Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) Cancer is a multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-118
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle Effect of Altering Dietary n-6:n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio with Plant and Marine-Based Supplement on Biomarkers of Bone Turnover in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101162
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although there is accumulating evidence for a protective role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on bone health, there are limited studies that examine the effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio with plant and marine
[...] Read more.
Although there is accumulating evidence for a protective role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on bone health, there are limited studies that examine the effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio with plant and marine sources of n-3 PUFA on bone health. Healthy adults (n = 24) were randomized into an eight-week crossover study with a four-week washout between treatments, with each subject consuming three of four diets. The four diets differed in the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios and either had an algal oil supplement added or not: (Control diet (10:1); α-linolenic acid (ALA) diet (2:1); Eicosapentaenoic acid/Docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) diet (10:1 plus supplement (S) containing EPA/DHA; Combination diet (2:1 + S)). The supplement was microalgae oil that provided 1 g EPA + DHA/day. Flaxseed oil and walnuts provided 8.6 g of ALA/day in the 2:1 diets. Serum levels of c-telopeptide (CTX), procollagen Type I N-terminal peptide, and osteocalcin showed significant correlation with age but none of the bone markers or peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ mRNA expression was significantly different between the diets. Serum CTX was negatively associated with red blood cell membrane linoleic acid and ALA and positively associated with membrane DHA. Neither altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio from a 10:1 to a 2:1 ratio nor adding EPA/DHA supplement significantly changed bone turnover in the short term in healthy adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Flavonoid Naringenin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Improves Neurotrophic Effects in the Diabetic Rat Retina
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1161; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101161
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1743 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness worldwide. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is believed to be the key factor that initiates neuronal damage in the diabetic retina leading to DR. Experimental approaches to utilize dietary flavonoids, which
[...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness worldwide. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is believed to be the key factor that initiates neuronal damage in the diabetic retina leading to DR. Experimental approaches to utilize dietary flavonoids, which possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant activities, might protect the retinal damage in diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of naringenin in the retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally treated and untreated with naringenin (50 mg/kg/day) for five weeks and retinas were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurotrophic factors. Systemic effects of naringenin treatments were also analyzed and compared with untreated groups. The results showed that elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and decreased level of glutathione (GSH) in diabetic rats were ameliorated with naringenin treatments. Moreover, decreased levels of neuroprotective factors (Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)), tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB) and synaptophysin in diabetic retina were augmented with naringenin treatments. In addition, naringenin treatment ameliorated the levels of apoptosis regulatory proteins; B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 in the diabetic retina. Thus, the study demonstrates the beneficial effects of naringenin that possesses anti-diabetic, antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, which may limit neurodegeneration by providing neurotrophic support to prevent retinal damage in diabetic retinopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Diosgenin-Rich Yam Extract Enhances Cognitive Function: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study of Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101160
Received: 17 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1437 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diosgenin, a yam-derived compound, was found to facilitate the repair of axonal atrophy and synaptic degeneration and improve memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It was also found to enhance neuronal excitation and memory function even in normal
[...] Read more.
Diosgenin, a yam-derived compound, was found to facilitate the repair of axonal atrophy and synaptic degeneration and improve memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It was also found to enhance neuronal excitation and memory function even in normal mice. We hypothesized that diosgenin, either isolated or in an extract, may represent a new category of cognitive enhancers with essential activities that morphologically and functionally reinforce neuronal networks. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a diosgenin-rich yam extract on cognitive enhancement in healthy volunteers. For this placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy volunteers (age: 20–81 years) were recruited from Toyama Prefecture, Japan, and was randomly assigned to receive either a yam extract or placebo. Preliminary functional animal experiments indicated that an oil solvent mediated the most efficient distribution of diosgenin into the blood and brain after oral administration, and was a critical factor in the cognitive benefits. Therefore, test samples (placebo and yam extract) were prepared with olive oil and formulated as soft capsules. The intake period was 12 weeks, and a 6-week washout period separated the two crossover intake periods. The Japanese version of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) test was used for neurocognitive assessment, and the adverse effects were monitored through blood testing. Diosgenin-rich yam extract consumption for 12 weeks yielded significant increases in total RBANS score. Among the 12 individual standard cognitive subtests, diosgenin-rich yam extract use significantly improved the semantic fluency. No adverse effects were reported. The diosgenin-rich yam extract treatment appeared to safely enhance cognitive function in healthy adults. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommunication Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Muscle Glycogen Content in Rats Seven Days after Eccentric Contraction
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101159
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
PDF Full-text (1179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, which impairs recovery of glycogen and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content over several days. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) enhance the recovery in muscles that are damaged after eccentric contractions. However, the role of LEAAs in this process remains
[...] Read more.
Eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, which impairs recovery of glycogen and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content over several days. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) enhance the recovery in muscles that are damaged after eccentric contractions. However, the role of LEAAs in this process remains unclear. We evaluated the content in glycogen and high energy phosphates molecules (phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine di-phosphate (ADP) and ATP) in rats that were following electrically stimulated eccentric contractions. Muscle glycogen content decreased immediately after the contraction and remained low for the first three days after the stimulation, but increased seven days after the eccentric contraction. LEAAs administration did not change muscle glycogen content during the first three days after the contraction. Interestingly, however, it induced a further increase in muscle glycogen seven days after the stimulation. Contrarily, ATP content decreased immediately after the eccentric contraction, and remained lower for up to seven days after. Additionally, LEAAs administration did not affect the ATP content over the experimental period. Finally, ADP and PCr levels did not significantly change after the contractions or LEAA administration. LEAAs modulate the recovery of glycogen content in muscle after damage-inducing exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Probiotic Modulation of Innate Cell Pathogen Sensing and Signaling Events
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101156
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1057 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which
[...] Read more.
There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which have appreciable influence on homeostasis, inflammatory- and suppressive-immunopathology. What is becoming apparent is the ability of these probiotics to modulate innate immune responses via direct or indirect effects on the signaling pathways that drive these activatory or suppressive/tolerogenic mechanisms. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics on signaling pathways in innate immune cells: from positive to negative regulation associated with innate immune cells driving gut mucosal functionality. Research investigations have shown probiotics to modulate innate functionality in many ways including, receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding to and expression of adaptor proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of micro-RNAs, endotoxin tolerisation and finally, the secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids and metabolites. The detailed understanding of the immunomodulatory signaling effects of probiotic strains will facilitate strain-specific selective manipulation of innate cell signal mechanisms in the modulation of mucosal adjuvanticity, immune deviation and tolerisation in both healthy subjects and patients with inflammatory and suppressive pathology. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Micellar Incorporation and the Intestinal Cell Uptake of Cholecalciferol, 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-α-Hydroxycholecalciferol
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1152; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101152
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the context of the global prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, we compared two key determinants of the bioavailability of 3 vitamin D forms with significant biopotencies: cholecalciferol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol. To this aim, we studied their incorporation into synthetic mixed micelles and
[...] Read more.
In the context of the global prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, we compared two key determinants of the bioavailability of 3 vitamin D forms with significant biopotencies: cholecalciferol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol. To this aim, we studied their incorporation into synthetic mixed micelles and their uptake by intestinal cells in culture. Our results show that 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol was significantly more solubilized into mixed micelles compared to the other forms (1.6-fold and 2.9-fold improvement compared to cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, respectively). In Caco-2 TC7 cells, the hydroxylated forms were taken up more efficiently than cholecalciferol (p < 0.05), and conversely to cholecalciferol, their uptake was neither SR-BI(Scavenger-Receptor class B type I)- nor NPC1L1 (NPC1 like intracellular cholesterol transporter 1)-dependent. Besides, the apical membrane sodium–bile acid transporter ASBT (Apical Sodium-dependent Bile acid Transporter) was not involved, at least in vitro, in the uptake of any of the three vitamin D forms. Further investigations are needed to identify the uptake pathways of both 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. However, considering its high bioavailability, our results suggest the potential interest of using 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol in the treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Fatty Acids Consumption: The Role Metabolic Aspects Involved in Obesity and Its Associated Disorders
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1158; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101158
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are
[...] Read more.
Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to treat and prevent these disorders. Some studies demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFA) are considered detrimental for treating these disorders. A high fat diet rich in palmitic acid, a SFA, is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and it may also increase atherosclerosis parameters. On the other hand, a high intake of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids may promote positive effects, especially on triglyceride levels and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are effective at limiting the hepatic steatosis process through a series of biochemical events, such as reducing the markers of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increasing the gene expression of lipid metabolism, decreasing lipogenic activity, and releasing adiponectin. This current review shows that the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA, and especially EPA and DHA, which can be applied as food supplements, may promote effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as on metabolic inflammation, gut microbiota, and hepatic metabolism. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA) of Foodservice Operation, Dietary Life Education, and Nutrition Counseling Tasks of Nutrition Teachers and Dietitians in Jeju, Korea
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101157
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
PDF Full-text (411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze foodservice operation, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians in elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju, Korea, and to provide effective ways to implement dietary life education and nutrition
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze foodservice operation, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians in elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju, Korea, and to provide effective ways to implement dietary life education and nutrition counseling in schools. This study surveyed 94 nutrition teachers and 46 dietitians working at elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju during 7–14 May 2015. The importance and performance of 16 tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians were measured using questionnaires. The data was analyzed by using the SPSS software and Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA). Importance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.72), dietary life education (4.37), and nutrition counseling (4.24); and performance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.48), dietary life education (3.70), and nutrition counseling (3.22). The importance–performance matrix showed that in Quadrant 4, the “Concentrate Here” item was “nutrition and dietary life education for students”, while in Quadrant 2, the “Possible Overkill” item was “cost control and office management”. These findings suggest that it is important to reduce unnecessary administrative and office management tasks in order for nutrition teachers and dietitians to implement effective nutrition education, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling programs. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Diet Quality and Adiposity in the Atlantic PATH Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1155; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101155
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine diet quality among participants in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (PATH) cohort and to assess the association with adiposity. Data were collected from participants (n = 23,768) aged 35–69 years that were residents
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine diet quality among participants in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (PATH) cohort and to assess the association with adiposity. Data were collected from participants (n = 23,768) aged 35–69 years that were residents of the Atlantic Canadian provinces. Both measured and self-reported data were used to examine adiposity (including body mass index (BMI), abdominal obesity, waist-to-hip ratio and fat mass) and food frequency questionnaires were used to assess diet quality. Overall, diet quality was statistically different among provinces. Of concern, participants across all the provinces reported consuming only 1–2 servings of vegetables and 1–2 servings fruit per day. However, participants also reported some healthy dietary choices such as consuming more servings of whole grains than refined grains, and eating at fast food restaurants ≤1 per month. Significant differences in BMI, body weight, percentage body fat, and fat mass index were also observed among provinces. Adiposity measures were positively associated with consumption of meat/poultry, fish, snack food, sweeteners, diet soft drinks, and frequenting fast food restaurants, and inversely associated with consumption of whole grains and green tea. Although all four provinces are in the Atlantic region, diet quality vary greatly among provinces and are associated with adiposity. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Prevalence and Predictors of Dietary Supplement Use in the Australian Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101154
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Current dietary supplement use in Australia is not well described. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of supplement use in the Australian population (n = 19,257) using data from the 2014–2015 National Health Survey. We reported the prevalence of supplement use by
[...] Read more.
Current dietary supplement use in Australia is not well described. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of supplement use in the Australian population (n = 19,257) using data from the 2014–2015 National Health Survey. We reported the prevalence of supplement use by sex and age group and investigated the independent predictors of supplement use in adults, adolescents, and children using multiple logistic regression models. A total of 43.2% of adults (34.9% of males, 50.3% of females), 20.1% of adolescents (19.7% of males, 20.6% of females), and 23.5% of children (24.4% of males, 22.5% of females) used at least one dietary supplement in the previous two weeks. The most commonly used supplements were multivitamins and/or multiminerals and fish oil preparations. In adults, independent predictors of supplement use included being female, increasing age, being born outside Australia and other main English-speaking countries, having a higher education level, having a healthy BMI compared to those who were obese, being physically active, and being a non-smoker. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed investigation of dietary supplement use in a nationally-representative sample of the Australian population. Future studies investigating the contribution of supplements to overall dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Multivariable Analysis of Nutritional and Socio-Economic Profiles Shows Differences in Incident Anemia for Northern and Southern Jiangsu in China
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1153; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101153
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1055 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Anemia is a prevalent public health problem associated with nutritional and socio-economic factors that contribute to iron deficiency. To understand the complex interplay of risk factors, we investigated a prospective population sample from the Jiangsu province in China. At baseline, three-day food intake
[...] Read more.
Anemia is a prevalent public health problem associated with nutritional and socio-economic factors that contribute to iron deficiency. To understand the complex interplay of risk factors, we investigated a prospective population sample from the Jiangsu province in China. At baseline, three-day food intake was measured for 2849 individuals (20 to 87 years of age, mean age 47 ± 14, range 20–87 years, 64% women). At a five-year follow-up, anemia status was re-assessed for 1262 individuals. The dataset was split and age-matched to accommodate cross-sectional (n = 2526), prospective (n = 837), and subgroup designs (n = 1844). We applied a machine learning framework (self-organizing map) to define four subgroups. The first two subgroups were primarily from the less affluent North: the High Fibre subgroup had a higher iron intake (35 vs. 21 mg/day) and lower anemia incidence (10% vs. 25%) compared to the Low Vegetable subgroup. However, the predominantly Southern subgroups were surprising: the Low Fibre subgroup showed a lower anemia incidence (10% vs. 27%), yet also a lower iron intake (20 vs. 28 mg/day) compared to the High Rice subgroup. These results suggest that interventions and iron intake guidelines should be tailored to regional, nutritional, and socio-economic subgroups. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Neural and Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Controlling the Quality of Feeding Behavior: Diet Selection and Feeding Patterns
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1151; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101151
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily
[...] Read more.
We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily determined by the balance between caloric intake and expenditure. In contrast, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the qualitative aspects of feeding, although they also significantly impact the control of weight and health. However, two aspects of feeding quality relevant to weight loss and weight regain are discussed in this review: macronutrient-based diet selection (what) and feeding pattern (when). This review covers the importance of these two factors in controlling weight and health, and the central mechanisms that regulate them. The relatively limited and fragmented knowledge on these topics indicates that we lack an integrated understanding of the qualitative aspects of feeding behavior. To promote better understanding of weight control, research efforts must focus more on the mechanisms that control the quality and quantity of feeding behavior. This understanding will contribute to improving dietary interventions for achieving weight control and for preventing weight regain following weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Zinc Supplementation Improves Glucose Homeostasis in High Fat-Fed Mice by Enhancing Pancreatic β-Cell Function
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1150; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101150
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zinc is an essential component of the insulin granule and it possibly modulates insulin secretion and signaling. Since insulin resistance is a hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this study aimed at investigating if zinc supplementation is able to improve
[...] Read more.
Zinc is an essential component of the insulin granule and it possibly modulates insulin secretion and signaling. Since insulin resistance is a hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this study aimed at investigating if zinc supplementation is able to improve glucose tolerance and β-cell function in a model of insulin resistance. Male C57BL/6 mice were distributed in four groups according to the diet: normal fat (NF); normal fat supplemented with ZnCl2 (NFZ); high-fat (HF); and, high-fat chow supplemented with ZnCl2 (HFZ). Intraperitoneal glucose (ipGTT) and insulin (ipITT) tolerance, glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were determined after 15 weeks in each diet. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was investigated in isolated islets. The insulin effect on glucose uptake, metabolism, and signaling was investigated in soleus muscle. ZnCl2 did not affect body mass or insulin sensitivity as assessed by ipITT, HOMA-IR, muscle glucose metabolism, and Akt and GSK3-β phosphorylation. However, glucose tolerance, HOMA-β, and GSIS were significantly improved by ZnCl2 supplementation. Therefore, ZnCl2 supplementation improves glucose homeostasis in high fat-fed mice by a mechanism that enhances β-cell function, rather than whole-body or muscle insulin sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health) Printed Edition available
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Body Weight Cycling with Identical Diet Composition Does Not Affect Energy Balance and Has No Adverse Effect on Metabolic Health Parameters
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101149
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1735 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters
[...] Read more.
Background: Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters measured, and definitions of BW cycling. Here, we examined the effect of repetitive BW cycling versus single- and non-cycling control groups, without alterations in diet composition, on steady state BW and metabolic parameters. Methods: We induced well-defined BW cycles on a semi-purified high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, a well-described animal model for diet-induced obesity, and measured energy expenditure and relevant metabolic parameters. Results: Our setup indeed resulted in the intended BW changes and always reached a stage of energy balance. A history of weight cycling did not result in increased BW or fat mass compared with the control group, nor in deteriorated serum concentrations of glucose, adipokines and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. If anything, BW tended to be reduced, presumably because of a reduced overall energy intake in BW cycling animals. Conclusion: Repeated cycling in BW without changes in diet composition does not lead to impaired metabolic health nor increased BW (gain). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Impact of a Weight Loss Intervention on Diet Quality and Eating Behaviours in People with Obesity and COPD
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9101147
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index;
[...] Read more.
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status. This sub-study aims to evaluate the intervention by (a) examining changes in dietary intake and nutritional biomarkers and (b) examining predictors of weight loss. Dietary intake was evaluated using four-day food diaries, and analysis of plasma fatty acids and plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of dietary fat intake and fruit and vegetable intake, respectively. Twenty-eight obese COPD subjects (n = 17 males, n = 11 females) with a mean (standard deviation; SD) age of 67.6 (6.3) years completed the 12-week weight loss intervention. Pre-intervention, mean (SD) BMI was 36.3 (4.6) kg/m2. Micronutrient intake improved from pre- to post-intervention, with the percentage of subjects meeting the Nutrient Reference Values increased for all micronutrients. Post-intervention, significant decreases in total (p = 0.009) and saturated fat intake (p = 0.037), and corresponding decreases in total (p = 0.007) and saturated plasma fatty acids (p = 0.003) were observed. There was a trend towards higher total carotenoids post-intervention (p = 0.078). Older age (p = 0.025), higher pre-intervention uncontrolled eating (p < 0.001) and plasma carotenoids (p = 0.009) predicted weight loss. This demonstrates the efficacy of a weight loss intervention in improving diet quality of obese COPD adults. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top