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Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 1020; doi:10.3390/nu9091020

Baseline and Estimated Trends of Sodium Availability and Food Sources in the Costa Rican Population during 2004–2005 and 2012–2013

1
Costa Rican Institute of Research and Training in Nutrition and Health, Tres Rios 4-2250, Costa Rica
2
Nutrition Department (NUT), Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte MG 30.130-100, Brazil
3
Independent Nutritionist, San José 10203-1000, Costa Rica
4
Ministry of Health, San José 10123-1000, Costa Rica
5
Independent Consultant, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia
6
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3E2, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Abstract

In 2012, Costa Rica launched a program to reduce salt and sodium consumption to prevent cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors, but little was known about the level of sodium consumption or its sources. Our aim was to estimate the magnitude and time trends of sodium consumption (based on food and beverage acquisitions) in Costa Rica. Data from the National Household Income and Expenditure Surveys carried out in 2004–2005 (n = 4231) and 2012–2013 (n = 5705) were used. Records of food purchases for household consumption were converted into sodium and energy using food composition tables. Mean sodium availability (per person/per day and adjusted for a 2000-kcal energy intake) and the contribution of food groups to this availability were estimated for each year. Sodium availability increased in the period from 3.9 to 4.6 g/person/day (p < 0.001). The income level was inversely related to sodium availability. The main sources of sodium in the diet were domestic salt (60%) in addition to processed foods and condiments (with added sodium) (27.4%). Dietary sources of sodium varied within surveys (p < 0.05). Sodium available for consumption in Costa Rican households largely exceeds the World Health Organization-recommended intake levels (<2 g sodium/person/day). These results are essential for the design and implementation of effective policies and interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt; sodium; population intervention; policy; food consumption; socioeconomic factors; Costa Rica; Latin America salt; sodium; population intervention; policy; food consumption; socioeconomic factors; Costa Rica; Latin America
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Blanco-Metzler, A.; Moreira Claro, R.; Heredia-Blonval, K.; Caravaca Rodríguez, I.; Montero-Campos, M.A.; Legetic, B.; L’Abbe, M.R. Baseline and Estimated Trends of Sodium Availability and Food Sources in the Costa Rican Population during 2004–2005 and 2012–2013. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1020.

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