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Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1040; doi:10.3390/nu9091040

Oligonol, a Low-Molecular Weight Polyphenol Derived from Lychee, Alleviates Muscle Loss in Diabetes by Suppressing Atrogin-1 and MuRF1

Department of Life Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Stimulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway—especially E3 ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1—is associated with muscle loss in diabetes. Elevated lipid metabolites impair myogenesis. Oligonol, a low molecular weight polyphenol derived from lychee, exhibited anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties, suggesting it could be a proper supplement for attenuating muscle loss. Dietary (10 weeks) oligonol supplementation (20 or 200 mg/kg diet) on the skeletal muscle loss was investigated in diabetic db/db mice. Transcription factors NF-κB and FoxO3a involved in regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 were also investigated. Attenuation of muscle loss by oligonol (both doses) was associated with down-regulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression. Oligonol supplementation decreased NF-κB expression in the nuclear fraction compared with db/db mice without oligonol supplement. Upregulation of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) expression prevented FoxO3a nuclear localization in db/db mice supplemented with oligonol. Marked increases in AMPKα activity and Ppara mRNA expression leading to lower lipid accumulation by oligonol provided additional benefits for attenuating muscle loss. Oligonol limited palmitate-induced senescent phenotype and cell cycle arrest and suppressed Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 mRNA expression in palmitate-treated C2C12 muscle cells, thus contributing to improving the impaired myotube formation. In conclusion, oligonol-mediated downregulation of Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 gene expression alleviates muscle loss and improves the impaired myotube formation, indicating that oligonol supplementation may be useful for the attenuation of myotube loss. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; Atrogin-1 and MuRF1; flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract; muscle loss; NF-κB diabetes; Atrogin-1 and MuRF1; flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract; muscle loss; NF-κB

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, H.-W.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chang, Y.-C.; Chang, S.-J. Oligonol, a Low-Molecular Weight Polyphenol Derived from Lychee, Alleviates Muscle Loss in Diabetes by Suppressing Atrogin-1 and MuRF1. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1040.

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