not consistent with an anti-obesity effect in the animal model, which suggested that the anti-obesity effect of GL in vivo resulted from specific factors released by other organs, or from increased energy expenditure. To our knowledge, these findings are the first evidence for the anti-obesity effects of the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng in vivo. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1000; doi:10.3390/nu9091000
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke
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Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 40% alcohol (12 mL/kg body weight) was administered orally 1 h after artichoke treatment. All mice were fed for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that artichoke extract significantly prevented elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were elevated by artichoke administration. Histopathological examination showed that artichoke attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in liver tissues were significantly suppressed by artichoke treatment. Results obtained demonstrated that artichoke extract exhibited significant preventive protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This finding is mainly attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and suppress the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the underlying mechanisms of artichoke on acute ALD have been rarely reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Nrf2 Activation by 5-lipoxygenase Metabolites in Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1001; doi:10.3390/nu9091001
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) are major metabolites produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) from arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Effects of hydroxides on endothelial cells are unclear, although 5-LOX is known to increase at arteriosclerotic lesions. To investigate the effects
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5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE) are major metabolites produced by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) from arachidonic acid (AA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Effects of hydroxides on endothelial cells are unclear, although 5-LOX is known to increase at arteriosclerotic lesions. To investigate the effects of hydroxides on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the cells were treated with 50 μM each of AA, EPA, 5-HETE, and 5-HEPE. Treatment of HUVECs with 5-HETE and 5-HEPE, rather than with AA and EPA, increased the nuclear translocation of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 and cystine/glutamate transporter regulated by Nrf2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was markedly elevated in HUVECs after treatment with 5-HETE and 5-HEPE, and the pretreatment with α-tocopherol abrogated ROS levels similar to those in the vehicle control. However, ROS generation was independent of Nrf2 activation induced by 5-HETE and 5-HEPE. 5-HETE was converted to 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-ETE) in HUVECs, and 5-oxo-ETE increased Nrf2 activation. These results suggest that 5-HETE works as an Nrf2 activator through the metabolite 5-oxo-ETE in HUVECs. Similarly, 5-HEPE works in the same way, because 5-HEPE is metabolized to 5-oxo-eicosapentaenoic acid through the same pathway as that for 5-HETE. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Micronutrient Fortified Beverage Given at Different Dosing Frequencies Had Limited Impact on Anemia and Micronutrient Status in Filipino Schoolchildren
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1002; doi:10.3390/nu9091002
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of a multi-micronutrient fortified juice drink given in different frequencies of consumption on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of schoolchildren. Hb was measured in 2423 schoolchildren aged 6- to 9-years-old at baseline. All anemic children (n = 246) were
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This study evaluated the effects of a multi-micronutrient fortified juice drink given in different frequencies of consumption on hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of schoolchildren. Hb was measured in 2423 schoolchildren aged 6- to 9-years-old at baseline. All anemic children (n = 246) were randomly allocated into groups: Daily dose (HD: high dose), 5X/week (MD: Moderate Dose), 3X/week (LD: Low Dose) and unfortified (Control). Pre- and post-study measurements of micronutrients were collected from 228 children. At the endpoint, significant Hb increases were observed in all groups, but there was no significant difference between groups. There was a significant reduction in anemia prevalence in all groups from 100% to 36% (Control), 30% (LD), 23% (MD) and 26% (HD). No dose-response effect was observed in Hb in this population. Most likely, this resulted from better than expected micronutrient status and lower than expected severity of anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in this cohort. It is unlikely that the addition of a fortified beverage to school feeding programs in this population would have a positive impact. Whether such an intervention would be cost-effective as a preventative approach needs to be assessed. This study demonstrates the importance of targeting such interventions to appropriate populations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Oral Pre-Meal Administration of Betaglucans on Glycaemic Control and Variability in Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1004; doi:10.3390/nu9091004
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover pilot study to investigate the effect of oat betaglucans (β-glucan) on glycaemic control and variability in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n = 14). Stomacol® tablets (1.53 g of β-glucan) or placebo (Plac) were administered
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We conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover pilot study to investigate the effect of oat betaglucans (β-glucan) on glycaemic control and variability in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n = 14). Stomacol® tablets (1.53 g of β-glucan) or placebo (Plac) were administered three times daily before meals for two weeks. Glucose levels were monitored during the second week by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). There was an increase in basic measures of glycaemic control (maximal glucose value 341 ± 15 vs. 378 ± 13 mg/dL for Plac and β-glucan, p = 0.004), and average daily risk range (62 ± 5 vs. 79 ± 4 mg/dL for Plac and β-glucan, p = 0.003) favouring Plac over β-glucan, but no increase in the M-value (the weighted average of the glucose values) or other more complex measures. Basic measures of glucose variability were also slightly increased during β-glucan treatment, with no difference in more complex measures. However, glycaemic variability increased between the first and last two CGM days on Plac, but remained unchanged on β-glucan. In conclusion, in this pilot study we were unable to demonstrate a general positive effect of β-glucan before meals on glucose control or variability in T1D. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Factors Modulate Iron Uptake in Caco-2 Cells from an Iron Ingot Used as a Home Fortificant to Prevent Iron Deficiency
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1005; doi:10.3390/nu9091005
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
Iron deficiency is a major public health concern and nutritional approaches are required to reduce its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the iron bioavailability of a novel home fortificant, the “Lucky Iron Fish™” (LIF) (www.luckyironfish.com/shop, Guelph, Canada)
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Iron deficiency is a major public health concern and nutritional approaches are required to reduce its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the iron bioavailability of a novel home fortificant, the “Lucky Iron Fish™” (LIF) (www.luckyironfish.com/shop, Guelph, Canada) and the impact of dietary factors and a food matrix on iron uptake from LIF in Caco-2 cells. LIF released a substantial quantity of iron (about 1.2 mM) at pH 2 but this iron was only slightly soluble at pH 7 and not taken up by cells. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA) maintained the solubility of iron released from LIF (LIF-iron) at pH 7 and facilitated iron uptake by the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In vitro digestion of LIF-iron in the presence of peas increased iron uptake 10-fold. However, the addition of tannic acid to the digestion reduced the cellular iron uptake 7.5-fold. Additionally, LIF-iron induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), similar to ferrous sulfate, but this effect was counteracted by the addition of AA. Overall, our data illustrate the major influence of dietary factors on iron solubility and bioavailability from LIF, and demonstrate that the addition of AA enhances iron uptake and reduces ROS in the intestinal lumen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Oral Administration of Silymarin in a Juvenile Murine Model of Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1006; doi:10.3390/nu9091006
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
The increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents is challenging the global care system. No therapeutic strategies have been defined so far, and changes in the lifestyle remain the only alternative. In this study, we assessed the protective effects of
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The increasing prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adolescents is challenging the global care system. No therapeutic strategies have been defined so far, and changes in the lifestyle remain the only alternative. In this study, we assessed the protective effects of silymarin in a juvenile non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model and the in vitro effects on fat-laden human hepatocytes. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to HFHC diet immediately after weaning. After eight weeks, animals showed histological signs of NASH. Silymarin was added to the HFHC diet, the treatment continued for additional 12 weeks and the effects on BMI, hepatomegaly, visceral fat, lipid profile, transaminases, HOMA-IR, steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and apoptosis were determined. The switch from HFHC to control diet was used to mimic life style changes. In vitro experiments were performed in parallel in human hepatocytes. HFHC diet supplemented with silymarin showed a significant improvement in glycemia, visceral fat, lipid profile, and liver fibrosis. Moreover, it reduced (both in vitro and in vivo) ALT, hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Lifestyle changes restored the control group parameters. The data presented show the beneficial effects of the oral administration of silymarin in the absence of changes in the dietary habits in a juvenile model of NASH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Higher Protein Intake Does Not Improve Lean Mass Gain When Compared with RDA Recommendation in Postmenopausal Women Following Resistance Exercise Protocol: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1007; doi:10.3390/nu9091007
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a higher protein intake on lean body mass (LBM) gain in postmenopausal women practicing resistance exercise and compare it to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) recommendation. Twenty-three postmenopausal women (63.2 ± 7.8
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a higher protein intake on lean body mass (LBM) gain in postmenopausal women practicing resistance exercise and compare it to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) recommendation. Twenty-three postmenopausal women (63.2 ± 7.8 years) were randomized into two groups. The group with higher protein intake (n = 11) (HP) received a dietary plan with ~1.2 g·kg−1·day−1 of protein, while the normal protein (NP) group (n = 12) was instructed to ingest ~0.8 g·kg−1·day−1 of protein (RDA recommendation). Both groups performed the same resistance training protocol, 3 times a week, with progression of the number of sets (from 1 to 6 sets) and 8–12 repetitions. The intervention occurred over 10 weeks. Body composition evaluation was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The diet was evaluated by nine 24-h food recall summaries over the course of the study. During the intervention period, the HP group presented a higher protein (1.18 ± 0.3 vs. 0.87 ± 0.2 g·kg−1·day−1, p = 0.008) and leucine (6.0 ± 1.4 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 g/day, p < 0.001) intake than the NP group, respectively. At the end of the intervention, there were increases in LBM both in HP (37.1 ± 6.2 to 38.4 ± 6.5 kg, p = 0.004) and in NP (37.6 ± 6.2 to 38.8 ± 6.4 kg, p < 0.001), with no differences between the groups (p = 0.572). In conclusion, increased protein intake did not promote higher LBM gain when compared to RDA recommendation in postmenopausal women performing resistance exercise during 10 weeks. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT03024125. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Iron Absorption from Three Commercially Available Supplements in Gastrointestinal Cell Lines
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1008; doi:10.3390/nu9091008
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
This study compares the absorption characteristics of two iron-based dietary supplements and their biocompatibility to bisglycinate iron, a common chelated iron form. The Caco-2 cell line—a model of human intestinal absorption—and GTL-16 cell line—a model of gastric epithelial cells—were used to perform the
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This study compares the absorption characteristics of two iron-based dietary supplements and their biocompatibility to bisglycinate iron, a common chelated iron form. The Caco-2 cell line—a model of human intestinal absorption—and GTL-16 cell line—a model of gastric epithelial cells—were used to perform the experiments; in the first experiments, the kinetics of absorption have been evaluated analyzing the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression. Three different iron combinations containing 50 µM iron (named Fisioeme®, Sideral® and bisglycinate) were used for different stimulation times (1–24 h). After this, the effects of the three iron formulations were assessed in both a short and a long time, in order to understand the extrusion mechanisms. The effects of the three different formulations were also analyzed at the end of stimulation period immediately after iron removal, and after some time in order to clarify whether the mechanisms were irreversibly activated. Findings obtained in this study demonstrate that Fisioeme® was able to maintain a significant beneficial effect on cell viability compared to control, to Sideral®, and to iron bisglycinate. This observation indicates that Fisioeme® formulation is the most suitable for gastric and intestinal epithelial cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1009; doi:10.3390/nu9091009
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF%) and fat mass index (FMI) for
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High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF%) and fat mass index (FMI) for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years). Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001). BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05). ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1010; doi:10.3390/nu9091010
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination
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Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (−10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prediction Equations Overestimate the Energy Requirements More for Obesity-Susceptible Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1012; doi:10.3390/nu9091012
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Predictive equations to estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) are often used in dietary counseling and by online apps to set energy intake goals for weight loss. It is critical to know whether such equations are appropriate for those susceptible to obesity. We measured
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Predictive equations to estimate resting metabolic rate (RMR) are often used in dietary counseling and by online apps to set energy intake goals for weight loss. It is critical to know whether such equations are appropriate for those susceptible to obesity. We measured RMR by indirect calorimetry after an overnight fast in 26 obesity susceptible (OSI) and 30 obesity resistant (ORI) individuals, identified using a simple 6-item screening tool. Predicted RMR was calculated using the FAO/WHO/UNU (Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation/United Nations University), Oxford and Miflin-St Jeor equations. Absolute measured RMR did not differ significantly between OSI versus ORI (6339 vs. 5893 kJ·d−1, p = 0.313). All three prediction equations over-estimated RMR for both OSI and ORI when measured RMR was ≤5000 kJ·d−1. For measured RMR ≤7000 kJ·d−1 there was statistically significant evidence that the equations overestimate RMR to a greater extent for those classified as obesity susceptible with biases ranging between around 10% to nearly 30% depending on the equation. The use of prediction equations may overestimate RMR and energy requirements particularly in those who self-identify as being susceptible to obesity, which has implications for effective weight management. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Short-Term Intake of a Fructose-, Fat- and Cholesterol-Rich Diet Causes Hepatic Steatosis in Mice: Effect of Antibiotic Treatment
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1013; doi:10.3390/nu9091013
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Intestinal microbiota and barrier functions seem to play an important role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether these changes are an early event in the development of NAFLD or are primarily associated with later stages of the disease,
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Intestinal microbiota and barrier functions seem to play an important role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether these changes are an early event in the development of NAFLD or are primarily associated with later stages of the disease, has not yet been clarified. Using a pair-feeding model, we determined the effects of a short-term intake of a fat-, fructose- and cholesterol-rich diet (FFC) on the development of early hepatic steatosis and markers of intestinal barrier function in mice treated with and without non-resorbable antibiotics (AB). For four days, C57BL/6J mice were either pair-fed a control diet or a FFC diet ± AB (92 mg/kg body weight (BW) polymyxin B and 216 mg/kg BW neomycin). Hepatic steatosis and markers of inflammation, lipidperoxidation and intestinal barrier function were assessed. Lipid accumulation and early signs of inflammation found in the livers of FFC-fed mice were markedly attenuated in FFC + AB-fed animals. In FFC-fed mice the development of NAFLD was associated with a significant loss of tight junction proteins and an induction of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in the upper parts of the small intestine as well as significantly higher portal endotoxin levels and an induction of dependent signaling cascades in the liver. As expected, portal endotoxin levels and the expression of dependent signaling cascades in liver tissue were almost at the level of controls in FFC + AB-fed mice. However, FFC + AB-fed mice were also protected from the loss of zonula occludens-1 and partially of occludin protein in small intestine. Our data suggest that the development of early diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice at least in part results from alterations of intestinal barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of β-Glucans Ingestion on Alveolar Bone Loss, Intestinal Morphology, Systemic Inflammatory Profile, and Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Rats with Periodontitis and Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1016; doi:10.3390/nu9091016
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of β-glucan ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the plasmatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), alveolar bone loss, and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-BF) in diabetic rats with periodontal disease (PD). Besides, intestinal
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of β-glucan ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the plasmatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), alveolar bone loss, and pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-BF) in diabetic rats with periodontal disease (PD). Besides, intestinal morphology was determined by the villus/crypt ratio. A total of 48 Wistar rats weighing 203 ± 18 g were used. Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg) and periodontal inflammation, by ligature. The design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme 2 × 2 × 2 (diabetic or not, with or without periodontitis, and ingesting β-glucan or not). The animals received β-glucan by gavage for 28 days. Alveolar bone loss was determined by scanning electron microscopy (distance between the cementoenamel junction and alveolar bone crest) and histometric analysis (bone area between tooth roots). β-glucan reduced plasmatic levels of TNF-α in diabetic animals with PD and of IL-10 in animals with PD (p < 0.05). β-glucan reduced bone loss in animals with PD (p < 0.05). In diabetic animals, β-glucan improved β-cell function (p < 0.05). Diabetic animals had a higher villus/crypt ratio (p < 0.05). In conclusion, β-glucan ingestion reduced the systemic inflammatory profile, prevented alveolar bone loss, and improved β-cell function in diabetic animals with PD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combination of Hypertension Along with a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet Induces Severe Hepatic Inflammation in Rats via a Signaling Network Comprising NF-κB, MAPK, and Nrf2 Pathways
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1018; doi:10.3390/nu9091018
Received: 13 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Populations with essential hypertension have a high risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, we investigated the mechanism that underlies the progression of hypertension-associated NASH by comparing differences in the development of high fat and cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced NASH among three strains
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Populations with essential hypertension have a high risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In this study, we investigated the mechanism that underlies the progression of hypertension-associated NASH by comparing differences in the development of high fat and cholesterol (HFC) diet-induced NASH among three strains of rats, i.e., two hypertensive strains comprising spontaneously hypertensive rats and the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr, and the original Wistar Kyoto rats as the normotensive control. We investigated histopathological changes and molecular signals related to inflammation in the liver after feeding with the HFC diet for 8 weeks. The diet induced severe lobular inflammation and fibrosis in the livers of the hypertensive rats, whereas it only caused mild steatohepatitis in the normotensive rats. An increased activation of proinflammatory signaling (transforming growth factor-β1/mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway) was observed in the hypertensive strains fed with the HFC diet. In addition, the HFC diet suppressed the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway in the hypertensive rats and led to lower increases in the hepatic expression of heme oxygenase-1, which has anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In conclusion, these signaling pathways might play crucial roles in the development of hypertension-associated NASH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle The 1-Week and 8-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet or Ketone Salt Supplementation on Multi-Organ Markers of Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Function in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1019; doi:10.3390/nu9091019
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow
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We determined the short- and long-term effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) or ketone salt (KS) supplementation on multi-organ oxidative stress and mitochondrial markers. For short-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided isocaloric amounts of KD (n = 10), standard chow (SC) (n = 10) or SC + KS (~1.2 g/day, n = 10). For long-term feedings, 4 month-old male rats were provided KD (n = 8), SC (n = 7) or SC + KS (n = 7) for 8 months and rotarod tested every 2 months. Blood, brain (whole cortex), liver and gastrocnemius muscle were harvested from all rats for biochemical analyses. Additionally, mitochondria from the brain, muscle and liver tissue of long-term-fed rats were analyzed for mitochondrial quantity (maximal citrate synthase activity), quality (state 3 and 4 respiration) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Liver antioxidant capacity trended higher in short-term KD- and SC + KS-fed versus SC-fed rats, and short-term KD-fed rats exhibited significantly greater serum ketones compared to SC + KS-fed rats indicating that the diet (not KS supplementation) induced ketonemia. In long term-fed rats: (a) serum ketones were significantly greater in KD- versus SC- and SC + KS-fed rats; (b) liver antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase protein was significantly greater in KD- versus SC-fed rats, respectively, while liver protein carbonyls were lowest in KD-fed rats; and (c) gastrocnemius mitochondrial ROS production was significantly greater in KD-fed rats versus other groups, and this paralleled lower mitochondrial glutathione levels. Additionally, the gastrocnemius pyruvate-malate mitochondrial respiratory control ratio was significantly impaired in long-term KD-fed rats, and gastrocnemius mitochondrial quantity was lowest in these animals. Rotarod performance was greatest in KD-fed rats versus all other groups at 2, 4 and 8 months, although there was a significant age-related decline in performance existed in KD-fed rats which was not evident in the other two groups. In conclusion, short- and long-term KD improves select markers of liver oxidative stress compared to SC feeding, although long-term KD feeding may negatively affect skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Baseline and Estimated Trends of Sodium Availability and Food Sources in the Costa Rican Population during 2004–2005 and 2012–2013
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1020; doi:10.3390/nu9091020
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
In 2012, Costa Rica launched a program to reduce salt and sodium consumption to prevent cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors, but little was known about the level of sodium consumption or its sources. Our aim was to estimate the magnitude and time
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In 2012, Costa Rica launched a program to reduce salt and sodium consumption to prevent cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors, but little was known about the level of sodium consumption or its sources. Our aim was to estimate the magnitude and time trends of sodium consumption (based on food and beverage acquisitions) in Costa Rica. Data from the National Household Income and Expenditure Surveys carried out in 2004–2005 (n = 4231) and 2012–2013 (n = 5705) were used. Records of food purchases for household consumption were converted into sodium and energy using food composition tables. Mean sodium availability (per person/per day and adjusted for a 2000-kcal energy intake) and the contribution of food groups to this availability were estimated for each year. Sodium availability increased in the period from 3.9 to 4.6 g/person/day (p < 0.001). The income level was inversely related to sodium availability. The main sources of sodium in the diet were domestic salt (60%) in addition to processed foods and condiments (with added sodium) (27.4%). Dietary sources of sodium varied within surveys (p < 0.05). Sodium available for consumption in Costa Rican households largely exceeds the World Health Organization-recommended intake levels (<2 g sodium/person/day). These results are essential for the design and implementation of effective policies and interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Flavonolignans Inhibit IL1-β-Induced Cross-Talk between Blood Platelets and Leukocytes
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1022; doi:10.3390/nu9091022
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)—the most potent pro-inflammatory is responsible for a broad spectrum of immune and inflammatory responses, it induces T-cell and B-cell activation and consequently the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IFN-γ and TNF). IL-1β induces the formation of blood platelet-leukocyte
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Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)—the most potent pro-inflammatory is responsible for a broad spectrum of immune and inflammatory responses, it induces T-cell and B-cell activation and consequently the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IFN-γ and TNF). IL-1β induces the formation of blood platelet-leukocyte aggregates (PLAs), which suggests that IL-1β significantly affects the cross-talk between blood platelets and the immune response system, leading to coronary thrombosis. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of flavonolignans (silybin, silychristin and silydianin) on the IL-1β-induced interaction between platelets and leukocytes, as well as on the expression and the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors. Whole blood samples were pre-incubated with commercially available flavonolignans (silybin, silychristin and silydianin) in a concentration range of 10–100 µM (30 min, 37 °C). Next, samples were activated by IL-1β for 1 h. Blood platelet-leukocyte aggregates were detected by using the double-labeled flow cytometry (CD61/CD45). The level of produced cytokines was estimated via the ELISA immunoenzymatic method. IFN-γ and TNF gene expression was evaluated using Real Time PCR with TaqMan arrays. We observed that in a dose-dependent manner, silybin and silychristin inhibit the IL-1β-induced formation of blood platelet-leukocyte aggregates in whole blood samples, as well as the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines—IL-2, TNF, INF-α, and INF-γ. Additionally, these two flavonolignans abolished the IL-1β-induced expression of mRNA for IFN-γ and TNF. Our current results demonstrate that flavonolignans can be novel compounds used in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases with dual-use action as antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Sociodemographic and Nutritional Characteristics between Self-Reported Vegetarians, Vegans, and Meat-Eaters from the NutriNet-Santé Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1023; doi:10.3390/nu9091023
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The
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Background: There is a growing trend for vegetarian and vegan diets in many Western countries. Epidemiological evidence suggesting that such diets may help in maintaining good health is rising. However, dietary and sociodemographic characteristics of vegetarians and vegans are not well known. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe sociodemographic and nutritional characteristics of self-reported, adult vegetarians and vegans, compared to meat-eaters, from the French NutriNet-Santé study. Methods: Participants were asked if they were following a specific diet. They were then classified into three self-reported diet groups: 90,664 meat-eaters, 2370 vegetarians, and 789 vegans. Dietary data were collected using three repeated 24-h dietary records. Multivariable polytomic logistic regression models were perfomed to assess the association between the sociodemographic characteristics and type of diet. The prevalence of nutrient intake inadequacy was estimated, by sex and age for micronutrients, as well as by type of self-reported diet. Results: Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to have a higher educational level, whereas vegans had a lower education level. Compared with meat-eaters, vegetarians were more likely to be women, younger individuals, and to be self-employed or never employed rather than managerial staff. Vegetarians and vegans substituted animal protein-dense products with a higher consumption of plant protein-dense products (e.g., soy-based products or legumes). Vegetarians had the most balanced diets in terms of macronutrients, but also had a better adherence to French dietary guidelines. Vegetarians exhibited a lower estimated prevalence of inadequacies for micronutrients such as antioxidant vitamins (e.g., for vitamin E, 28.9% for vegetarian women <55 years of age vs. 41.6% in meat-eaters) while vegans exhibited a higher estimated prevalence of inadequacies for some nutrients, in particular vitamin B12 (69.9% in men and 83.4% in women <55 years of age), compared to meat-eaters. Conclusions: Our study highlighted that, overall, self-reported vegetarians and vegans may meet nutritional recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Science of Vegetarian Nutrition and Health)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Nutritional Status and its Related Factors for Chinese Children and Adolescents in 2010–2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1024; doi:10.3390/nu9091024
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D plays a critical role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and helps maintain skeletal integrity in childhood, yet vitamin D status in Chinese children and adolescents is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status
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Vitamin D plays a critical role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and helps maintain skeletal integrity in childhood, yet vitamin D status in Chinese children and adolescents is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status and analyze the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured with a radioimmunoassay kit in 15,000 children and adolescent participants in the Chinese national nutrition and health survey (CNNHS) 2010–2012. Age, gender, region type, ethnicity, outdoor time, and vitamin D supplementation were recorded in unified design questionnaires. The season was recorded by the date of blood taken; location was divided into north and south by China′s Qinling Mountains and Huaihe River; and ambient ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation level was classified according to the corresponding dose of each participant living area from National Aeronautics and Space Administration data. 14,473 participants from the cross-sectional study of CNNHS 2010–2012 were included in this study. The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.2 (35.4–63.4) nmol/L, and the concentration for males was 50.0 (36.5–65.7) nmol/L, which was statistically higher than that of females (46.7 (34.4–60.9) nmol/L) (P < 0.001). The general prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 53.2%; 50.0% for males and 56.5% for females at the cut-off 50 nmol/L. According to the results of the log-binomial regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents was specifically related to female gender (P < 0.0001), to ages 12–14 years (P < 0.0001) and 15–17 years (P < 0.0001), living in large cities (P < 0.0001) or ordinary rural areas (P < 0.0001), low ambient UVB levels (P < 0.0001) and medium ambient UVB levels (P < 0.0001), spring (P < 0.0001), autumn (P < 0.0001) and winter seasons (P < 0.0001). The data showed that vitamin D deficiency was very common among children and adolescents aged 6–17 years in China. Effective sun exposure should be encouraged in both genders aged 6–17 years, dietary vitamin D and vitamin D supplements are also recommended, especially in the seasons of spring and winter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chinese National Nutrition Survey 2012)
Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Carotenoid Intake and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Adults Aged 30–75 Years Using Data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008–2011)
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1025; doi:10.3390/nu9091025
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Age-related bone loss is a major public health problem. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the dietary intake of carotenoids and bone mineral density (BMD). Data from 8022 subjects (3763 males and 4259 females) aged 30–75 years included in the Korean National
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Age-related bone loss is a major public health problem. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the dietary intake of carotenoids and bone mineral density (BMD). Data from 8022 subjects (3763 males and 4259 females) aged 30–75 years included in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011) were analyzed. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Intake of carotenoids was estimated using 24-h dietary recall. In multiple linear analysis, after adjusting for covariates, lutein + zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin intake was positively associated with total hip BMD in males and premenopausal women respectively, while β-carotene intake was positively correlated with femoral neck, total hip, and whole-body BMD in postmenopausal women. Postmenopausal women in the highest quintile of daily β-carotene intake, showed a lower risk of osteopenia at the lumbar spine (odds ratio (OR): 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16–0.79, P for trend = 0.009) than those in the lowest quintile, after adjusting for covariates. Daily β-cryptoxanthin intake was significantly associated with a lower risk of osteopenia at the total hip (OR per 1 mg/day increase: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.59–0.97), and lumbar spine (OR per 1 mg/day increase: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.70–0.89) in postmenopausal women. These results suggest that the dietary intake of β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin may have a positive effect on bone health. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Higher Dietary Cost Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study among Selected Malaysian Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1028; doi:10.3390/nu9091028
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC) in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary
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Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC) in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and diet quality was estimated using a Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (M-HEI). DDC in Malaysian Ringgit (RM) was calculated from dietary intake and national food prices. Linear regression models were fitted to determine associations between DDC and M-HEI scores and predictors of diet quality. The mean M-HEI score of respondents was 61.31 ± 10.88 and energy adjusted DDC was RM10.71/2000 kcal (USD 2.49). The highest quintile of adjusted DDC had higher M-HEI scores for all respondents (Q1: 57.14 ± 10.07 versus Q5: 63.26 ± 11.54, p = 0.001). There were also positive associations between DDC and M-HEI scores for fruits (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.017) for all respondents. Predictors of diet quality included carbohydrate (β = 0290; p < 0.001) and fat intakes (β = −0.242; p < 0.001) and energy adjusted DDC (β = 0.196; p < 0.001). Higher dietary cost is associated with healthy eating among Malaysian adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fiber Patterns in Young Adults Living in Different Environments (USA, Spain, and Tunisia). Anthropometric and Lifestyle Characteristics
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1030; doi:10.3390/nu9091030
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
Benefits of dietary fiber go beyond its effect on chronic diseases associated with development. Consequently, the pattern of fiber intake has been considered an indicator for diet quality. Young adults are especially vulnerable to a food environment that drives an increase in chronic
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Benefits of dietary fiber go beyond its effect on chronic diseases associated with development. Consequently, the pattern of fiber intake has been considered an indicator for diet quality. Young adults are especially vulnerable to a food environment that drives an increase in chronic diseases linked to economic development. The aim of this work was to characterize patterns of fiber intake among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain), the University of Carthage (Tunisia), and Florida International University (USA). Mean age was 21.2. Food consumption was self-reported in two 24-h recalls. Mean dietary fiber intake was 17.8 g, not reaching the adequate intake. Contrary to expectations, American participants were the highest consumers (p < 0.001), and also exhibited the highest BMI. Cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruit were the main food sources of fiber. Fiber from appetizers, prepared and precooked meals, sauces, spices and condiments accounted for 16.7% in American participants, 7.4% in Spanish participants and 2.6% in Tunisian participants. Total fiber intake increased with energy intake but did not depend on smoking habits and physical activity in any country. It is essential to improve consumers’ interpretation of guidelines on fiber intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Implementing a Health and Wellbeing Programme for Children in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1031; doi:10.3390/nu9091031
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
In New Zealand, there is a high prevalence of childhood poverty and food insecurity, which can impact a family’s ability to provide high quality, nutrient dense foods for their children. In an attempt to increase the quality of the food consumed by children
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In New Zealand, there is a high prevalence of childhood poverty and food insecurity, which can impact a family’s ability to provide high quality, nutrient dense foods for their children. In an attempt to increase the quality of the food consumed by children attending a decile two (low socio-economic) kindergarten and to address food insecurity issues, an educational health and wellness initiative, in conjunction with a free lunch programme, was introduced. The impact of the lunches and the effectiveness of the programme were evaluated. Baseline and end-intervention 24-h modified dietary recall questionnaire data and a vegetable- and fruit-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were collected. A follow-up FFQ was administered six months after the end of the intervention. The nutrient composition of the foods recorded in the 24-h recall questionnaires were analysed using FoodWorks8™. Whilst no significant differences were observed with the intakes of individual nutrients, there was a significant decrease in the consumption of ultra-processed snack foods (p = 0.015). The results of the follow-up FFQ, including the comments collected from the parents, suggested that the intervention had a longer-term positive impact on not only the children involved in the study but also on their whānau (wider family members) Full article
Open AccessArticle Caffeine Improves Basketball Performance in Experienced Basketball Players
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1033; doi:10.3390/nu9091033
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players
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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001) without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037) during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041) after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Human Milk in Response to Cold-Like Symptoms in the Lactating Mother and Infant
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1034; doi:10.3390/nu9091034
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
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Abstract
Infants rely on their innate immune systems to protect them from infection. Human milk (HM) contains fatty acids (FAs) and monoacylglycerols that are known to exhibit antiviral and antibacterial properties in vitro. The specific fat content of HM may potentially affect the efficacy
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Infants rely on their innate immune systems to protect them from infection. Human milk (HM) contains fatty acids (FAs) and monoacylglycerols that are known to exhibit antiviral and antibacterial properties in vitro. The specific fat content of HM may potentially affect the efficacy of this antimicrobial activity. This preliminary study investigates whether the proportions of FA in HM change in response to infections, leading to cold-like symptoms in the mother or infant. Milk samples were obtained from mothers (n = 26) when they and their infants were healthy, and when mother, infant, or both suffered cold-like symptoms. The milk was hydrolysed and FA proportions were measured using gas chromatography. Fifteen FAs were recorded, of which eight were detected in sufficient quantities for statistical analysis. The proportions of capric (C10:0) and lauric acids (C12:0) in HM were significantly lower, and palmitic acid (C16:0) was higher when mothers and infants were ill compared to healthy samples. Palmitoleic (C16:1, n-7) and stearic acid (C18:0) proportions were higher in HM when the infant was unwell, but were not related to maternal health. Whilst the differences detected were small (less than 0.5%), the effects may be additive and potentially have a protective function. The value of further studies is certainly indicated. Full article
Open AccessArticle Red Blood Cell Eicosapentaenoic Acid Inversely Relates to MRI-Assessed Carotid Plaque Lipid Core Burden in Elders at High Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1036; doi:10.3390/nu9091036 (registering DOI)
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals
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Supplemental marine omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has an anti-atherosclerotic effect. Clinical research on EPA supplied by the regular diet and atherosclerosis is scarce. In the framework of the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 161 older individuals at high vascular risk grouped into different stages of carotid atherosclerosis severity, including those without ultrasound-detected atheroma plaque (n = 38), with plaques <2.0 mm thick (n = 65), and with plaques ≥2.0 mm (n = 79). The latter were asked to undergo contrast-enhanced 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were subsequently grouped into absence (n = 31) or presence (n = 27) of MRI-detectable plaque lipid, a main feature of unstable atheroma plaques. We determined the red blood cell (RBC) proportion of EPA (a valid marker of long-term EPA intake) at enrolment by gas chromatography. In multivariate models, EPA related inversely to MRI-assessed plaque lipid volume, but not to maximum intima-media thickness of internal carotid artery, plaque burden, or MRI-assessed normalized wall index. The inverse association between EPA and plaque lipid content in patients with advanced atherosclerosis supports the notion that this fatty acid might improve cardiovascular health through stabilization of advanced atheroma plaques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle Capsaicin Supplementation Improved Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Disease in Individuals with Low HDL-C Levels
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1037; doi:10.3390/nu9091037 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of capsaicin intervention on the serum lipid profile in adults with low HDL-C. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial,
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Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of capsaicin intervention on the serum lipid profile in adults with low HDL-C. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial, 42 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the capsaicin (n = 21, 4 mg of capsaicin daily) or to the control group (n = 21, 0.05 mg of capsaicin daily) and consumed two capsaicin or control capsules, which contained the powder of the skin of different peppers, twice daily for three months. Thirty-five subjects completed the trial (18 in the capsaicin group and 17 in the control group). The baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Compared with the control group, fasting serum HDL-C levels significantly increased to 1.00 ± 0.13 mmol/L from 0.92 ± 0.13 mmol/L in the capsaicin group (p = 0.030), while levels of triglycerides and C-reactive protein and phospholipid transfer protein activity moderately decreased (all p < 0.05). Other lipids, apolipoproteins, glucose, and other parameters did not significantly change. In conclusion, capsaicin improved risk factors of CHD in individuals with low HDL-C and may contribute to the prevention and treatment of CHD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Different Effects of Maternal Low-Isoflavone Soy Protein and Genistein Consumption on Hepatic Lipid Metabolism of 21-Day-Old Male Rat Offspring
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1039; doi:10.3390/nu9091039 (registering DOI)
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Amino acid composition and isoflavone are alleged contributors to the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the contributing component(s) of SPI in a maternal diet to the regulation of lipid metabolism in offspring. We also determined
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Amino acid composition and isoflavone are alleged contributors to the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the contributing component(s) of SPI in a maternal diet to the regulation of lipid metabolism in offspring. We also determined serum parameters in dams to investigate specific maternal cues that might be responsible for this regulation. Female rats were fed either a casein (CAS), a low-isoflavone SPI, or a casein plus genistein (GEN, 250 mg/kg) diet for two weeks before mating, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (CAS, SPI and GEN groups) were studied 21 days after birth. The SPI group had lower serum triglyceride levels than the other groups. Serum cholesterol was reduced in both the SPI and GEN groups compared with the CAS group. Expressions of target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α were altered in the SPI group. Serum aromatic amino acid levels in dams were associated with serum triglyceride in offspring. In conclusion, the maternal consumption of a low-isoflavone SPI diet or a casein diet containing genistein has different effects on the lipid metabolism of their offspring; however, more profound effects were observed in the SPI group. Therefore, the altered lipid metabolism of offspring may be attributed to amino acid composition in maternal dietary protein sources. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oligonol, a Low-Molecular Weight Polyphenol Derived from Lychee, Alleviates Muscle Loss in Diabetes by Suppressing Atrogin-1 and MuRF1
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1040; doi:10.3390/nu9091040 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway—especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1—is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement
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Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway—especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1—is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement for attenuating muscle loss. Dietary (10 weeks) oligonol supplementation (20 or 200 mg/kg diet) on the skeletal muscle loss was investigated in diabetic db/db mice. Transcription factors NF-κB and FoxO3a involved in regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 were also investigated. Attenuation of muscle loss by oligonol (both doses) was associated with down-regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression. Oligonol supplementation decreased NF-κB expression in the nuclear fraction compared with db/db mice without oligonol supplement. Upregulation of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) expression prevented FoxO3a nuclear localization in db/db mice supplemented with oligonol. Marked increases in AMPKα activity and Ppara mRNA expression leading to lower lipid accumulation by oligonol provided additional benefits for attenuating muscle loss. Oligonol limited palmitate-induced senescent phenotype and cell cycle arrest and suppressed Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA expression in palmitate-treated C2C12 muscle cells, thus contributing to improving the impaired myotube formation. In conclusion, oligonol-mediated downregulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression alleviates muscle loss and improves the impaired myotube formation, indicating that oligonol supplementation may be useful for the attenuation of myotube loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Developmental Programming of Obesity and Liver Metabolism by Maternal Perinatal Nutrition Involves the Melanocortin System
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1041; doi:10.3390/nu9091041 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity.
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Maternal obesity predisposes offspring to metabolic dysfunction and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)-deficient mouse models exhibit obesity during adulthood. Here, we aim to determine the influence of the Mc4r gene on the liver of mice subjected to perinatal diet-induced obesity. Female mice heterozygous for Mc4r fed an obesogenic or a control diet for 5 weeks were mated with heterozygous males, with the same diet continued throughout pregnancy and lactation, generating four offspring groups: control wild type (C_wt), control knockout (C_KO), obese wild type (Ob_wt), and obese knockout (Ob_KO). At 21 days, offspring were genotyped, weaned onto a control diet, and sacrificed at 6 months old. Offspring phenotypic characteristics, plasma biochemical profile, liver histology, and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Mc4r_ko offspring showed higher body, liver and adipose tissue weights respect to the wild type animals. Histological examination showed mild hepatic steatosis in offspring group C_KO. The expression of hepatic genes involved in regulating inflammation, fibrosis, and immune cell infiltration were upregulated by the absence of the Mc4r gene. These results demonstrate that maternal obesogenic feeding during the perinatal period programs offspring obesity development with involvement of the Mc4r system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Bioavailability of Omega-3 (DHA) through Alpha-Tocopheryl Phosphate Mixture (TPM) after Oral Administration in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1042; doi:10.3390/nu9091042 (registering DOI)
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Benefits of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements are hindered by their poor solubility and bioavailability. This study investigated the bioavailability of various formulations of Omega-3 and tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM), following oral administration in rats, and assessed whether TPM could improve the oral
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Benefits of Omega-3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements are hindered by their poor solubility and bioavailability. This study investigated the bioavailability of various formulations of Omega-3 and tocopheryl phosphate mixture (TPM), following oral administration in rats, and assessed whether TPM could improve the oral absorption of DHA. The rats were administered with a high (265.7 mg/kg) or low dose (88.6 mg/kg) of DHA. TPM was examined at 1:0.1 w/w (low TPM dose) and 1:0.5 w/w (high TPM dose). Over 24 h, the DHA plasma concentration followed a TPM dose-dependent relationship, reflected in the higher mean Cmax values (78.39 and 91.95 μg/mL) and AUC values (1396.60 and 1560.60) for the low and high TPM, respectively. The biggest difference between the low dose DHA control (LDCont) and TPM formulations was at 4 h after supplementation, where the low and high TPM showed a mean 20% (ns) and 50% (p < 0.05) increase in DHA plasma concentrations versus the control formulation. After correcting for baseline endogenous DHA, the mean plasma DHA at 4 h produced by the LD-HTPM was nearly double (90%) the LDC control (p = 0.057). This study demonstrated that co-administering omega-3 with TPM significantly increases the bioavailability of DHA in the plasma, suggesting potential use for commercially available TPM + DHA fortified products. Full article
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Open AccessReview Therapeutic Potential of Amino Acids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 920; doi:10.3390/nu9090920
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 6 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, is a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and is difficult to treat. The pathophysiology of IBD is multifactorial and not completely understood, but genetic components, dysregulated immune responses, oxidative
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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, is a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, and is difficult to treat. The pathophysiology of IBD is multifactorial and not completely understood, but genetic components, dysregulated immune responses, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mediators are known to be involved. Animal models of IBD can be chemically induced, and are used to study etiology and to evaluate potential treatments of IBD. Currently available IBD treatments can decrease the duration of active disease but because of their adverse effects, the search for novel therapeutic strategies that can restore intestinal homeostasis continues. This review summarizes and discusses what is currently known of the effects of amino acids on the reduction of inflammation, oxidative stress, and cell death in the gut when IBD is present. Recent studies in animal models have identified dietary amino acids that improve IBD, but amino acid supplementation may not be adequate to replace conventional therapy. The animal models used in dietary amino acid research in IBD are described. Full article
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Open AccessReview Activities, Participation and Quality of Life Concepts in Children and Adolescents with Celiac Disease: A Scoping Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 929; doi:10.3390/nu9090929
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a food-related chronic condition and adherence to a strict gluten-free diet is the only available treatment. Adherence to the restrictive diet is challenging among children, especially adolescents. The aim was to describe existing knowledge about food-related activities, participation, and
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Celiac disease (CD) is a food-related chronic condition and adherence to a strict gluten-free diet is the only available treatment. Adherence to the restrictive diet is challenging among children, especially adolescents. The aim was to describe existing knowledge about food-related activities, participation, and quality of life in daily life among children and adolescents with CD and to illuminate gaps in knowledge. The scoping review methodology was applied and literature searches were conducted in electronic databases. Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria. Food-related activities were identified, classified, and coded under the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health adapted for children and youth (ICF-CY) concepts of activities and participation. A wide variety of study populations, objectives, methods, and tools involving 55 different food-related activities were found. Incorporation of the ICF-CY concepts and quality of life captures new insights into everyday challenges. Reviewing the CD literature using this different lens reveals areas yet to receive sufficient attention. Further research can deepen the understanding of daily functioning of children with CD and the underlying skills required to participate in daily food-related activities while adhering to the diet. This can lead to the development of standardized disease-specific assessment tools and suitable intervention programs. Full article
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Open AccessReview Low-FODMAP Diet Improves Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 940; doi:10.3390/nu9090940
Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 26 August 2017
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Abstract
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 7–15% of the general population. A recently devised dietary approach consists of restricting foods with highly fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs), which can trigger and/or exacerbate IBS symptoms. The aim of this study is to
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Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) affects 7–15% of the general population. A recently devised dietary approach consists of restricting foods with highly fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs), which can trigger and/or exacerbate IBS symptoms. The aim of this study is to use meta-analysis to provide an update on the randomised control trials (RCTs) and cohort studies, and examine them separately in relation to diet type. Papers were selected using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flowchart. Cohen’s d and odds ratios were used as a measure of effect size for RCTs. A random effects model was used to account for different sources of variation among studies. Heterogeneity was assessed using Q statistics, I2, Tau, and Tau2. Publication bias was analysed and represented by a funnel plot, and funnel plot symmetry was assessed with Egger’s test. The results showed that in the RCTs, the patients receiving a low-FODMAP diet experienced a statistically significant pain and bloating reduction compared with those receiving a traditional diet; as regards to stool consistency, there was no significant difference between treatments. A significant reduction in abdominal pain and bloating were described by patients receiving a low-FODMAP diet compared with those receiving a high-FODMAP diet. In cohort studies, pain and bloating were significantly reduced after treatment compared with the baseline diet. We conclude that there is evidence that a low-FODMAP diet could have a favourable impact on IBS symptoms, especially abdominal pain and bloating. However, it remains to be demonstrated whether a low-FODMAP diet is superior to conventional IBS diets, especially in the long term. Full article
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Open AccessReview Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance?
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 946; doi:10.3390/nu9090946
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 24 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in the human body. It takes part in the process of energy metabolism and assists the maintenance of normal muscle function. A number of studies evaluated the association between Mg status/supplementation and
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Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in the human body. It takes part in the process of energy metabolism and assists the maintenance of normal muscle function. A number of studies evaluated the association between Mg status/supplementation and exercise performance and found that the need for Mg increased as individuals’ physical activity level went up. Animal studies indicated that Mg might improve exercise performance via enhancing glucose availability in the brain, muscle and blood; and reducing/delaying lactate accumulation in the muscle. The majority of human studies focused on physiological effects in blood pressure, heart rate and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), rather than direct functional performances. Some cross-sectional surveys demonstrated a positive association between Mg status and muscle performance, including grip strength, lower-leg power, knee extension torque, ankle extension strength, maximal isometric trunk flexion, rotation, and jumping performance. Additionally, findings from intervention studies showed that Mg supplementation might lead to improvements in functional indices such as quadriceps torque. Moreover, Mg supplementation could improve gait speed and chair stand time in elderly women. This comprehensive review summarized the literature from both animal and human studies and aimed to evaluate scientific evidence on Mg status/supplementation in relation to exercise performance. Full article
Open AccessReview Could Pomegranate Juice Help in the Control of Inflammatory Diseases?
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 958; doi:10.3390/nu9090958
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory
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Fruits rich in polyphenols, such as pomegranates, have been shown to have health benefits relating to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Using data obtained from PubMed and Scopus, this article provides a brief overview of the therapeutic effects of pomegranate on chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, and other inflammatory-associated conditions, with an emphasis on fruit-derived juices. Most studies regarding the effects of pomegranate juice have focused on its ability to treat prostate cancer, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. However, pomegranate juice has shown therapeutic potential for many other illnesses. For instance, a small number of human clinical trials have highlighted the positive effects of pomegranate juice and extract consumption on cardiovascular health. The beneficial effects of pomegranate components have also been observed in animal models for respiratory diseases, RA, neurodegenerative disease, and hyperlipidaemia. Furthermore, there exists strong evidence from rodent models suggesting that pomegranate juice can be used to effectively treat IBD, and as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat CID. The effects of pomegranate intake should be further investigated by conducting larger and more well-defined human trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin C Status and Cognitive Function: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 960; doi:10.3390/nu9090960
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 21 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin C plays a role in neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelin formation and modulation of the cholinergic, catecholinergic, and glutaminergic systems. This review evaluates the link between vitamin C status and cognitive performance, in both cognitively intact and impaired individuals. We searched the PUBMED,
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Vitamin C plays a role in neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelin formation and modulation of the cholinergic, catecholinergic, and glutaminergic systems. This review evaluates the link between vitamin C status and cognitive performance, in both cognitively intact and impaired individuals. We searched the PUBMED, SCOPUS, SciSearch and the Cochrane Library from 1980 to January 2017, finding 50 studies, with randomised controlled trials (RCTs, n = 5), prospective (n = 24), cross-sectional (n = 17) and case-control (n = 4) studies. Of these, 36 studies were conducted in healthy participants and 14 on cognitively impaired individuals (including Alzheimer’s and dementia). Vitamin C status was measured using food frequency questionnaires or plasma vitamin C. Cognition was assessed using a variety of tests, mostly the Mini-Mental-State-Examination (MMSE). In summary, studies demonstrated higher mean vitamin C concentrations in the cognitively intact groups of participants compared to cognitively impaired groups. No correlation between vitamin C concentrations and MMSE cognitive function was apparent in the cognitively impaired individuals. The MMSE was not suitable to detect a variance in cognition in the healthy group. Analysis of the studies that used a variety of cognitive assessments in the cognitively intact was beyond the scope of this review; however, qualitative assessment revealed a potential association between plasma vitamin C concentrations and cognition. Due to a number of limitations in these studies, further research is needed, utilizing plasma vitamin C concentrations and sensitive cognitive assessments that are suitable for cognitively intact adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Diet, Gut Microbiome and Epigenetics: Emerging Links with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Prospects for Management and Prevention
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 962; doi:10.3390/nu9090962
Received: 19 June 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent a growing public health concern due to increasing incidence worldwide. The current notion on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent a growing public health concern due to increasing incidence worldwide. The current notion on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers. Among the environmental factors associated with IBD, diet plays an important role in modulating the gut microbiome, influencing epigenetic changes, and, therefore, could be applied as a therapeutic tool to improve the disease course. Nevertheless, the current dietary recommendations for disease prevention and management are scarce and have weak evidence. This review summarises the current knowledge on the complex interactions between diet, microbiome and epigenetics in IBD. Whereas an overabundance of calories and some macronutrients increase gut inflammation, several micronutrients have the potential to modulate it. Immunonutrition has emerged as a new concept putting forward the importance of vitamins such as vitamins A, C, E, and D, folic acid, beta carotene and trace elements such as zinc, selenium, manganese and iron. However, when assessed in clinical trials, specific micronutrients exerted a limited benefit. Beyond nutrients, an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern as a complex intervention approach has become popular in recent years. Hence, exclusive enteral nutrition in paediatric Crohn’s disease is the only nutritional intervention currently recommended as a first-line therapy. Other nutritional interventions or specific diets including the Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD), the low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyol (FODMAP) diet and, most recently, the Mediterranean diet have shown strong anti-inflammatory properties and show promise for improving disease symptoms. More work is required to evaluate the role of individual food compounds and complex nutritional interventions with the potential to decrease inflammation as a means of prevention and management of IBD. Full article
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Open AccessReview Antioxidant Therapeutic Strategies for Cardiovascular Conditions Associated with Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 966; doi:10.3390/nu9090966
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Oxidative stress (OS) refers to the imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to scavenge these ROS by endogenous antioxidant systems, where ROS overwhelms the antioxidant capacity. Excessive presence of ROS results in irreversible damage to cell membranes,
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Oxidative stress (OS) refers to the imbalance between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to scavenge these ROS by endogenous antioxidant systems, where ROS overwhelms the antioxidant capacity. Excessive presence of ROS results in irreversible damage to cell membranes, DNA, and other cellular structures by oxidizing lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases related to hypoxia, cardiotoxicity and ischemia–reperfusion. Here, we describe the participation of OS in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular conditions such as myocardial infarction, anthracycline cardiotoxicity and congenital heart disease. This review focuses on the different clinical events where redox factors and OS are related to cardiovascular pathophysiology, giving to support for novel pharmacological therapies such as omega 3 fatty acids, non-selective betablockers and microRNAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Rosemary Extract as a Potential Anti-Hyperglycemic Agent: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 968; doi:10.3390/nu9090968
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease on the rise and with huge economic burden to health care systems around the globe, results from defects in insulin action (termed insulin resistance) combined with impaired insulin secretion. Current methods of prevention and treatments for
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease on the rise and with huge economic burden to health care systems around the globe, results from defects in insulin action (termed insulin resistance) combined with impaired insulin secretion. Current methods of prevention and treatments for insulin resistance and T2DM are lacking in number and efficacy and, therefore, there is a need for new preventative measures and targeted therapies. In recent years, chemicals found in plants/herbs have attracted attention for their use as functional foods or nutraceuticals for preventing and treating insulin resistance and T2DM. Rosemary is an evergreen shrub indigenous to the Mediterranean region and South America, which contains various polyphenols. Rosemary extract and its polyphenolic constituents have been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and anti-hyperglycemic properties. The current review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo studies examining the anti-diabetic effects of rosemary extract and its polyphenolic components and highlights the known mechanism of action. Full article
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Open AccessReview Bariatric Surgery and Precision Nutrition
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 974; doi:10.3390/nu9090974
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three
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This review provides a literature overview of new findings relating nutritional genomics and bariatric surgery. It also describes the importance of nutritional genomics concepts in personalized bariatric management. It includes a discussion of the potential role bariatric surgery plays in altering the three pillars of nutritional genomics: nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and epigenetics. We present studies that show the effect of each patient’s genetic and epigenetic variables on the response to surgical weight loss treatment. We include investigations that demonstrate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms with obesity phenotypes and their influence on weight loss after bariatric surgery. We also present reports on how significant weight loss induced by bariatric surgery impacts telomere length, and we discuss studies on the existence of an epigenetic signature associated with surgery outcomes and specific gene methylation profile, which may help to predict weight loss after a surgical procedure. Finally, we show articles which evidence that bariatric surgery may affect expression of numerous genes involved in different metabolic pathways and consequently induce functional and taxonomic changes in gut microbial communities. The role nutritional genomics plays in responses to weight loss after bariatric surgery is evident. Better understanding of the molecular pathways involved in this process is necessary for successful weight management and maintenance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Open AccessReview Fructose Consumption, Lipogenesis, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 981; doi:10.3390/nu9090981
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
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Abstract
Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and
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Increased fructose consumption has been suggested to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance, but a causal role of fructose in these metabolic diseases remains debated. Mechanistically, hepatic fructose metabolism yields precursors that can be used for gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Fructose-derived precursors also act as nutritional regulators of the transcription factors, including ChREBP and SREBP1c, that regulate the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL genes. In support of these mechanisms, fructose intake increases hepatic gluconeogenesis and DNL and raises plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in humans. However, epidemiological and fructose-intervention studies have had inconclusive results with respect to liver fat, and there is currently no good human evidence that fructose, when consumed in isocaloric amounts, causes more liver fat accumulation than other energy-dense nutrients. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the seemingly contradicting literature on fructose and NAFLD. We outline fructose physiology, the mechanisms that link fructose to NAFLD, and the available evidence from human studies. From this framework, we conclude that the cellular mechanisms underlying hepatic fructose metabolism will likely reveal novel targets for the treatment of NAFLD, dyslipidemia, and hepatic insulin resistance. Finally, fructose-containing sugars are a major source of excess calories, suggesting that a reduction of their intake has potential for the prevention of NAFLD and other obesity-related diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease: The Role of the Gut Microbiota
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 987; doi:10.3390/nu9090987
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract
Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated
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Parenteral nutrition (PN) provides life-saving nutritional support in situations where caloric supply via the enteral route cannot cover the necessary needs of the organism. However, it does have serious adverse effects, including parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The development of liver injury associated with PN is multifactorial, including non-specific intestine inflammation, compromised intestinal permeability, and barrier function associated with increased bacterial translocation, primary and secondary cholangitis, cholelithiasis, short bowel syndrome, disturbance of hepatobiliary circulation, lack of enteral nutrition, shortage of some nutrients (proteins, essential fatty acids, choline, glycine, taurine, carnitine, etc.), and toxicity of components within the nutrition mixture itself (glucose, phytosterols, manganese, aluminium, etc.). Recently, an increasing number of studies have provided evidence that some of these factors are directly or indirectly associated with microbial dysbiosis in the intestine. In this review, we focus on PN-induced changes in the taxonomic and functional composition of the microbiome. We also discuss immune cell and microbial crosstalk during parenteral nutrition, and the implications for the onset and progression of PNALD. Finally, we provide an overview of recent advances in the therapeutic utilisation of pro- and prebiotics for the mitigation of PN-associated liver complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Litchi chinensis as a Functional Food and a Source of Antitumor Compounds: An Overview and a Description of Biochemical Pathways
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 992; doi:10.3390/nu9090992
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Litchi is a tasty fruit that is commercially grown for food consumption and nutritional benefits in various parts of the world. Due to its biological activities, the fruit is becoming increasingly known and deserves attention not only for its edible part, the pulp,
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Litchi is a tasty fruit that is commercially grown for food consumption and nutritional benefits in various parts of the world. Due to its biological activities, the fruit is becoming increasingly known and deserves attention not only for its edible part, the pulp, but also for its peel and seed that contain beneficial substances with antioxidant, cancer preventive, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory functions. Although literature demonstrates the biological activity of Litchi components in reducing tumor cell viability in in vitro or in vivo models, data about the biochemical mechanisms responsible for these effects are quite fragmentary. This review specifically describes, in a comprehensive analysis, the antitumor properties of the different parts of Litchi and highlights the main biochemical mechanisms involved. Full article
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Open AccessReview Weight Management Interventions in Women with and without PCOS: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 996; doi:10.3390/nu9090996
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy among women associated with reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. While weight management is recommended as first-line treatment, it is unclear if women with PCOS achieve similar benefits as women without PCOS. This systematic review thus
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy among women associated with reproductive, metabolic and psychological features. While weight management is recommended as first-line treatment, it is unclear if women with PCOS achieve similar benefits as women without PCOS. This systematic review thus aimed to compare the efficacy of weight management interventions in women with and without PCOS. Databases were searched until May 2017. The primary outcome was weight and anthropometric, reproductive, metabolic and psychological measures were secondary outcomes. Of 3264 articles identified, 14 studies involving n = 933 (n = 9 high and n = 5 moderate risk of bias) met the inclusion criteria. No statistically significant differences in weight or weight loss following the intervention were found between women with and without PCOS in five studies, with the remaining studies not comparing the difference in weight or weight loss between these groups. Secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. This review identified that there is a paucity of high quality research in this area and that more rigorous research is needed. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Effect of Nutrition Therapy and Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1003; doi:10.3390/nu9091003
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the
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Background: Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life. Methods: A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the literature. The study characteristics and results were summarized in accordance with the review’s Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome (PICO) criteria. Results: A total of 20 articles (one diet only, two combined diet and exercise, and seventeen exercise only studies) were included in the review. Soy supplementation improved quality of life, but resulted in several adverse effects. Prescribing healthy eating guidelines with combined resistance training and aerobic exercise improved cancer-related fatigue, yet its effect on quality of life was inconclusive. Combined resistance training with aerobic exercise showed improvements in cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. In isolation, resistance training appears to be more effective in improving cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than aerobic exercise. Studies that utilised an exercise professional to supervise the exercise sessions were more likely to report improvements in both cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than those prescribing unsupervised or partially supervised sessions. Neither exercise frequency nor duration appeared to influence cancer-related fatigue or quality of life, with further research required to explore the potential dose-response effect of exercise intensity. Conclusion: Supervised moderate-hard resistance training with or without moderate-vigorous aerobic exercise appears to improve cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. Targeted physiological pathways suggest dietary intervention may alleviate cancer-related fatigue and improve quality of life, however the efficacy of nutrition management with or without exercise prescription requires further exploration. Full article
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Open AccessReview Infants’ and Children’s Salt Taste Perception and Liking: A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1011; doi:10.3390/nu9091011
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Sodium is an essential nutrient for the human body. It is widely used as sodium chloride (table salt) in (processed) foods and overconsumed by both children and adults, placing them at risk for adverse health effects such as high blood pressure and cardiovascular
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Sodium is an essential nutrient for the human body. It is widely used as sodium chloride (table salt) in (processed) foods and overconsumed by both children and adults, placing them at risk for adverse health effects such as high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. The current review focusses on the development of salt taste sensitivity and preferences, and its association with food intake. Three -to- four month old infants are able to detect and prefer sodium chloride solutions over plain water, which is thought to be a biological unlearned response. Liking for water with sodium chloride mostly decreases when infants enter early childhood, but liking for sodium chloride in appropriate food contexts such as soup and snack foods remains high. The increased acceptance and preference of sodium chloride rich foods coincides with infants’ exposure to salty foods, and is therefore thought to be mostly a learned response. Children prefer higher salt concentrations than adults, but seem to be equally sensitive to salt taste. The addition of salt to foods increases children’s consumption of those foods. However, children’s liking for salt taste as such does not seem to correlate with children’s consumption of salty foods. Decreasing the exposure to salty tasting foods during early infancy is recommended. Salt plays an important role in children’s liking for a variety of foods. It is, however, questionable if children’s liking for salt per se influences the intake of salty foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Radish (Raphanus sativus) and Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1014; doi:10.3390/nu9091014
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
For more than three decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies have linked radishes with diabetes, though this link has not been discussed. This review systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of radishes on diabetes. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed,
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For more than three decades, various in vitro and in vivo studies have linked radishes with diabetes, though this link has not been discussed. This review systematically addresses and summarizes the effect of radishes on diabetes. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and EMBASE databases for English language articles from June 1987 through May 2017 using the key words “radish” and “diabetes,” and the references from particular reports were also considered if relevant. In summary, radish has been identified as having antidiabetic effects, making it favorable for those with diabetic conditions. This may be due to its ability to enhance the antioxidant defense mechanism and reduce the accumulation of free radicals, affect hormonal-induced glucose hemostasis, promote glucose uptake and energy metabolism, and reduce glucose absorption in the intestine. However, this summary requires further confirmation in research in vivo studies and clinical trials. Full article
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D Supplementation and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Present and Future
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1015; doi:10.3390/nu9091015
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic hepatic disease throughout the Western world and is recognized as the main cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis; however, the identification of an effective therapy for NAFLD is still a major challenge. Vitamin D deficiency
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic hepatic disease throughout the Western world and is recognized as the main cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis; however, the identification of an effective therapy for NAFLD is still a major challenge. Vitamin D deficiency is a wide-spread condition which reaches epidemic proportions in industrialized countries, mainly in relation to current lifestyle and limited dietary sources. Epidemiological studies point towards an association between hypovitaminosis D and the presence of NAFLD and steatohepatitis (NASH), independently of confounders such as obesity and insulin resistance. Furthermore, several pieces of experimental data have shown the anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties exerted by vitamin D on hepatic cells. However, results from trials evaluating the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation on liver damage in NAFLD and NASH are controversial. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the evidence currently available from clinical trials and to discuss possible shortcomings and new strategies to be considered in future investigations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
Open AccessReview A Critical Assessment of the Therapeutic Potential of Resveratrol Supplements for Treating Mitochondrial Disorders
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1017; doi:10.3390/nu9091017
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
In human cells, mitochondria provide the largest part of cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate generated by the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Impaired OXPHOS activity leads to a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases for which therapeutic options today remain very
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In human cells, mitochondria provide the largest part of cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate generated by the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Impaired OXPHOS activity leads to a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases for which therapeutic options today remain very limited. Potential innovative strategies aim to ameliorate mitochondrial function by increasing the total mitochondrial load of tissues and/or to scavenge the excess of reactive oxygen species generated by OXPHOS malfunctioning. In this respect, resveratrol, a compound that conveniently combines mitogenetic with antioxidant activities and, as a bonus, possesses anti-apoptotic properties, has come forward as a promising nutraceutical. We review the scientific evidence gathered so far through experiments in both in vitro and in vivo systems, evaluating the therapeutic effect that resveratrol is expected to generate in mitochondrial patients. The obtained results are encouraging, but clearly show that achieving normalization of OXPHOS function with this strategy alone could prove to be an unattainable goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1021; doi:10.3390/nu9091021
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for
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The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview Insights into the Hexose Liver Metabolism—Glucose versus Fructose
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1026; doi:10.3390/nu9091026
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
High-fructose intake in healthy men is associated with characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Extensive knowledge exists about the differences between hepatic fructose and glucose metabolism and fructose-specific mechanisms favoring the development of metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between fructose consumption and metabolic alterations
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High-fructose intake in healthy men is associated with characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Extensive knowledge exists about the differences between hepatic fructose and glucose metabolism and fructose-specific mechanisms favoring the development of metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between fructose consumption and metabolic alterations is still debated. Multiple effects of fructose on hepatic metabolism are attributed to the fact that the liver represents the major sink of fructose. Fructose, as a lipogenic substrate and potent inducer of lipogenic enzyme expression, enhances fatty acid synthesis. Consequently, increased hepatic diacylglycerols (DAG) are thought to directly interfere with insulin signaling. However, independently of this effect, fructose may also counteract insulin-mediated effects on liver metabolism by a range of mechanisms. It may drive gluconeogenesis not only as a gluconeogenic substrate, but also as a potent inducer of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), which induces the expression of lipogenic enzymes as well as gluconeogenic enzymes. It remains a challenge to determine the relative contributions of the impact of fructose on hepatic transcriptome, proteome and allosterome changes and consequently on the regulation of plasma glucose metabolism/homeostasis. Mathematical models exist modeling hepatic glucose metabolism. Future models should not only consider the hepatic adjustments of enzyme abundances and activities in response to changing plasma glucose and insulin/glucagon concentrations, but also to varying fructose concentrations for defining the role of fructose in the hepatic control of plasma glucose homeostasis. Full article
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Open AccessReview Broad and Inconsistent Muscle Food Classification Is Problematic for Dietary Guidance in the U.S.
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1027; doi:10.3390/nu9091027
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Dietary recommendations regarding consumption of muscle foods, such as red meat, processed meat, poultry or fish, largely rely on current dietary intake assessment methods. This narrative review summarizes how U.S. intake values for various types of muscle foods are grouped and estimated via
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Dietary recommendations regarding consumption of muscle foods, such as red meat, processed meat, poultry or fish, largely rely on current dietary intake assessment methods. This narrative review summarizes how U.S. intake values for various types of muscle foods are grouped and estimated via methods that include: (1) food frequency questionnaires; (2) food disappearance data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service; and (3) dietary recall information from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. These reported methods inconsistently classify muscle foods into groups, such as those previously listed, which creates discrepancies in estimated intakes. Researchers who classify muscle foods into these groups do not consistently considered nutrient content, in turn leading to implications of scientific conclusions and dietary recommendations. Consequentially, these factors demonstrate a need for a more universal muscle food classification system. Further specification to this system would improve accuracy and precision in which researchers can classify muscle foods in nutrition research. Future multidisciplinary collaboration is needed to develop a new classification system via systematic review protocol of current literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1029; doi:10.3390/nu9091029
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of
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This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subjects with MeatDiet and in 12% with FishDiet. Negative effects on bone were observed in 2.7% of FishDiet and in 47.9% of MeatDiet. Major negative effects of MeatDiet were found in subjects located in the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Italy, Norway, UK and Spain who do not sustain a Mediterranean diet (92.7%); in Korea (27.1%); in Brazil and Mexico (96.4%); and in Australia (62.5%). This study suggests that protein intake from fish or meat is not harmful to bone. Negative effects on bone linked to FishDiet are almost null. Negative effects on bone were associated to MeatDiet in the setting of a Western Diet but not in Mediterranean or Asian Diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Meat Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview The Metabolic Response to Stress and Infection in Critically Ill Children: The Opportunity of an Individualized Approach
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1032; doi:10.3390/nu9091032
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract
The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an
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The metabolic response to stress and infection is closely related to the corresponding requirements of energy and nutrients. On a general level, the response is driven by a complex endocrine network and related to the nature and severity of the insult. On an individual level, the effects of nutritional interventions are highly variable and a possible source of complications. This narrative review aims to discuss the metabolic changes in critically-ill children and the potential of developing personalized nutritional interventions. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the importance of blood glucose levels, the nutritional aspects of the different phases of acute stress response, and the reliability of the available tools to assess the energy expenditure. The dynamics of metabolism during stressful events reveals the difficult balance between risk of hypo- or hyperglycemia and under- or overfeeding. Within this context, individualized and accurate measurement of energy expenditure may help in defining the metabolic needs of patients. Given the variability of the metabolic response in critical conditions, randomized clinical studies in ill children are needed to evaluate the effect of individualized nutritional intervention on health outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
Open AccessReview Lean Body Mass Harbors Sensing Mechanisms that Allow Safeguarding of Methionine Homeostasis
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1035; doi:10.3390/nu9091035 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of
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Protein-depleted states generate allosteric inhibition of liver cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), which governs the first enzymatic step of the transsulfuration cascade, resulting in upstream accretion of homocysteine (Hcy) in body fluids. A similar Hcy increase may arise from normal hepatocytes undergoing experimentally-induced impairment of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHTM) activity or from components of lean body mass (LBM) submitted to any inflammatory disorder. LBM comprises a composite agglomeration of extrarenal tissues characterized by naturally occurring BHTM inactivity. As a result of cellular injury, LBM releases high concentrations of Hcy into the extracellular space, contrasting with the disruption of normal remethylation pathways. Hyperhomocysteinemia acts as a biomarker, reflecting the severity of insult and operating as an alarm signal. Elevated Hcy levels constitute a precursor pool recognized by a CBS coding region that reacts to meet increased methionine requirements in LBM tissues, using its enhanced production in hepatocytes. Preservation of methionine homeostasis benefits from its high metabolic priority and survival value. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dietary Inflammatory Index and Colorectal Cancer Risk—A Meta-Analysis