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Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1040; doi:10.3390/nu9091040

Oligonol, a Low-Molecular Weight Polyphenol Derived from Lychee, Alleviates Muscle Loss in Diabetes by Suppressing Atrogin-1 and MuRF1

1
Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2
Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Abstract

Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway—especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1—is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement for attenuating muscle loss. Dietary (10 weeks) oligonol supplementation (20 or 200 mg/kg diet) on the skeletal muscle loss was investigated in diabetic db/db mice. Transcription factors NF-κB and FoxO3a involved in regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 were also investigated. Attenuation of muscle loss by oligonol (both doses) was associated with down-regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression. Oligonol supplementation decreased NF-κB expression in the nuclear fraction compared with db/db mice without oligonol supplement. Upregulation of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) expression prevented FoxO3a nuclear localization in db/db mice supplemented with oligonol. Marked increases in AMPKα activity and Ppara mRNA expression leading to lower lipid accumulation by oligonol provided additional benefits for attenuating muscle loss. Oligonol limited palmitate-induced senescent phenotype and cell cycle arrest and suppressed Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA expression in palmitate-treated C2C12 muscle cells, thus contributing to improving the impaired myotube formation. In conclusion, oligonol-mediated downregulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression alleviates muscle loss and improves the impaired myotube formation, indicating that oligonol supplementation may be useful for the attenuation of myotube loss. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; Atrogin-1 and MuRF1; flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract; muscle loss; NF-κB diabetes; Atrogin-1 and MuRF1; flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract; muscle loss; NF-κB
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, H.-W.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chang, Y.-C.; Chang, S.-J. Oligonol, a Low-Molecular Weight Polyphenol Derived from Lychee, Alleviates Muscle Loss in Diabetes by Suppressing Atrogin-1 and MuRF1. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1040.

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