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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 10 (October 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1085; doi:10.3390/nu9101085
Received: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
A balanced diet with sufficient essential nutritional elements is critical for maintaining a healthy body.[...] Full article
Open AccessEditorial Nutrients in Infancy: Progress and Prospects
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1131; doi:10.3390/nu9101131
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
This monograph, based on a special issue of Nutrients, contains 31 papers—5 reviews and 26 original publications—that reflect the wide spectrum of current research on nutrients and infancy [...]
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Breakfast and Breakfast Cereal Choice and Its Impact on Nutrient and Sugar Intakes and Anthropometric Measures among a Nationally Representative Sample of Australian Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1045; doi:10.3390/nu9101045
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
There is limited evidence in Australia that compares the nutritional impact of a breakfast cereal breakfast to a non-cereal breakfast, and includes the type of cereal. This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on
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There is limited evidence in Australia that compares the nutritional impact of a breakfast cereal breakfast to a non-cereal breakfast, and includes the type of cereal. This study investigated the impact of breakfast choice and the total sugar content of breakfast cereal on nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures among Australian children and adolescents. Data from 2 to 18-year-old in the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were used (n = 2821). Participants were classified as breakfast cereal consumers (minimally pre-sweetened (MPS) or pre-sweetened (PS)), non-cereal breakfast consumers, or breakfast skippers. Foods consumed for breakfast, foods added to the cereal bowl, and the impact of breakfast choice on daily nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures were determined. Although only 9% of children skipped breakfast, 61% of skippers were aged 14–18 years. Among breakfast consumers, 49% had breakfast cereal, and 62% of these exclusively consumed MPS cereal. Breakfast skippers had a higher saturated fat intake than breakfast cereal consumers, and lower intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients (p < 0.001). Compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers, breakfast cereal consumers had similar added and free sugars intakes, lower sodium, and higher total sugars, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and almost all other micronutrients (p < 0.001). The only difference in nutrient intakes between MPS and PS cereal consumers was higher folate among PS consumers. No associations between anthropometric measures and breakfast or breakfast cereal choice were found. The highest prevalence of breakfast skipping was among 14–18-year old. Breakfast cereal consumers had higher intakes of dietary fibre and most micronutrients compared with non-cereal breakfast consumers and skippers, and almost no differences were found between MPS and PS cereal consumers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evidence for Involvement of IL-9 and IL-22 in Cows’ Milk Allergy in Infants
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1048; doi:10.3390/nu9101048
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
Although allergic inflammation is characterized by a T helper (Th) 2-dominant immune response, the discovery of a role for new T cell subsets in inflammatory diseases has added an additional layer of complexity to the understanding of the pathogeneses of allergic diseases. We
[...] Read more.
Although allergic inflammation is characterized by a T helper (Th) 2-dominant immune response, the discovery of a role for new T cell subsets in inflammatory diseases has added an additional layer of complexity to the understanding of the pathogeneses of allergic diseases. We evaluated plasma cytokine profiles in infants with cows’ milk allergy (CMA), who were being treated with an elimination diet. In a prospective, randomized and controlled study, infants (aged 8.4 ± 3.9 months) with CMA were treated with an elimination diet for 120 days, which replaced cows’ milk with a hydrolysed soy protein formula (n = 26) or a free amino acid formula (n = 20). Blood samples were collected before treatment during active disease (T0) and after 120 days, when symptoms were absent (T1). Plasma cytokine concentrations were measured. Infants with CMA had higher plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 and lower concentrations of IL-9, IL-17A and interferon-γ, compared with healthy breast-fed infants. At T0, there was a positive correlation between blood eosinophil numbers and plasma concentrations of IL-4, IL-9, IL-17A and IL-22. Treatment with a cows’ milk elimination diet resulted in a decrease in plasma IL-4, IL-9, IL-13 and IL-22 and an increase in plasma IL-17A. We conclude that IL-4 and IL-13 are elevated in active CMA. The association of IL-9 and IL-22 with eosinophilia, and the decrease in these two cytokines with cows’ milk elimination, suggests that they both play a role in the symptoms observed in CMA and may be important targets for future interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Phyllodulcin, a Natural Sweetener, Regulates Obesity-Related Metabolic Changes and Fat Browning-Related Genes of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1049; doi:10.3390/nu9101049
Received: 12 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks
[...] Read more.
Phyllodulcin is a natural sweetener found in Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii. This study investigated whether phyllodulcin could improve metabolic abnormalities in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Animals were fed a 60% HFD for 6 weeks to induce obesity, followed by 7 weeks of supplementation with phyllodulcin (20 or 40 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/day). Stevioside (40 mg/kg b.w./day) was used as a positive control. Phyllodulcin supplementation reduced subcutaneous fat mass, levels of plasma lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improved the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and fasting blood glucose. In subcutaneous fat tissues, supplementation with stevioside or phyllodulcin significantly decreased mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1C (SREBP-1c) compared to the high-fat group. Phyllodulcin supplementation significantly increased the expression of fat browning-related genes, including PR domain containing 16 (Prdm16), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α), compared to the high-fat group. Hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tropomyosin receptor kinase B (BDNF-TrkB) signaling was upregulated by phyllodulcin supplementation. In conclusion, phyllodulcin is a potential sweetener that could be used to combat obesity by regulating levels of leptin, fat browning-related genes, and hypothalamic BDNF-TrkB signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Intestinal Production of Anti-Tissue Transglutaminase 2 Antibodies in Patients with Diagnosis Other Than Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1050; doi:10.3390/nu9101050
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 14 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
It has been hypothesized that gluten-dependent production of anti-tissue-transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies may occur only at an intestinal level. We have investigated intestinal production of anti-TG2 antibodies in 136 patients with normal serum levels of anti-TG2 antibodies and normal duodenal mucosa. Intestinal deposits
[...] Read more.
It has been hypothesized that gluten-dependent production of anti-tissue-transglutaminase 2 (anti-TG2) antibodies may occur only at an intestinal level. We have investigated intestinal production of anti-TG2 antibodies in 136 patients with normal serum levels of anti-TG2 antibodies and normal duodenal mucosa. Intestinal deposits of anti-TG2 antibodies were evaluated by immunofluorescence and anti-TG2 antibodies released in organ culture supernatants measured by ELISA. Intestinal antibody libraries were obtained from 10 subjects. Immunohistochemistry for CD25+, CD3+, and TCR-γδ+ was assessed in subjects with positive (n = 32) and negative (n = 31) intestinal anti-TG2 antibodies. Globally 33/136 (24%) seronegative patients produced anti-TG2 autoantibodies at an intestinal level. Antibody libraries analysis confirmed the anti-TG2 antibodies mucosal production in all (n = 8) positive subjects. Lamina propria CD25+ cell count was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in patients with intestinal anti-TG2. Moreover, 13/32 (41%) of them showed high TCR-γδ+/CD3+ ratios. Intestinal anti-TG2 antibody production does not show absolute specificity for CD. It is seen more often in association with inflamed mucosa. Further investigations are necessary to prove the possible role of dietary gluten. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effects of Culinary Herbs and Spices on the Growth of HCA-7 Colorectal Cancer Cells and Their COX-2 Expression
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1051; doi:10.3390/nu9101051
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
It is unclear if the anti-inflammatory properties of culinary herbs and spices (CHS) are linked to their ability to inhibit Colorectal cancer cell (CRC) growth. Furthermore, their therapeutic potential with regards to CRC is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish
[...] Read more.
It is unclear if the anti-inflammatory properties of culinary herbs and spices (CHS) are linked to their ability to inhibit Colorectal cancer cell (CRC) growth. Furthermore, their therapeutic potential with regards to CRC is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish if the inhibition of HCA-7 CRC cell growth by a selection of culinary herbs and spices (CHS) is linked to the inhibition of the cells’ cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 )expression, and to investigate their therapeutic potential. CHS inhibited the growth of Human colon adenocarcinoma-7 (HCA-7) cells; the order of potency was turmeric, bay leaf, ginger, sage, and rosemary; their combinations had a synergistic or additive effect on cell growth inhibition. CHS also inhibited COX-2 expression and activity; this action was comparable to that of the specific COX-2 inhibitor Celecoxib. Coincident with COX-2 inhibition was the accumulation of cells in the sub G1 phase of the HCA-7’s cell cycle and, using bay leaf and turmeric, the cleavage of caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This latter effect showed that the effect of these CHS on growth arrest was irreversible, and was comparable to that of the caspase activator Etoposide. This study provides evidence of a link between the inhibition of HCA-7 growth, and its COX-2 expression, by CHS, and their therapeutic potential. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication The Gut Microbial Metabolite Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Is Present in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1053; doi:10.3390/nu9101053
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a small organic molecule, derived from the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine. Although the involvement of TMAO in the framework of many chronic diseases has been recently described, no evidence on its putative role
[...] Read more.
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a small organic molecule, derived from the intestinal and hepatic metabolism of dietary choline and carnitine. Although the involvement of TMAO in the framework of many chronic diseases has been recently described, no evidence on its putative role in the central nervous system has been provided. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether TMAO is present at detectable levels in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF was collected for diagnostic purposes from 58 subjects by lumbar puncture and TMAO was quantified by using liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. The molecule was detected in all samples, at concentrations ranging between 0.11 and 6.43 µmol/L. Further analysis on CSF revealed that a total of 22 subjects were affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD), 16 were affected by non-AD related dementia, and 20 were affected by other neurological disorders. However, the stratification of TMAO levels according to the neurological diagnoses revealed no differences among the three groups. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence that TMAO can be assessed in human CSF, but the actual impact of this dietary metabolite in the patho-physiolgy of the central nervous system requires further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1054; doi:10.3390/nu9101054
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI) in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was
[...] Read more.
Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI) in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm2/m2 for women and ≤ 36.0 cm2/m2 for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients (p = 0.007). However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child–Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.015) and sex (p < 0.0001) were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female) is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child–Pugh score (≥56 years), and enlarged tumor size (<56 years). Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Total Antioxidant Capacity from Dietary Supplement Decreases the Likelihood of Having Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1055; doi:10.3390/nu9101055
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
This study was conducted to estimate antioxidant vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and dietary supplements and to examine their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. Out of 6308 adults 19~64 years old from the 2010~2011 Korea National
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This study was conducted to estimate antioxidant vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) from diet and dietary supplements and to examine their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults. Out of 6308 adults 19~64 years old from the 2010~2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1847 adults were classified as dietary supplement users and the other 4461 adults were classified as non-users. Antioxidant intake and TAC from diet and dietary supplements were estimated using dietary intake data and linked with the antioxidant and TAC database for common Korean foods. The prevalence of MetS was lower in dietary supplement users (odds ratio (OR) = 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68–0.98) than that in non-users. Among dietary supplement users, a lower prevalence of MetS was observed in the highest tertile for vitamin A (OR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.53–0.99) and vitamin E (OR = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55– 0.99) intake than that in the lowest tertile among non-users. Subjects in the highest tertile of TAC among dietary supplement users showed a lower prevalence of MetS (OR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.52–0.99) than non-users. The results imply that intake of vitamin A, vitamin E, and TAC from dietary supplements might have a protective effect on MetS among Korean adults. Full article
Open AccessArticle Prospective Study of Nut Consumption and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1056; doi:10.3390/nu9101056
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 16 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19–74 years, participants of the
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the association of various types of nut per se, and total nut consumption with the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A 6.2 ± 0.7-year population-based prospective study was conducted among 1265 adults, aged 19–74 years, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. A 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on nut consumption. MetS was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement guidelines and 276 new cases of MetS were identified. Median ± interquartile range of nut consumption was 2.08 (0.88–5.68) servings/week. After adjusting for family history of diabetes, age, gender, smoking, physical activity, fasting serum glucose at baseline, serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) at baseline, energy intake, fiber, macronutrients, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables, dairy products and body mass index (BMI), a statistically significant decrease was observed in MetS in the third (≥5 servings/week) tertile of nuts (odds ratio: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.44–0.91, p trend: 0.03) compared with the lowest (≤1 serving/week). Walnut consumption showed a significant, inverse association with MetS risk; associations for other nut varieties were not significant. For each additional serving/week of walnuts consumed, incidence of MetS decreased by 3% (ORs: 0.97 CI: 0.93–0.99), after adjusting for confounding factors. Total nut consumption, especially walnuts, reduces the risk of MetS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Coptidis Rhizoma Prevents Heat Stress-Induced Brain Damage and Cognitive Impairment in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1057; doi:10.3390/nu9101057
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
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Abstract
Heat stress conditions lead to neuroinflammation, neuronal death, and memory loss in animals. Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) exhibits potent fever-reducing effects and has been used as an important traditional medicinal herb for treating fever. However, to date, the effects of antipyretic CR on heat-induced
[...] Read more.
Heat stress conditions lead to neuroinflammation, neuronal death, and memory loss in animals. Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) exhibits potent fever-reducing effects and has been used as an important traditional medicinal herb for treating fever. However, to date, the effects of antipyretic CR on heat-induced brain damages have not been investigated. In this study, CR significantly reduced the elevation of ear and rectal temperatures after exposure to heat in mice. Additionally, CR attenuated hyperthermia-induced stress responses, such as release of cortisol into the blood, and upregulation of heat shock protein and c-Fos in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of mice. The administration of CR inhibited gliosis and neuronal loss induced by thermal stress in the hippocampal CA3 region. Treatment with CR also reduced the heat stress-induced expression of nuclear factor kappa β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hippocampus. Moreover, CR significantly decreased proinflammatory mediators such as IL-9 and IL-13 in the heat-stressed hypothalamus. Furthermore, CR attenuated cognitive dysfunction triggered by thermal stress. These results indicate that CR protects the brain against heat stress-mediated brain damage via amelioration of hyperthermia and neuroinflammation in mice, suggesting that fever-reducing CR can attenuate thermal stress-induced neuropathology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Validity of Nutrient Intakes Derived from an Internet Website Dish-Based Dietary Record for Self-Management of Weight among Japanese Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1058; doi:10.3390/nu9101058
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 24 September 2017
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Abstract
We compared the relative validity of nutrient intakes derived from Internet website dish-based dietary records (WDDRs) and weighed dietary records (DRs). The study participants were 218 registered users of a dietary management website. After excluding 55 participants, a total of 163 participants were
[...] Read more.
We compared the relative validity of nutrient intakes derived from Internet website dish-based dietary records (WDDRs) and weighed dietary records (DRs). The study participants were 218 registered users of a dietary management website. After excluding 55 participants, a total of 163 participants were included in the final analyses. The participants were Japanese women, and their mean age and mean body mass index (BMI) were 39.3 (±10.3) years and 22.3 (±3.7) years, respectively. We compared differences in the DR and WDDR with respect to intakes of energy and 13 nutrients. The median values for the intake of protein and seven nutrients showed no significant difference between the DR and WDDR, and the estimated values were generally similar. The interquartile range of nutrients with a significant difference did not show a large deviation, with the exception of vitamin A. Correlation coefficients showed a strong correlation of 0.7, with the exception of sodium and vitamin E. The kappa coefficients for energy and for some nutrients were good to fair. Using Bland–Altman plots, we found proportional errors in the intake values for vitamins and minerals. We could not confirm obvious systematic errors for energy, protein, fat, or carbohydrate intake. WDDR use is considered to be a valid method for estimating energy and nutrient intakes among Japanese women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relative Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Intakes in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population Using 24-h Dietary Recalls and Biomarkers
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1059; doi:10.3390/nu9101059
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
The assessment of diets in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings is challenging. A semi-quantitative 163-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed for the adult Singapore population, and this study aimed to assess its reproducibility and relative validity against 24-h dietary recalls (24 h DR) and
[...] Read more.
The assessment of diets in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings is challenging. A semi-quantitative 163-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed for the adult Singapore population, and this study aimed to assess its reproducibility and relative validity against 24-h dietary recalls (24 h DR) and biomarkers. The FFQ was administered twice within a six-month interval in 161 adults (59 Chinese, 46 Malay, and 56 Indian). Fasting plasma, overnight urine, and 24 h DR were collected after one month and five months. Intra-class correlation coefficients between the two FFQ were above 0.70 for most foods and nutrients. The median correlation coefficient between energy-adjusted deattenuated FFQ and 24 h DR nutrient intakes was 0.40 for FFQ1 and 0.39 for FFQ2, highest for calcium and iron, and lowest for energy and carbohydrates. Significant associations were observed between urinary isoflavones and soy protein intake (r = 0.46), serum carotenoids and fruit and vegetable intake (r = 0.34), plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) and fish/seafood intake (r = 0.36), and plasma odd chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and dairy fat intake (r = 0.25). Associations between plasma EPA + DHA and fish/seafood intake were consistent across ethnic groups (r = 0.28–0.49), while differences were observed for other associations. FFQ assessment of dietary intakes in modern cosmopolitan populations remains feasible for the purpose of ranking individuals’ dietary exposures in epidemiological studies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effects of Small Molecule Oligopeptides Isolated from Panax ginseng Meyer on Pancreatic Beta-Cell Dysfunction and Death in Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1061; doi:10.3390/nu9101061
Received: 27 May 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
To determine whether treatment with ginseng oligopeptides (GOPs) could modulate hyperglycemia related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rats induced by high-fat diet and low doses of alloxan, type 2 diabetes was induced in male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats by injecting them once
[...] Read more.
To determine whether treatment with ginseng oligopeptides (GOPs) could modulate hyperglycemia related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in rats induced by high-fat diet and low doses of alloxan, type 2 diabetes was induced in male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats by injecting them once with 105 mg/kg alloxan and feeding them high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet with or without GOP administration (0.125, 0.5, and 2.0 g/kg Body Weight) for 7, 24, and 52 weeks. Oral glucose test tolerance (OGTT), plasma glucose, serum insulin, level of antioxidant, and beta cell function were measured. Morphological observation and immunohistochemistry study of insulin of islets was performed by light microscopy. The insulin level and the expression of NF-κB and Bcl-2 family in pancreatic islets were also detected by Western blot analysis. In addition, survival time and survival rate were observed. After the treatment, the abnormal OGTT were partially reversed by GOPs treatment in diabetic rats. The efficacy of GOPs was manifested in the amelioration of pancreatic damage, as determined by microscopy analysis. Moreover, GOPs treatment increased the normal insulin content and decreased the expression of the NF-κB-signaling pathway. Compared with those in the control model, the survival time and rate were significantly longer. It is suggested that GOPs exhibit auxiliary therapeutic potential for diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Consumption of Citrus Fruit and Olive Leaf Extract on Lipid Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1062; doi:10.3390/nu9101062
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Citrus fruit and olive leaves are a source of bioactive compounds such as biophenols which have been shown to ameliorate obesity-related conditions through their anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effect, and by regulating lipoproteins and cholesterol body levels. Citrolive™ is a commercial extract which is
[...] Read more.
Citrus fruit and olive leaves are a source of bioactive compounds such as biophenols which have been shown to ameliorate obesity-related conditions through their anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory effect, and by regulating lipoproteins and cholesterol body levels. Citrolive™ is a commercial extract which is obtained from the combination of both citrus fruit and olive leaf extracts; hence, it is hypothesised that Citrolive™ may moderate metabolic disorders that are related to obesity and their complications. Initially, an in vitro study of the inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity was made, however, no effect was found. Both preliminary and long-term evaluations of Citrolive™ on lipid metabolism were conducted in an animal model using Wistar rats. In the preliminary in vivo screening, Citrolive™ was tested on postprandial plasma triglyceride level after the administration of an oil emulsion, and a significant reduction in postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) levels was observed. In the long-term study, Citrolive™ was administered for 60 days on Wistar rats that were fed a high-fat diet. During the study, several associated lipid metabolism indicators were analysed in blood and faeces. At the end of the experiment, the livers were removed and weighed for group comparison. Citrolive™ treatment significantly reduced the liver-to-body-weight ratio, as supported by reduced plasma transaminases compared with control, but insignificantly reduced plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) and postprandial TAG plasma levels. In addition, faecal analysis showed that the treatment significantly increased total cholesterol excretion. On the other hand, no effect was found on faecal TAG and pancreatic lipase in vitro. In conclusion, treatment ameliorates liver inflammation symptoms that are worsened by the effects of high fat diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Mediterranean Dietary Pattern Adherence Modify the Association between FTO Genetic Variations and Obesity Phenotypes
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1064; doi:10.3390/nu9101064
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
There is increasing interest of which dietary patterns can modify the association of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) variants with obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the interaction of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (Med Diet) with FTO polymorphisms in relation to
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There is increasing interest of which dietary patterns can modify the association of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) variants with obesity. This study was aimed at investigating the interaction of the Mediterranean dietary pattern (Med Diet) with FTO polymorphisms in relation to obesity phenotypes. Subjects of this nested case-control study were selected from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study participants. Each case was individually matched with a normal weight control (n = 1254). Selected polymorphisms (rs1421085, rs1121980, rs17817449, rs8050136, rs9939973, and rs3751812) were genotyped. Genetic risk score (GRS) were calculated using the weighted method. The Mediterranean dietary score (MDS) was computed. Individuals with minor allele carriers of rs9939973, rs8050136, rs1781749, and rs3751812 had lower risk of obesity when they had higher MDS, compared to wild-type homozygote genotype carriers. The obesity risk was decreased across quartiles of MDS in participants with high GRS (OR: 1, 0.8, 0.79, 0.67) compared to individuals with low GRS (OR: 1.33, 1.06, 0.97, 1.12) (Pinteraction < 0.05). No significant interaction between the GRS and MDS on abdominal obesity was found. A higher Med Diet adherence was associated with lower obesity risk in subjects with more genetic predisposition to obesity, compared to those with lower adherence to the Med Diet and lower GRS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Ferulic Acid Promotes Hypertrophic Growth of Fast Skeletal Muscle in Zebrafish Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1066; doi:10.3390/nu9101066
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
As a widely distributed and natural existing antioxidant, ferulic acid and its functions have been extensively studied in recent decades. In the present study, hypertrophic growth of fast skeletal myofibers was observed in adult zebrafish after ferulic acid administration for 30 days, being
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As a widely distributed and natural existing antioxidant, ferulic acid and its functions have been extensively studied in recent decades. In the present study, hypertrophic growth of fast skeletal myofibers was observed in adult zebrafish after ferulic acid administration for 30 days, being reflected in increased body weight, body mass index (BMI), and muscle mass, along with an enlarged cross-sectional area of myofibers. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated the up-regulation of relative mRNA expression levels of myogenic transcriptional factors (MyoD, myogenin and serum response factor (SRF)) and their target genes encoding sarcomeric unit proteins involved in muscular hypertrophy (skeletal alpha-actin, myosin heavy chain, tropomyosin, and troponin I). Western blot analyses detected a higher phosphorylated level of zTOR (zebrafish target of rapamycin), p70S6K, and 4E-BP1, which suggests an enhanced translation efficiency and protein synthesis capacity of fast skeletal muscle myofibers. These changes in transcription and translation finally converge and lead to higher protein contents in myofibers, as confirmed by elevated levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC), and an increased muscle mass. To the best of our knowledge, these findings have been reported for the first time in vivo and suggest potential applications of ferulic acid as functional food additives and dietary supplements owing to its ability to promote muscle growth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Serum Concentration of Leptin in Pregnant Adolescents Correlated with Gestational Weight Gain, Postpartum Weight Retention and Newborn Weight/Length
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1067; doi:10.3390/nu9101067
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis.
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Introduction: Gestational weight gain is an important modifiable factor known to influence fetal outcomes including birth weight and adiposity. Leptin is normally correlated with adiposity and is also known to increase throughout pregnancy, as the placenta becomes a source of leptin synthesis. Several studies have reported positive correlations between cord blood leptin level and either birthweight or size for gestational age, as well as body mass index (BMI). Objective: To determine the correlation of prenatal leptin concentration in pregnant adolescents with their gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, and weight/length of their newborn. Methods: A cohort study was conducted on pregnant Mexican adolescents from Gestational Week 26–28 to three months postpartum (n = 168 mother–child dyads). An anthropometric assessment was made of each pregnant adolescent, and the serum level of leptin and the intake of energy were determined. The newborn was evaluated each month during postpartum. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain sociodemographic data. Bivariate correlations, tests for repeating measurements and logistic regression models were performed. Results: Leptin concentration gradually increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. At Gestation Week 36, leptin level correlated with gestational weight gain. When comparing adolescents that had the lowest and highest concentration of leptin, the former presented a mean of 6 kg less in gestational weight gain (inter-subject leptin concentration, p = 0.001; inter-subject energy intake, p = 0.497). Leptin concentration and gestational weight gain exerted an effect on the weight of the newborn (inter-subject leptin concentration for Week 32, p = 0.024; inter-subject gestational weight gain, p = 0.011). Newborn length was associated with leptin concentration at Week 28 (leptin effect, p = 0.003; effect of gestational weight gain, p = 0.722). Conclusions: Pregnant adolescents with leptin concentration over 20 ng/mL showed a greater gestational weight gain. Leptin concentration correlated with length and weight of the newborn. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Explicit and Implicit Approach vs. Avoidance Tendencies towards High vs. Low Calorie Food Cues in Patients with Obesity and Active Binge Eating Disorder
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1068; doi:10.3390/nu9101068
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) suffer from regular food binges with loss of control. This may be due to dysfunctional approach vs. avoidance tendencies towards food in BED. We applied an approach-avoidance task (AAT), in which n = 24 patients with obesity
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Patients with binge eating disorder (BED) suffer from regular food binges with loss of control. This may be due to dysfunctional approach vs. avoidance tendencies towards food in BED. We applied an approach-avoidance task (AAT), in which n = 24 patients with obesity and active BED (OB-BED), n = 32 patients with obesity without current BED (OB), and n = 25 healthy controls (CO) either approached (“pulled”) or avoided (“pushed”) high (HC) vs. low calorie (LC) food pictures. We tested the hypothesis that OB-BED patients would show an approach bias (measured as different response times RT) towards HC food compared to the other groups. While there was no main effect for group or direction of movement, a significant main effect for calorie (p < 0.001; RT for HC significantly slower than for LC) was found. Repeated measures ANOVA (rm-ANOVA) for comparison of OB-BED vs. OB vs. CO revealed a significant three-fold interaction group × direction × calorie (p = 0.02). Against our hypothesis, the OB-BED group showed an avoidance bias for LC. In explicit ratings, OB-BED reported a significantly reduced urge to consume LC food compared to the OB group. Similar to OB-BED, CO also showed an avoidance bias for LC. The implications of our results are discussed and future directions in this field of research are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Dietary Phenolic Acids and Hypertension in a Mediterranean Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1069; doi:10.3390/nu9101069
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Background: Certain foods rich in phenolic acids have been shown to reduce the risk of hypertension, but evidence from epidemiological studies focused on dietary phenolic acid intake is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary phenolic acid
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Background: Certain foods rich in phenolic acids have been shown to reduce the risk of hypertension, but evidence from epidemiological studies focused on dietary phenolic acid intake is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary phenolic acid intake, as well as their major food sources, and hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort. Methods: Demographic and dietary data of 2044 adults living in Southern Italy were collected. Food frequency questionnaires and Phenol-Explorer were used to calculate dietary intake of polyphenols. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test associations. Results: The mean intake of total phenolic acids in the cohort was 362.6 mg/day. Individuals in the highest quartile of phenolic acid intake (median intake = 522.2 mg/day) were less likely to have hypertension (OR (odds ratio) = 0.68, 95% CI (confidence interval): 0.46, 1.00). When taking into account individual subclasses of phenolic acids, only hydroxyphenylacetic acid was inversely associated with hypertension (highest vs. lowest quartile, OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.96). Among dietary sources of phenolic acids considered in the analysis, only beer was significantly inversely associated with hypertension (highest vs. lowest quartile, OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.68). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that dietary phenolic acids may be inversely associated with hypertension, irrespectively of their dietary source. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Cynanchum wilfordii Ameliorates Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-Reductase and Androgen Receptor Activities in a Rat Model
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1070; doi:10.3390/nu9101070
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of the prostate gland. Cynanchum wilfordii has been reported to improve sexual behavior in male rats. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of an aqueous extract of C. wilfordii (CWW) against BPH
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of the prostate gland. Cynanchum wilfordii has been reported to improve sexual behavior in male rats. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of an aqueous extract of C. wilfordii (CWW) against BPH development in a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. The rats were divided into the following six groups: sham/vehicle; BPH/vehicle; BPH/finasteride; and three CWW doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg). After a 4-week treatment with CWW, the rats were euthanized at scheduled times, and their prostates were weighed, followed by a histopathological examination. Prostate growth inhibition rates in rats administered CWW 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were 54.5%, 51.8%, and 50.1%, respectively. The BPH/CWW group showed decreased serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels compared to the BPH/vehicle group. Furthermore, the BPH/CWW group showed reduced prostate testosterone and DHT levels compared to the BPH/vehicle group. Mechanistically, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed downregulated mRNA expression levels of the androgen receptor, 5α-reductase, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the BPH/CWW200 group compared with those in the testosterone-induced groups. In conclusion, these findings show the effectiveness of CWW in slowing the progression of testosterone-induced BPH in rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1071; doi:10.3390/nu9101071
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis
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Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS), we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR), plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Resveratrol Regulates Colorectal Cancer Cell Invasion by Modulation of Focal Adhesion Molecules
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1073; doi:10.3390/nu9101073
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Resveratrol, a safe and multi-targeted agent, has been associated with suppression of survival, proliferation and metastasis of cancer, however, the underlying mechanisms for its anti-cancer activity, particularly on cellular signaling during cancer cell migration still remain poorly understood. We investigated the invasion response
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Resveratrol, a safe and multi-targeted agent, has been associated with suppression of survival, proliferation and metastasis of cancer, however, the underlying mechanisms for its anti-cancer activity, particularly on cellular signaling during cancer cell migration still remain poorly understood. We investigated the invasion response of two human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT116 and SW480) to resveratrol and studied the effect of specific pharmacological inhibitors, cytochalasin D (CytD) and focal adhesion kinase-inhibitor (FAK-I) on FAK, cell viability and migration in CRC. We found that resveratrol altered cell phenotype of both CRC cells, reduced cell viability and the results were comparable to FAK-I and CytD. These effects of resveratrol were associated with marked Sirt1 up-regulation, FAK down-regulation, inhibition of focal adhesion and potentiation of effects by combinatorial treatment of resveratrol and inhibitors. Interestingly, inhibition of FAK with FAK-I or treatment with CytD suppressed resveratrol-induced Sirt1 up-regulation and markedly down-regulated FAK expression. Resveratrol or combination treatment with inhibitors significantly activated caspase-3 and potentiated apoptosis. Moreover, resveratrol suppressed invasion and colony forming capacity, cell proliferation, β1-Integrin expression and activation of FAK of cells in alginate tumor microenvironment, similar to FAK-I or CytD. Finally, we demonstrated that resveratrol, FAK-I or CytD inhibited activation of NF-κB, suppressed NF-κB-dependent gene end-products involved in invasion, metastasis, and apoptosis; and these effects of resveratrol were potentiated by combination treatment with FAK-I or CytD. Our data illustrated that the anti-invasion effect of resveratrol by inhibition of FAK activity has a potential beneficial role in disease prevention and therapeutic management of CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation of Dietary Intake in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1074; doi:10.3390/nu9101074
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
There are very few reports about the intake of nutrients for the development or progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study was to identify the dietary habits and the nutrient intake in patients with NASH, in comparison to chronic hepatitis
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There are very few reports about the intake of nutrients for the development or progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this study was to identify the dietary habits and the nutrient intake in patients with NASH, in comparison to chronic hepatitis C (HCV)-related patients. We prospectively evaluated the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients in 124 NAFLD and 162 HCV patients, compared to 2326 subjects as a control group. We noticed major differences in macro- and micronutrients intakes in NASH and HCV patients compared to controls. Proteins, carbohydrate (glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose and amide), saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), folic acid, vitamin A and C (p < 0.0001), and thiamine (p < 0.0003) ingestion was found to be higher in patients with NASH, while total lipids, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), riboflavin and vitamin B6 daily intake were lower compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Similarly, NASH patients had significantly reduced carbohydrate intake (p < 0.0001) and an increased intake of calcium (p < 0.0001) compared to HCV positive patients. Finally, we showed in NASH males an increase in the intake of SFA, PUFA, soluble carbohydrates (p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the amount of fiber (p < 0.0001) compared to control males. In NASH female population, we showed an increase of daily total calories, SFA, MUFA, soluble carbohydrates, starch and vitamin D ingested (p < 0.0001) with a reduction of fibers and calcium (p < 0.0001) compared to control females. This study showed how NASH patients’ diets, in both male and females, is affected by a profound alteration in macro- and micronutrients intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
Open AccessArticle Phytoestrogen Concentrations in Human Urine as Biomarkers for Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake in Mexican Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1078; doi:10.3390/nu9101078
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
There has been substantial interest in phytoestrogens, because of their potential effect in reducing cancer and heart disease risk. Measuring concentrations of phytoestrogens in urine is an alternative method for conducting epidemiological studies. Our objective was to evaluate the urinary excretion of phytoestrogens
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There has been substantial interest in phytoestrogens, because of their potential effect in reducing cancer and heart disease risk. Measuring concentrations of phytoestrogens in urine is an alternative method for conducting epidemiological studies. Our objective was to evaluate the urinary excretion of phytoestrogens as biomarkers for dietary phytoestrogen intake in Mexican women. Participants were 100 healthy women from 25 to 80 years of age. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 24 h recall were used to estimate habitual and recent intakes of isoflavones, lignans, flavonols, coumestrol, resveratrol, naringenin, and luteolin. Urinary concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI) and diode array detector (DAD) (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate associations between dietary intake and urine concentrations. The habitual consumption (FFQ) of total phytoestrogens was 37.56 mg/day. In urine, the higher compounds were naringenin (60.1 µg/L) and enterolactone (41.7 µg/L). Recent intakes (24 h recall) of isoflavones (r = 0.460, p < 0.001), lignans (r = 0.550, p < 0.0001), flavonoids (r = 0.240, p < 0.05), and total phytoestrogens (r = 0.410, p < 0.001) were correlated to their urinary levels. Total phytoestrogen intakes estimated by the FFQ showed higher correlations to urinary levels (r = 0.730, p < 0.0001). Urinary phytoestrogens may be useful as biomarkers of phytoestrogen intake, and as a tool for evaluating the relationship of intake and disease risk in Mexican women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Efficacy of a Fatty Acids Dietary Supplement in a Polyethylene Glycol-Induced Mouse Model of Retinal Degeneration
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1079; doi:10.3390/nu9101079
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Current knowledge of the benefits of nutrition supplements for eye pathologies is based largely on the use of appropriate animal models, together with defined dietary supplementation. Here, C57BL6 mice were subretinally injected with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400, an established model of retinal degeneration with
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Current knowledge of the benefits of nutrition supplements for eye pathologies is based largely on the use of appropriate animal models, together with defined dietary supplementation. Here, C57BL6 mice were subretinally injected with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400, an established model of retinal degeneration with a dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-like phenotype, an eye pathology that lacks treatment. In response to PEG-400, markers of the complement system, angiogenesis, inflammation, gliosis, and macrophage infiltration were upregulated in both retinas and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroids, whereas dietary supplementation with a mixture based on fatty acids counteracted their upregulation. Major effects include a reduction of inflammation, in both retinas and RPE/choroids, and an inhibition of macrophage infiltration in the choroid, yet not in the retina, suggesting a targeted action through the choroidal vasculature. Histological analysis revealed a thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL), together with dysregulation of the epithelium layer in response to PEG-400. In addition, immunohistofluorescence demonstrated Müller cell gliosis and macrophage infiltration into subretinal tissues supporting the molecular findings. Reduced ONL thickness, gliosis, and macrophage infiltration were counteracted by the diet supplement. The present data suggest that fatty acids may represent a useful form of diet supplementation to prevent or limit the progression of dry AMD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Choline and Working Memory Training Improve Cognitive Deficits Caused by Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1080; doi:10.3390/nu9101080
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many
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Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood. Male and female offspring of rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ET; 3% v/v) or control dams given a non-ethanol liquid diet (CT) were injected with choline (Cho; 100 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) once per day from postnatal day (P) 16–P30. Animals were trained/tested on a working memory test in adolescence and then underwent attentional set shifting and reversal learning in young adulthood. In adolescence, ET rats required more training to reach criterion than CT-Sal. Choline improved working memory performance for both CT and ET animals. In young adulthood, ET animals also performed poorly on the set shifting and reversal tasks. Deficits were more robust in ET male rats than female ET rats, but Cho improved performance in both sexes. ET male rats given a combination of Cho and working memory training in adolescence required significantly fewer trials to achieve criterion than any other ET group, suggesting that early interventions can cause a persistent improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessArticle Processing ‘Ataulfo’ Mango into Juice Preserves the Bioavailability and Antioxidant Capacity of Its Phenolic Compounds
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1082; doi:10.3390/nu9101082
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 23 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their bioaccessibility from the food matrix and their consequent bioavailability. We carried out a randomized crossover pilot clinical trial to evaluate the matrix effect (raw flesh and juice) of ‘Ataulfo’ mango on the bioavailability of
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The health-promoting effects of phenolic compounds depend on their bioaccessibility from the food matrix and their consequent bioavailability. We carried out a randomized crossover pilot clinical trial to evaluate the matrix effect (raw flesh and juice) of ‘Ataulfo’ mango on the bioavailability of its phenolic compounds. Twelve healthy male subjects consumed a dose of mango flesh or juice. Blood was collected for six hours after consumption, and urine for 24 h. Plasma and urine phenolics were analyzed by electrochemical detection coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ECD). Five compounds were identified and quantified in plasma. Six phenolic compounds, plus a microbial metabolite (pyrogallol) were quantified in urine, suggesting colonic metabolism. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) occurred 2–4 h after consumption; excretion rates were maximum at 8–24 h. Mango flesh contributed to greater protocatechuic acid absorption (49%), mango juice contributed to higher chlorogenic acid absorption (62%). Our data suggests that the bioavailability and antioxidant capacity of mango phenolics is preserved, and may be increased when the flesh is processed into juice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Gastrointestinal Symptoms and FODMAP Intake of Aged-Care Residents from Christchurch, New Zealand
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1083; doi:10.3390/nu9101083
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Studies on fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides as well as polyols (FODMAPs) intake in older adults are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and FODMAPs in aged care residents. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Score questionnaire modified for patients with
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Studies on fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides as well as polyols (FODMAPs) intake in older adults are lacking. This study investigated the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and FODMAPs in aged care residents. The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Score questionnaire modified for patients with IBS (GSRS-IBS) was used to identify participants with IBS-like symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed for a subgroup of participants with highest total GSRS-IBS score (symptomatic cases) and age, sex, and level of care matched participants with low total GSRS-IBS score (asymptomatic controls). Seventy-four participants with a mean (SD) age of 86 (6.6) years completed the GSRS-IBS questionnaire and dietary data were collected using food diaries from a subsample of 27 symptomatic and 27 asymptomatic participants. The study found many older adults with functional gut symptoms. There were no differences between the groups for FODMAP intake and no significant relationship was found between FODMAP intake and total GSRS-IBS score. Lactose from milk and milk-based desserts was the biggest FODMAP contributor (16 g/day) and a significant relationship between total FODMAP intake and diarrhoea was found. A larger study sample in future studies is required to better capture symptomatic cases and manipulation of dietary FODMAPs may assist with the management of IBS in the elderly. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Choline and Choline alphoscerate Do Not Modulate Inflammatory Processes in the Rat Brain
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1084; doi:10.3390/nu9101084
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Choline is involved in relevant neurochemical processes. In particular, it is the precursor and metabolite of acetylcholine (ACh). Choline is an essential component of different membrane phospholipids that are involved in intraneuronal signal transduction. On the other hand, cholinergic precursors are involved in
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Choline is involved in relevant neurochemical processes. In particular, it is the precursor and metabolite of acetylcholine (ACh). Choline is an essential component of different membrane phospholipids that are involved in intraneuronal signal transduction. On the other hand, cholinergic precursors are involved in ACh release and carry out a neuroprotective effect based on an anti-inflammatory action. Based on these findings, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of choline and choline precursor (Choline alphoscerate, GPC) in the modulation of inflammatory processes in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with 87 mg of choline chloride/kg/day (65 mg/kg/day of choline), and at choline-equivalent doses of GPC (150 mg/kg/day) and vehicle for two weeks. The brains were dissected and used for immunochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin-1β, IL-1β; Interleukin-6 , IL-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, TNF-α) and endothelial adhesion molecules (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule, ICAM-1 and Vascular cell Adhesion Molecule, VCAM-1) were studied in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The results clearly demonstrated that treatment with choline or GPC did not affect the expression of the inflammatory markers in the different cerebral areas evaluated. Therefore, choline and GPC did not stimulate the inflammatory processes that we assessed in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Choline)
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Open AccessArticle Silibinin Restores NAD+ Levels and Induces the SIRT1/AMPK Pathway in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1086; doi:10.3390/nu9101086
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) homeostasis is emerging as a key player in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is tightly linked to the SIRT1/5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. Silibinin, the main component of silymarin, has been proposed as
[...] Read more.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) homeostasis is emerging as a key player in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is tightly linked to the SIRT1/5’-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. Silibinin, the main component of silymarin, has been proposed as a nutraceutical for the treatment of NAFLD. In this study, we aimed to identify whether silibinin may influence the NAD+/SIRT1 axis. To this end, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks, and were treated with silibinin or vehicle during the last 8 weeks. HepG2 cells were treated with 0.25 mM palmitate for 24 h with silibinin 25 µM or vehicle. HFD and palmitate administration led to oxidative stress, poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) activation, NAD+ consumption, and lower SIRT1 activity. In mice fed the HFD, and in HepG2 treated with palmitate, we consistently observed lower levels of phospho-AMPKThr172 and phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylaseSer79 and higher levels of nuclear sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 activity, indicating de novo lipogenesis. Treatment of mice and HepG2 with silibinin abolished oxidative stress, and inhibited PARP activation thus restoring the NAD+ pool. In agreement with preserved NAD+ levels, SIRT1 activity and AMPK phosphorylation returned to control levels in mice and HepG2. Our results further indicate silibinin as a promising molecule for the treatment of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Green and Brown Propolis Extracts on the Expression Levels of microRNAs, mRNAs and Proteins, Related to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1090; doi:10.3390/nu9101090
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 1 October 2017
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Abstract
A large body of evidence highlights that propolis exerts many biological functions that can be ascribed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory components, including different polyphenol classes. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms are yet unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms
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A large body of evidence highlights that propolis exerts many biological functions that can be ascribed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory components, including different polyphenol classes. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms are yet unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms at the basis of propolis anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The effects of two brown and green propolis extracts—chemically characterized by RP-HPLC-PDA-ESI-MSn—on the expression levels of miRNAs associated with inflammatory responses (miR-19a-3p and miR-203a-3p) and oxidative stress (miR-27a-3p and miR-17-3p), were determined in human keratinocyte HaCat cell lines, treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations. The results showed that brown propolis, whose major polyphenolic components are flavonoids, induced changes in the expression levels of all miRNAs, and was more active than green propolis (whose main polyphenolic components are hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) which caused changes only in the expression levels of miR-19a-3p and miR-27a-3p. In addition, only brown propolis was able to modify (1) the expression levels of mRNAs, the target of the reported miRNAs, which code for Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Nuclear Factor, Erythroid 2 Like 2 (NFE2L2) and Glutathione Peroxidase 2 (GPX2), and (2) the protein levels of TNF-α and NFE2L2. In conclusion, brown and green propolis, which showed different metabolite profiles, exert their biological functions through different mechanisms of action. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional and Health-Related Effects of a Diet Containing Apple Seed Meal in Rats: The Case of Amygdalin
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1091; doi:10.3390/nu9101091
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
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Abstract
Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health
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Apple pomace includes seeds that are rich in protein, fiber, and oil, which can be extracted from them. However, they can also contain a significant amount of toxigenic amygdalin. We hypothesized that amygdalin is a compound that significantly reduces the nutritional and health quality of defatted apple seeds. An experiment was conducted on rats that were distributed into three groups and fed with high-fructose diets. In the control (C) and amygdalin (AMG) groups, cellulose and casein were the source of dietary fiber and protein, respectively; in the apple seed meal (ASM) group, dietary fiber and protein originated from the endosperm of apple seeds, which were previously defatted and ground. A diet fed to the ASM group also contained 0.24% of amygdalin from the meal, whereas the AMG diet was supplemented with the same amount of synthetic amygdalin. After 14 days of experimental feeding, the body weight of rats was decreased in the ASM group. When compared to the C group, apparent protein digestibility and nitrogen retention were increased in the AMG group, while both were decreased in the ASM group. In the small intestine, mucosal maltase activity was decreased in the AMG and ASM groups, whereas lactase activity was only decreased by dietary amygdalin. The caecal SCFA pool and butyrate concentration were significantly increased in the ASM group compared to the other groups. Moreover, the ASM diet increased plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and plasma antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances (ACW). It also decreased the liver content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). In contrast, dietary amygdalin did not affect these indices. Dietary supplementation with apple seed meal can exert beneficial effects on the intestinal tract, blood lipid profile and antioxidant status of rats. In most cases, these effects are not limited by the presence of amygdalin. However, the nutritional value of protein from apple seed meal is relatively low. Full article
Open AccessArticle Socioeconomic Inequities in Diet Quality and Nutrient Intakes among Australian Adults: Findings from a Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1092; doi:10.3390/nu9101092
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
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Abstract
Poor diet may represent one pathway through which lower socioeconomic position (SEP) leads to adverse health outcomes. This study examined the associations between SEP and diet quality, its components, energy, and nutrients in a nationally representative sample of Australians. Dietary data from two
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Poor diet may represent one pathway through which lower socioeconomic position (SEP) leads to adverse health outcomes. This study examined the associations between SEP and diet quality, its components, energy, and nutrients in a nationally representative sample of Australians. Dietary data from two 24-h recalls collected during the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (n = 4875; aged ≥ 19 years) were analysed. Diet quality was evaluated using the Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI). SEP was assessed by index of area-level socioeconomic disadvantage, education level, and household income. Linear regression analyses investigated the associations between measures of SEP and dietary intakes. Across all of the SEP indicators, compared with the least disadvantaged group, the most disadvantaged group had 2.5–4.5 units lower DGI. A greater area-level disadvantage was associated with higher carbohydrate and total sugars intake. Lower education was associated with higher trans fat, carbohydrate, and total sugars intake and lower poly-unsaturated fat and fibre intake. Lower income was associated with lower total energy and protein intake and higher carbohydrate and trans fat intake. Lower SEP was generally associated with poorer diet quality and nutrient intakes, highlighting dietary inequities among Australian adults, and a need to develop policy that addresses these inequities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association of Sun Exposure, Skin Colour and Body Mass Index with Vitamin D Status in Individuals Who Are Morbidly Obese
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1094; doi:10.3390/nu9101094
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency is a common issue, particularly in obese populations, and is tested by assessing serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This study aimed to identify factors that contribute to the vitamin D status in fifty morbidly obese individuals recruited prior to bariatric surgery. Data
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Vitamin D deficiency is a common issue, particularly in obese populations, and is tested by assessing serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This study aimed to identify factors that contribute to the vitamin D status in fifty morbidly obese individuals recruited prior to bariatric surgery. Data collected included serum 25(OH)D concentrations, dietary and supplement intake of vitamin D, sun exposure measures, skin colour via spectrophotometry, and genotype analysis of several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vitamin D metabolism pathway. Results showed a significant correlation between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and age, and serum 25(OH)D and ITAC score (natural skin colour). Natural skin colour accounted for 13.5% of variation in serum 25(OH)D, with every 10° increase in ITAC score (i.e., lighter skin) leading to a 9 nmol/L decrease in serum 25(OH)D. Multiple linear regression using age, ITAC score, and average UV index in the three months prior to testing, significantly predicted serum 25(OH)D concentrations (R2 = 29.7%). Single nucleotide polymorphisms for all vitamin D genes tested, showed lower serum 25(OH)D for those with the rare genotype compared to the common genotype; this was most pronounced for fok1 and rs4588, where those with the rare genotype were insufficient (<50 nmol/L), and those with the common genotype were sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). Assessing vitamin D status in individuals with morbid obesity requires testing of 25(OH)D, but potential risk factors for this population include natural skin colour and age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Glycemic Response to Black Beans and Chickpeas as Part of a Rice Meal: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1095; doi:10.3390/nu9101095
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
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Abstract
Legumes, such as black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has
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Legumes, such as black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.), have a low glycemic index, and may reduce the glycemic load of meals in which they are included. Although the low glycemic response of beans consumed alone has been documented, few studies have examined the glycemic response to traditional food combinations such as black beans and rice or chickpeas and rice. This randomized cross-over study examined the glycemic and insulinemic impact of 50 grams of available carbohydrate from three test meals: plain white rice (control), black beans with rice, and chickpeas with rice among healthy adult women (n = 12, 18–65 years). Treatments were consumed on different mornings, a minimum of 7 days apart. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (fasting), and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min postprandial, and were subsequently analyzed for glucose and insulin concentrations. Glucose response based on the incremental area under the curve showed a significant difference by treatment (p = 0.027). Changes in blood glucose concentrations were significantly different for the black bean meal and the chickpea meal in comparison to rice alone at 60 min (p = 0.026 and p = 0.024), 90 min (p = 0.001 and p = 0.012) and 120 min post prandial (p = 0.024; black bean meal). Findings indicate that combinations of black beans and chickpeas with white rice improve glycemic response, providing evidence that has promising implications for dietary guidance to reduce postprandial glucose and related health risks through traditional food patterns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Walnut-Enriched Diet Reduces Lipids in Healthy Caucasian Subjects, Independent of Recommended Macronutrient Replacement and Time Point of Consumption: a Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1097; doi:10.3390/nu9101097
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63
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Studies indicate a positive association between walnut intake and improvements in plasma lipids. We evaluated the effect of an isocaloric replacement of macronutrients with walnuts and the time point of consumption on plasma lipids. We included 194 healthy subjects (134 females, age 63 ± 7 years, BMI 25.1 ± 4.0 kg/m2) in a randomized, controlled, prospective, cross-over study. Following a nut-free run-in period, subjects were randomized to two diet phases (8 weeks each). Ninety-six subjects first followed a walnut-enriched diet (43 g walnuts/day) and then switched to a nut-free diet. Ninety-eight subjects followed the diets in reverse order. Subjects were also randomized to either reduce carbohydrates (n = 62), fat (n = 65), or both (n = 67) during the walnut diet, and instructed to consume walnuts either as a meal or as a snack. The walnut diet resulted in a significant reduction in fasting cholesterol (walnut vs. control: −8.5 ± 37.2 vs. −1.1 ± 35.4 mg/dL; p = 0.002), non-HDL cholesterol (−10.3 ± 35.5 vs. −1.4 ± 33.1 mg/dL; p ≤ 0.001), LDL-cholesterol (−7.4 ± 32.4 vs. −1.7 ± 29.7 mg/dL; p = 0.029), triglycerides (−5.0 ± 47.5 vs. 3.7 ± 48.5 mg/dL; p = 0.015) and apoB (−6.7 ± 22.4 vs. −0.5 ± 37.7; p ≤ 0.001), while HDL-cholesterol and lipoprotein (a) did not change significantly. Neither macronutrient replacement nor time point of consumption significantly affected the effect of walnuts on lipids. Thus, 43 g walnuts/d improved the lipid profile independent of the recommended macronutrient replacement and the time point of consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Dietary Patterns from Childhood to Adolescence and Associated Body Adiposity Status
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1098; doi:10.3390/nu9101098
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
The aims of this study were to identify cross-sectional dietary patterns (DPs) in a representative sample of 7–10-year-old schoolchildren, to examine how scores for these DPs tracked over a time period of five years (from age 7–10 years to 12–15 years), and to
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The aims of this study were to identify cross-sectional dietary patterns (DPs) in a representative sample of 7–10-year-old schoolchildren, to examine how scores for these DPs tracked over a time period of five years (from age 7–10 years to 12–15 years), and to investigate longitudinal associations between changes in DPs scores and changes in BMI (Body Mass Index) z-scores. Children aged 7–10-years were examined in 2007 (n = 1158) and a subset of the sample participated in a follow-up in 2012 (n = 458). Factor analysis (FA) was applied to derive DPs at baseline. The change in DP from childhood to adolescence was analyzed by comparing factor scores using the complete cases, in which factor loadings were the ones evaluated at baseline. Associations of BMI change with DP change were assessed by multivariate linear regression. At baseline, four DP were identified that explained 47.9% of the food intake variance. On average, the factor scores of “DP II” (salty snacks, French fries, fast-food, sugary beverages) decreased in follow-up, while no changes were observed for “DP I” (rice, cooked beans, beef/poultry, leafy vegetables), “DP III” (fruits, cooked and leafy vegetables, fruit juices, pasta, milk, cheese), and “DP IV” (milk, coffee with milk, cheese, breads/biscuits). No significant linear association was shown between changes in BMI z-scores and changes in DP scores from childhood to adolescence. In conclusion, three out of four DP scores identified at baseline tracked slightly in adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Intake and Behavior in Children)
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Open AccessArticle Balanced Diet-Fed Fat-1 Transgenic Mice Exhibit Lower Hindlimb Suspension-Induced Soleus Muscle Atrophy
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1100; doi:10.3390/nu9101100
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein
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The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle. HS decreased soleus muscle wet and dry weights (by 43% and 26%, respectively), muscle isotonic and tetanic force (by 29% and 18%, respectively), CSA of the soleus muscle (by 36%), and soleus muscle fibers (by 45%). Fat-1 transgenic mice had a decrease in the ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice (56%, p < 0.001). Fat-1 mice had lower soleus muscle dry mass loss (by 10%) and preserved absolute isotonic force (by 17%) and CSA of the soleus muscle (by 28%) after HS as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice. p-GSK3B/GSK3B ratio was increased (by 70%) and MuRF-1 content decreased (by 50%) in the soleus muscle of Fat-1 mice after HS. Balanced diet-fed Fat-1 mice are able to preserve in part the soleus muscle mass, absolute isotonic force and CSA of the soleus muscle in a disuse condition. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidants Potential of the Filamentous Fungi (Mucor circinelloides)
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1101; doi:10.3390/nu9101101
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 7 October 2017
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Abstract
Three important strains of Mucor circinelloides grown in complete and minimal media for specified period (72 h, 120 h and 168 h) under submerged fermentation conditions were investigated for their potential antioxidants/secondary metabolite production. All mycelial extracts demonstrated effective antioxidant activities in terms
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Three important strains of Mucor circinelloides grown in complete and minimal media for specified period (72 h, 120 h and 168 h) under submerged fermentation conditions were investigated for their potential antioxidants/secondary metabolite production. All mycelial extracts demonstrated effective antioxidant activities in terms of β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching, radical scavenging, reduction of metal ions and chelating abilities against ferrous ions. Different extraction methods and solvent systems affected the recovery yield and antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly (p 0.05). Ethanolic extracts were found to be rich source of antioxidant components and subsequently more effective in antioxidant properties. Fermentation period and media used also significantly affected (p 0.05) the antioxidant production and the resulting antioxidant properties. The (ethanolic) extracts of all the strains from late exponential growth phase (120 h) showed highest antioxidant production with topmost reducing, chelating and radical scavenging capabilities. Strain MC277.49 was found to be the highest producer of antioxidants followed by MC108.16 and WJ11. Phenolic compounds were detected significantly in higher (p 0.05) amount succeeded by the condensed tannins and flavonoids. Total phenol content of each extract was attributed to overall antioxidant capacity. Submerged fermentation with nutritional stress conditions were found to be excellent way of producing surplus amount of natural antioxidants/secondary metabolites with their vast potential commercial application in food and pharmaceutical industries. Full article
Open AccessArticle Association between Milk Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1102; doi:10.3390/nu9101102
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 8 October 2017
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Abstract
It has been suggested that a greater dairy consumption, particularly of milk, may have contributed in lowering the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association between milk consumption and MetS, and its components among Korean adults
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It has been suggested that a greater dairy consumption, particularly of milk, may have contributed in lowering the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the association between milk consumption and MetS, and its components among Korean adults aged 40–69. A total of 130,420 subjects (43,682 men and 86,738 women) from the Health Examinees Study were selected for the final analysis. Milk consumption was estimated using a validated 106-item food frequency questionnaire. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP III). Logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between milk consumption and MetS after adjusting for potential confounders. In this study, the average milk consumption was 77.9 g/day, with the overall prevalence of MetS being 26.1% (29.1% in men and 24.6% in women). We found that the prevalence of the MetS was significantly lower in subjects with higher milk consumption (p < 0.0001). Adjusted OR for MetS was significantly lower in the highest milk consumption category (≥1 serving/day among men; ≥2 serving/day among women) than those in the lowest milk consumption category (OR: 0.92 95%CI: 0.86–0.99, p trend = 0.0160 in men; OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.60–0.76, p trend < 0.0001 in women). Overall, higher milk consumption was inversely associated with the MetS components: elevated waist circumference, elevated triglyceride, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (all p trend < 0.05). This study concludes that higher milk consumption is associated with the lower odds of MetS in Korean adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Evaluation of the Healthiness of the Indian Packaged Food and Beverage Supply
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1103; doi:10.3390/nu9101103
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract
Availability of less-healthy packaged food and beverage products has been implicated as an important driver of obesity and diet-related disease. An increasing number of packaged foods and beverages are sold in India. Our objective was to evaluate the healthiness of packaged foods sold
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Availability of less-healthy packaged food and beverage products has been implicated as an important driver of obesity and diet-related disease. An increasing number of packaged foods and beverages are sold in India. Our objective was to evaluate the healthiness of packaged foods sold by India’s largest manufacturers. Healthiness was assessed using the Australian Health Star Rating (HSR) system and the World Health Organization’s European Regional Office (WHO Euro) Nutrient Profile Model. Sales-value-weighted mean healthiness and the proportions of “healthy” products (using a validated HSR cut-off of ≥3.5, and products meeting WHO Euro criteria as healthy enough to market to children) were calculated overall, by company and by food category. Nutrient information for 943 products sold by the 11 largest Indian manufacturers was obtained from nutrient labels, company websites or directly from the manufacturer. Healthiness was low overall (mean HSR 1.8 out of 5.0 stars) with a low proportion defined as “healthy” by both HSR (17%) and also by WHO Euro criteria (8%). There were marked differences in the healthiness of similar products within food categories. Substantial variation between companies (minimum sales-value-weighted mean HSR 0.5 for Company G, versus maximum HSR 3.0 for Company F) was a result of differences in the types of products sold and the nutritional composition of individual products. There are clear opportunities for India’s largest food companies to improve both the nutritional quality of individual products and to improve their product mix to include a greater proportion of healthy products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Role of Purified Anthocyanins in Improving Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Chinese Men and Women with Prediabetes or Early Untreated Diabetes—A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1104; doi:10.3390/nu9101104
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
Objective: In vitro and animal studies suggest that purified anthocyanins have favorable effects on metabolic profiles, but clinical trials have reported inconsistent findings. Furthermore, no study has been specifically conducted among individuals with prediabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether
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Objective: In vitro and animal studies suggest that purified anthocyanins have favorable effects on metabolic profiles, but clinical trials have reported inconsistent findings. Furthermore, no study has been specifically conducted among individuals with prediabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether purified anthocyanins could improve cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese adults with early untreated hyperglycemia. Research Design and Methods: This was a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 160 participants aged 40–75 years with prediabetes or early untreated diabetes were randomly allocated to receive either purified anthocyanins (320 mg/day, n = 80) or placebo (n = 80) of identical appearance. A three-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed, and cardiometabolic biomarkers (glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and lipids) were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results: A total of 138 subjects completed the protocol. Compared with placebo, purified anthocyanins moderately reduced HbA1c (−0.14%, 95% CI: −0.23~−0.04%; p = 0.005), low-density lipoprotein-c (LDL-c) (−0.2 mmol/L, 95% CI: −0.38~−0.01, p = 0.04), apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A1) (0.09 g/L, 95% CI: 0.02~0.17; p = 0.02), and apolipoprotein B (apo B) (−0.07 g/L, 95% CI: −0.13~−0.01; p = 0.01) according to intention-to-treat analysis. Subgroup analyses suggested that purified anthocyanins were more effective at improving glycemic control, insulin sensitivity, and lipids among patients with elevated metabolic markers. Conclusions: The 12-week randomized controlled trials (RCT) in Chinese adults with prediabetes or early untreated diabetes indicated that purified anthocyanins favorably affected glycemic control and lipid profile. Future studies of a longer duration that explore the dose-response relationship among patients with cardiometabolic disorders are needed to confirm our findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of 5α-Reductase, IL-6 Secretion, and Oxidation Process of Equisetum debile Roxb. ex Vaucher Extract as Functional Food and Nutraceuticals Ingredients
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1105; doi:10.3390/nu9101105
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
This study aims to investigate the biological activities related to hair loss of Equisetum debile extracts, including 5α-reductase inhibition, interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion reduction, and anti-oxidation. E. debile extracts were obtained by maceration in various solvents. Crude extract (CE) was obtained by maceration in
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This study aims to investigate the biological activities related to hair loss of Equisetum debile extracts, including 5α-reductase inhibition, interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion reduction, and anti-oxidation. E. debile extracts were obtained by maceration in various solvents. Crude extract (CE) was obtained by maceration in 95% ethanol. Chlorophyll-free extract (CF) was the CE which of the chlorophyll has been removed by electrocoagulation. Hexane extract (HE), ethyl acetate extract (EA), and ethanolic extract (ET) were fraction extracts obtained from maceration in hexane, ethyl acetate, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The extracts were investigated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase and IL-6 secretion. Total phenolic contents (TPC) were investigated and antioxidant activities were determined by means of 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was determined by the ferric thiocyanate method. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on dermal papilla cells and irritation test by hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay were also investigated. All extracts could inhibit 5α-reductase and decrease IL-6 secretion in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage. The antioxidant activity of E. debile extracts was directly related to their TPC. ET which contained the highest TPC (68.8 ± 6.7 mg GA/g) showed the highest equivalent concentration (EC1) of 289.1 ± 26.4 mM FeSO4/g, TEAC of 156.6 ± 34.6 mM Trolox/g, and 20.0 ± 6.0% DPPH inhibition. However, EA exhibited the highest inhibition against lipid peroxidation (57.2 ± 0.4%). In addition, EA showed no cytotoxicity on dermal papilla cell line and no irritation on chorioallantoic membrane of hen’s eggs. In conclusion, EA was suggested as the most attractive ingredients for functional food and nutraceuticals because of the high inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase, IL-6 secretion, and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Characterization of Mucosal Disaccharidases from Human Intestine
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1106; doi:10.3390/nu9101106
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we used a brush border membrane (BBM) preparation from human small intestine to analyze the proportion and the activity of major intestinal disaccharidases, including sucrase-isomaltase (SI), maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH). SI, MGAM and LPH respectively constituted 8.2%, 2.7%
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In this study, we used a brush border membrane (BBM) preparation from human small intestine to analyze the proportion and the activity of major intestinal disaccharidases, including sucrase-isomaltase (SI), maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH). SI, MGAM and LPH respectively constituted 8.2%, 2.7% and 1.4% of total BBM protein. The activity of SI and LPH decreased threefold after purification from the brush border membrane, which highlights the effect of membrane microdomains on the functional capacity of these enzymes. All of the disaccharidases showed optimal activity at pH 6, over 50% residual activity between pH 5 to pH 7, and increasing activity with rising temperatures up to 45 °C, along with a stable functional structure. Therefore the enzymes can withstand mild intraluminal pH alterations with adequate function, and are able to increase their activity with elevated core body temperature. Our data provide a functional measure for characterization of intestinal disaccharidases under different physiological and pathological conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Genetic Background Roles within a Web-Based Nutritional Intervention: The Food4Me Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1107; doi:10.3390/nu9101107
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) adherence has been proven to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies have explained some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aimed to explore associations and potential interactions between MedDiet adherence and genetic
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Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) adherence has been proven to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies have explained some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aimed to explore associations and potential interactions between MedDiet adherence and genetic background throughout the Food4Me web-based nutritional intervention. Dietary, anthropometrical and biochemical data from volunteers of the Food4Me study were collected at baseline and after 6 months. Several genetic variants related to metabolic risk features were also analysed. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was derived from risk alleles and a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), based on validated food intake data, was estimated. At baseline, there were no interactions between GRS and MDS categories for metabolic traits. Linear mixed model repeated measures analyses showed a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol in participants with a low GRS after a 6-month period, compared to those with a high GRS. Meanwhile, a high baseline MDS was associated with greater decreases in Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference and glucose. There also was a significant interaction between GRS and the MedDiet after the follow-up period. Among subjects with a high GRS, those with a high MDS evidenced a highly significant reduction in total carotenoids, while among those with a low GRS, there was no difference associated with MDS levels. These results suggest that a higher MedDiet adherence induces beneficial effects on metabolic outcomes, which can be affected by the genetic background in some specific markers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemotherapy-Related Toxicity, Nutritional Status and Quality of Life in Precachectic Oncologic Patients with, or without, High Protein Nutritional Support. A Prospective, Randomized Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1108; doi:10.3390/nu9101108
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
Background: Cancer disease is usually associated with impaired nutritional status, which is one of the factors contributing to deterioration of the results of surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional support with high protein (ONS)
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Background: Cancer disease is usually associated with impaired nutritional status, which is one of the factors contributing to deterioration of the results of surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional support with high protein (ONS) in adult oncologic patients in the first step of cancer cachexia—asymptomatic precachexia, has an influence on the toxicity of systemic therapy. However, secondary endpoints were established: to determine whether high protein ONS influences the nutritional status, the quality of life, and the performance status. Materials and Methods: A total of 114 persons aged 40–84 years old with colorectal cancer were examined. Based on the randomization, 47 patients were qualified to the interventional group (ONS group) and 48 to Control group. To evaluate the nutritional status NRS-2002 (Nutritional Risk Screening), SGA (Subjective Global Assessment), SCRINIO (SCReenIng the Nutritional status In Oncology) Working Group classification, VAS (Visual Analog Scale) for appetite was used. FAACT (Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy) questionnaire was used for assessment of the quality of life. The health status of patients was evaluated based on the Karnofsky Performance Scale. Anthropometric measurements were done. Results: Severe complications of chemotherapy, which caused the end of treatment, a slight complication of the gastrointestinal tract such as diarrhea grade 2 according to ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) score regardless of the studied group, were observed. There were no statistical differences in the number and severity of the observed complications, i.e., neutropenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea. During the follow-up the significant changes of SGA, VAS, albumin and prealbumin were observed between groups. In the ONS group an improvement in nutritional status was noticed (increased appetite VAS, p = 0.05; increased points in SGA, p = 0.015, and increased levels of albumin and prealbumin, p = 0.05). In Control group nutritional status was stable during observation. The performance status and quality of life were stable in both groups. No statistical differences between groups (ONS vs. Control) in the numbers for disqualification, resignation, delay in treatment, or dose reduction were observed. Conclusions: Results of the study did not indicate that nutritional support in precachectic oncologic patients influenced the toxicity of systemic therapy. High protein nutritional support improved nutritional status assessed by SGA, VAS for appetite, albumin, and prealbumin. The performance status and quality of life were stable throughout the observation and were not changed under the supplementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Combination of β-glucan and Morus alba L. Leaf Extract Promotes Metabolic Benefits in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1110; doi:10.3390/nu9101110
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
β-glucan (BG) and mulberry have received increasing attention for their benefits as natural sources of metabolic health. In the current study, we investigated the synergetic beneficial effects of BG and mulberry leaf extract (MLE) in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL6
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β-glucan (BG) and mulberry have received increasing attention for their benefits as natural sources of metabolic health. In the current study, we investigated the synergetic beneficial effects of BG and mulberry leaf extract (MLE) in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for twelve weeks to induce significant obesity and insulin resistance. BG and MLE were administrated orally throughout the feeding period. The administration of BG resulted in a significant reduction in body weight gain, perirenal fat mass, fasting insulin, serum lipids, serum inflammation markers, and fatty liver, showing systemic health improvement. Likewise, the administration of MLE showed benefits similar to BG, with the exception of body weight gain. In addition to the systemic benefits, the combination of BG and MLE resulted in a synergetic improvement in insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, only the combination of BG and MLE significantly enhanced liver GST (Glutathione S-Transferase) activity and CuZn–SOD (Superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn)) activity, resulting in a significant reduction in GSH/GSSG (Glutathione disulfide) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the liver. These results further confirm the beneficial effects of BG and MLE on metabolic disorders and show that the combination of BG and MLE has synergetic effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association of Vitamin D Status with Disease Activity in a Cohort of Crohn’s Disease Patients in Canada
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1112; doi:10.3390/nu9101112
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
We determined the association between vitamin D status as 25hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in a cohort of 201 Crohn’s Disease (CD) patients in Saskatoon, Canada over three years. The association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and 25(OH)D and several disease predictors
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We determined the association between vitamin D status as 25hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in a cohort of 201 Crohn’s Disease (CD) patients in Saskatoon, Canada over three years. The association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and 25(OH)D and several disease predictors were evaluated by the generalized estimating equation (GEE) over three time-point measurements. A GEE binary logistic regression test was used to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). The deficient vitamin D group (≤29 nmol/L) had significantly higher mean hs-CRP levels compared with the three other categories of vitamin D status (p < 0.05). CRP was significantly lower in all of the other groups compared with the vitamin D-deficient group, which had Coef. = 12.8 units lower (95% CI −19.8, −5.8), Coef. 7.85 units (95% CI −14.9, −0.7), Coef. 9.87 units (95% CI −17.6, −2.0) for the vitamin D insufficient, adequate, and optimal groups, respectively. The vitamin D status was associated with the HBI active disease category. However, the difference in the odds ratio compared with the reference category of deficient vitamin D category was only significant in the insufficient category (odds ratio = 3.45, p = 0.03, 95% CI 1.0, 10.8). Vitamin D status was inversely associated with indicators of disease activity in Crohn’s disease, particularly with the objective measures of inflammation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Interacts with Lactobacillus rhamnossus LGG to Alter the Antibody Response to Infection with the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1113; doi:10.3390/nu9101113
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
Consumption of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder
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Consumption of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP) or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A. suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti-A. suum IgG2 antibodies were decreased (p < 0.05) in LGG + CP-fed pigs compared to pigs fed CP alone. Pigs fed LGG had significantly reduced expression (p < 0.05) of Eosinophil peroxidase (EPX), Interleukin 13 (IL-13), Eotaxin 3 (CCL26), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and TLR9 and Interleukin-1Beta (IL1B) in the tracheal-bronchial lymph node (TBLN) independent of CP treatment. These results suggested that feeding LGG significantly reduced the localized prototypical Th2-related markers of infection with A. suum in the TBLN. Although feeding CP does not appear to affect the A. suum-induced Th2-associated cytokine response, feeding LGG + CP reduced anti-A. suum antibodies and delayed intestinal expulsion of parasitic larvae from the intestine. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Maternal Low-Energy Diet during Gestation on Intestinal Morphology, Disaccharidase Activity, and Immune Response to Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in Pig Offspring
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1115; doi:10.3390/nu9101115
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring’s intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to
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Maternal nutrition during gestation is involved in the offspring’s intestinal development and immunity. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the effects of maternal energy on intestinal digestion and absorption function in offspring, using pigs as a model; and (2) to evaluate the potential effect and mechanisms of maternal energy in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. After mating, thirty-six nine-parity sows (Landrace × Yorkshire), body weight (BW) (initial body weight 233.56 ± 2.77 kg) were allocated to two dietary treatment groups; a control diet (CON) group and a low-energy diet (LED) group. The nutrient levels of the CON were based on the nutrient recommendations by the National Research Council (NRC, 2012), and contained 3.40 MCal digestible energy (DE)/kg diet and 7.3% crude protein; while the LED contained 3.00 MCal DE/kg diet. The dietary treatments were introduced from day 1 of gestation to farrowing. Intestine samples were collected from the pigs’ offspring at birth, and at weaning (day 28 post-birth). At weaning, male pigs from control and LED groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 μg/kg body weight) or saline (n = 6), and sacrificed at 4 h post-injection to collect blood, intestine and digesta samples for biochemical analysis. The results indicated that the maternal LED markedly decreased the BW, small intestinal weight, and the ratio of jejunum and ileum villus height to crypt depth in the offspring. Moreover, the activities of lactase and sucrase in newborn piglets’ intestine, and sucrase and maltase in weaning piglet intestine were markedly decreased by the maternal LED. In addition, maternal LED significantly increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal IL-6 and TNF-α in newborn piglets. Plasma IL-1β concentration and colonic Escherichia coli amount were affected by maternal diet (p < 0.05) and LPS challenge (p < 0.001). Maternal LED significant increased the mRNA relative expression of ileal TLR-4, IL-1β and NF-κB as well as decreased ZO-1 in weaning pigs after LPS challenge (p < 0.05). In conclusion, decreasing energy intake could suppress the offspring’s intestinal digestion and absorption function, and increase the susceptibility of weaning piglets to LPS challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessArticle Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Indicators of Mental Health: An Analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1116; doi:10.3390/nu9101116
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
The main function of vitamin D is calcium homeostasis. However, emerging evidence has correlated adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with better mental health. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with indicators of mental health
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The main function of vitamin D is calcium homeostasis. However, emerging evidence has correlated adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with better mental health. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with indicators of mental health such as depression, anxiety, and stress. Associations of serum 25(OH)D concentrations with four indicators of mental health were examined using ordered logistic regression models with increasing specificity that account for demographics, socio-economic status, and health. Margin effects are used to determine the probability of the average adult Canadian being in the best mental health state by groupings of serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A robust association between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and the indicators of mental health were observed. In the fully adjusted ordered logistic model, an average Canadian appeared more likely to experience better mental health when serum 25(OH)D concentrations were higher. This study adds to the weight of the existence of an association between vitamin D status and mental health, but, as this study is cross sectional, it does not establish causality. Due to the low risk of harm from toxicity and the relative modest costs of vitamin D supplements, more research to establish the effectiveness and causality of this relationship is recommended. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Approach to Assess Lifetime Dietary Patterns Finds Lower Consumption of Animal Foods with Aging in a Longitudinal Analysis of a Health-Oriented Adventist Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1118; doi:10.3390/nu9101118
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Life-course diet patterns may impact risk of disease, but little is known about dietary trends with aging. In a retrospective longitudinal analysis we estimated lifetime intake of animal products and adherence to vegetarian dietary patterns among 51,082 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) subjects using
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Life-course diet patterns may impact risk of disease, but little is known about dietary trends with aging. In a retrospective longitudinal analysis we estimated lifetime intake of animal products and adherence to vegetarian dietary patterns among 51,082 Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) subjects using data from a reliable life-course dietary (meats, dairy, eggs) questionnaire. Results showed a marked tendency to consume fewer animal products (in total) in older years and to reduce consumption of meat, poultry and fish, but not eggs or dairy. Among the 29% of elderly subjects who during their lifetime kept the same dietary pattern (LTS) were: LTS-vegans (1.1%), LTS-lacto-ovo vegetarians (31.2%), LTS-pesco vegetarians (0.49%), LTS-semi vegetarians (3.7%), and LTS-non-vegetarians (63.5%). Among the 71% of switchers were “Converters” (59.7%) who moved towards and “Reverters” (9.1%) who moved away from vegetarian diets, and Multiverters (31.2%), who had moved in both directions. LTS-non-vegetarians, and also reverters, were more overweight and showed a less healthy lifestyle than others. We conclude that the dietary patterns are dynamic with strong trends to reduce animal foods and to adopt more vegetarian patterns with aging. The disease experience of subjects with different lifetime dietary patterns can be compared. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Science of Vegetarian Nutrition and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplement Use during Preconception: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1119; doi:10.3390/nu9101119
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Worldwide, dietary supplement use among reproductive aged women is becoming increasingly common. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary supplement use among Australian women during preconception. Self-reported data were collected prospectively for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). The
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Worldwide, dietary supplement use among reproductive aged women is becoming increasingly common. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary supplement use among Australian women during preconception. Self-reported data were collected prospectively for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). The sample included 485 women aged 31–36 years, with supplement data, classified as preconception when completing Survey 5 of the ALSWH in 2009. Frequency and contingency tables were calculated and Pearson’s chi-square test for associations between demographic variables and supplementation status was performed. Sixty-three per cent of women were taking at least one dietary supplement during preconception. Multiple-micronutrient supplements were the most commonly reported supplement (44%). Supplements containing folic acid and iodine were reported by 51% and 37% of preconception women, respectively. Folic acid (13%), omega-3 fatty acids (11%), vitamin C (7%), B vitamins (4%), iron (3%), and calcium (3%) were the most common single nutrients supplemented during preconception. Women trying to conceive, with no previous children, and born outside Australia were more likely to take dietary supplements. In Australia, dietary supplement use during preconception is relatively high. However, supplementation of recommended nutrients, including folic acid and iodine, could be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire to Estimate Intake among Children and Adolescents in Urban Peru
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1121; doi:10.3390/nu9101121
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
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Abstract
Tools to assess intake among children in Latin America are limited. We developed and assessed the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered to children, adolescents, and their caregivers in Lima, Peru. We conducted 24-h diet recalls (DRs) and
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Tools to assess intake among children in Latin America are limited. We developed and assessed the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered to children, adolescents, and their caregivers in Lima, Peru. We conducted 24-h diet recalls (DRs) and focus groups to develop a locally-tailored FFQ prototype for children aged 0–14 years. To validate the FFQ, we administered two FFQs and three DRs to children and/or their caregivers (N = 120) over six months. We examined FFQ reproducibility by quartile agreement and Pearson correlation coefficients, and validity by quartile agreement and correlation with DRs. For reproducibility, quartile agreement ranged from 60–77% with correlations highest for vitamins A and C (0.31). Age-adjusted correlations for the mean DR and the second-administered FFQ were highest in the 0–7 age group, in which the majority of caregivers completed the FFQ on behalf of the child (total fat; 0.67) and in the 8–14 age group, in which both the child and caregiver completed the FFQ together (calcium, niacin; 0.54); correlations were <0.10 for most nutrients in the 8–14 age group in which the caregiver completed the FFQ on the child’s behalf. The FFQ was reproducible and the first developed and validated to assess various nutrients in children and adolescents in Peru. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chinese Olive (Canarium album L.) Fruit Extract Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1123; doi:10.3390/nu9101123
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 15 October 2017
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Abstract
Hyperglycemia and dysregulation of lipid metabolism play a crucial role in metabolic dysfunction. The aims of present study were to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Chinese olive fruit extract (CO-EtOAc) on high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic
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Hyperglycemia and dysregulation of lipid metabolism play a crucial role in metabolic dysfunction. The aims of present study were to evaluate the ameliorative effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of Chinese olive fruit extract (CO-EtOAc) on high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. CO-EtOAc, rich in gallic acid and ellagic acid, could markedly decreased the body weight and epididymal adipose mass. In addition, CO-EtOAc increased serum HDL-C levels, hepatic GSH levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities; lowered blood glucose, serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), bile acid, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα); and reduced TC and TG in liver. We further demonstrated that CO-EtOAc mildly suppressed hepatic levels of phosphorylated IRS-1, TNF-α, and IL-6, but enhanced Akt phosphorylation. The possible mechanisms of cholesterol metabolism were assessed by determining the expression of genes involved in cholesterol transportation, biosynthesis, and degradation. It was found that CO-EtOAc not only inhibited mRNA levels of SREBP-2, HMG-CoAR, SR-B1, and CYP7A1 but also increased the expression of genes, such as ABCA1 and LDLR that governed cholesterol efflux and cholesterol uptake. Moreover, the protein expressions of ABCA1 and LDLR were also significantly increased in the liver of rats supplemented with CO-EtOAc. We suggest that Chinese olive fruit may ameliorate metabolic dysfunction in diabetic rats under HFD challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of an Advocacy Trial on Food Industry Salt Reduction Efforts—An Interim Process Evaluation
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1128; doi:10.3390/nu9101128
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
The decisions made by food companies are a potent factor shaping the nutritional quality of the food supply. A number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) advocate for corporate action to reduce salt levels in foods, but few data define the effectiveness of advocacy. This
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The decisions made by food companies are a potent factor shaping the nutritional quality of the food supply. A number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) advocate for corporate action to reduce salt levels in foods, but few data define the effectiveness of advocacy. This present report describes the process evaluation of an advocacy intervention delivered by one Australian NGO directly to food companies to reduce the salt content of processed foods. Food companies were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 22) or control (n = 23) groups. Intervention group companies were exposed to pre-planned and opportunistic communications, and control companies to background activities. Seven pre-defined interim outcome measures provided an indication of the effect of the intervention and were assessed using intention-to-treat analysis. These were supplemented by qualitative data from nine semi-structured interviews. The mean number of public communications supporting healthy food made by intervention companies was 1.5 versus 1.8 for control companies (p = 0.63). Other outcomes, including the mean number of news articles, comments and reports (1.2 vs. 1.4; p = 0.72), a published nutrition policy (23% vs. 44%; p = 0.21), public commitment to the Australian government’s Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) (41% vs. 61%; p = 0.24), evidence of a salt reduction plan (23% vs. 30%; p = 0.56), and mean number of communications with the NGO (15 vs. 11; p = 0.28) were also not significantly different. Qualitative data indicated the advocacy trial had little effect. The absence of detectable effects of the advocacy intervention on the interim markers indicates there may be no impact of the NGO advocacy trial on the primary outcome of salt reduction in processed foods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Indications and Use of the Gluten Contamination Elimination Diet for Patients with Non-Responsive Celiac Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1129; doi:10.3390/nu9101129
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year
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For the majority of patients diagnosed with celiac disease, once a gluten-free diet is initiated, symptoms improve within weeks and may completely resolve in months. However, up to 30% of patients may show signs, symptoms or persistent small intestinal damage after one year on a gluten-free diet. These patients require evaluation for other common GI etiologies and assessment of their celiac disease status in order to make a diagnosis and suggest treatment. Here, we propose an approach to evaluating patients with celiac disease with persistent symptoms, persistently elevated serology, and or persistent villous atrophy despite a gluten-free diet. We detail how to diagnose and distinguish between non-responsive and refractory celiac disease. Finally, we introduce the indications for use of the gluten contamination elimination diet and provide information for practitioners to implement the diet when necessary in their practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of the Celiac Disease-Children’s Activities Report (CD-Chart) for Promoting Self-Management among Children and Adolescents
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1130; doi:10.3390/nu9101130
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Adherence to a restrictive gluten-free diet is the only known treatment for celiac disease (CD). Children and adolescents with CD encounter challenges while managing the diet in daily activities. Understanding their participation characteristics is lacking. The aim was to describe the development and
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Adherence to a restrictive gluten-free diet is the only known treatment for celiac disease (CD). Children and adolescents with CD encounter challenges while managing the diet in daily activities. Understanding their participation characteristics is lacking. The aim was to describe the development and validation process of the Celiac Disease-Children’s Activities Report (CD-Chart). The final CD-Chart includes nine food-related activities that are measured by six core dimensions: frequency, preference, preparation, involvement, help, and self-determination. Participants were 126 children (8–11 years) and adolescents (12–18 years) with CD, and 30 healthy matched controls. Factor analysis was performed and psychometric properties were measured. Content and face validity was established and the CD-Chart showed adequate internal consistency as measured by the preference dimension (α = 0.81). Factor analysis revealed two distinct factors, social environment and close family environment. Construct validity demonstrated that the group with CD required significantly more pre-preparation for food-related activities than controls, (t(38) = 76.25, p < 0.001) and further differences as well as similarities were found between groups. Primary results indicate that the CD-Chart may serve as a practical tool for acquiring information about participation characteristics in food-related activities, strengths and challenges of children and adolescents with CD, to promote self-management, diet adherence, and well-being. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Citrulline Malate Does Not Improve Muscle Recovery after Resistance Exercise in Untrained Young Adult Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1132; doi:10.3390/nu9101132
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
The effects of citrulline malate (CM) on muscle recovery from resistance exercise remains unknown. We aimed to determine if citrulline malate supplementation improves muscle recovery after a single session of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adult men. Nine young adult men
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The effects of citrulline malate (CM) on muscle recovery from resistance exercise remains unknown. We aimed to determine if citrulline malate supplementation improves muscle recovery after a single session of high-intensity resistance exercise (RE) in untrained young adult men. Nine young adult men (24.0 ± 3.3 years) participated in a double-blind crossover study in which they received 6 g of CM and placebo (PL) on two occasions, separated by a seven-day washout period. Each occasion consisted of a single session of high-intensity RE (0 h) and three subsequent fatigue tests sessions (at 24, 48, and 72 h) to assess the time course of muscle recovery. During the tests sessions, we assessed the following variables: number of maximum repetitions, electromyographic signal (i.e., root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF)), muscle soreness and perceived exertion, as well as blood levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate, insulin, and testosterone:cortisol ratio. CK levels increased at 24 h post-exercise and remained elevate at 48 and 72 h, with no difference between CM and PL conditions. Muscle soreness increased at 24 h post-exercise, which progressively returned to baseline at 72 h in both conditions. Lactate levels increased immediately post-exercise and remained elevated at 24, 48, and 72 h in both conditions. No significant treatment × time interaction was found for all dependents variables (maximum repetitions, perceived exertion, CK, lactate, RMS, MF, and testosterone:cortisol ratio) during the recovery period. In conclusion, our data indicate that CM supplementation (single 6 g dose pre-workout) does not improve the muscle recovery process following a high-intensity RE session in untrained young adult men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Stability of Commercially Available Macular Carotenoid Supplements in Oil and Powder Formulations
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1133; doi:10.3390/nu9101133
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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We previously identified that the concentration of zeaxanthin in some commercially available carotenoid supplements did not agree with the product’s label claim. The conclusion of this previous work was that more quality assurance was needed to guarantee concordance between actual and declared concentrations
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We previously identified that the concentration of zeaxanthin in some commercially available carotenoid supplements did not agree with the product’s label claim. The conclusion of this previous work was that more quality assurance was needed to guarantee concordance between actual and declared concentrations of these nutrients i.e., lutein (L) zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) in commercially available supplements. Since this publication, we performed further analyses using different commercially available macular carotenoid supplements. Three capsules from one batch of eight products were analysed at two different time points. The results have been alarming. All of the powder filled products (n = 3) analysed failed to comply with their label claim (L: 19–74%; Z: 57–73%; MZ: 83–97%); however, the oil filled soft gel products (n = 5) met or were above their label claim (L: 98–122%; Z: 117–162%; MZ: 97–319%). We also identified that the carotenoid content of the oil filled capsules were stable over time (e.g., L average percentage change: −1.7%), but the powder filled supplements degraded over time (e.g., L average percentage change: −17.2%). These data are consistent with our previous work, and emphasize the importance of using carotenoid interventions in oil based formulas rather than powder filled formulas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1134; doi:10.3390/nu9101134
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human
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Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective: Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods: A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks). Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results: Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03) z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting “almost never” consuming milk. Conclusions: Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Predictors Associated with Increase in Skeletal Muscle Mass after Sustained Virological Response in Chronic Hepatitis C Treated with Direct Acting Antivirals
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1135; doi:10.3390/nu9101135
Received: 10 September 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Aims: We aimed to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients undergoing interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy who achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Patients and methods: A total of 69 CHC patients treated with DAAs were
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Aims: We aimed to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients undergoing interferon (IFN)-free direct acting antivirals (DAAs) therapy who achieved sustained virological response (SVR). Patients and methods: A total of 69 CHC patients treated with DAAs were analyzed. We compared the changes in skeletal muscle index (SMI) using bio-impedance analysis at baseline and SMI at SVR. SMI was calculated as the sum of skeletal muscle mass in upper and lower extremities divided by height squared (cm2/m2). Further, we identified pretreatment parameters contributing to the increased SMI at SVR. Results: SMI in males at baseline ranged from 6.73 to 9.08 cm2/m2 (median, 7.65 cm2/m2), while that in females ranged from 4.45 to 7.27 cm2/m2 (median, 5.81 cm2/m2). At SVR, 36 patients (52.2%) had increased SMI as compared with baseline. In the univariate analysis, age (p = 0.0392), hyaluronic acid (p = 0.0143), and branched-chain amino acid to tyrosine ratio (BTR) (p = 0.0024) were significant pretreatment factors linked to increased SMI at SVR. In the multivariate analysis, only BTR was an independent predictor linked to the increased SMI at SVR (p = 0.0488). Conclusion: Pretreatment BTR level can be helpful for predicting increased SMI after SVR in CHC patients undergoing IFN-free DAAs therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle A National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) for the Dutch Population: Rationale behind the Design
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1136; doi:10.3390/nu9101136
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs,
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The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs) requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs, we developed a comprehensive National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD) detailing information about the level and variation in dietary intake of people 20–70 years old in the general Dutch population. This paper describes the methods and characteristics of the population included in the NDARD database. A total of 1063 men and 985 women agreed to participate in this study. Dietary intake data were collected using different FFQs, web-based and telephone-based 24-h recalls, as well as blood and urine-based biomarkers. The baseline FFQ was completed by 1647 participants with a mean age of 51 ± 12 years, BMI of 26 ± 4 kg/m2, and energy intake of 2051 ± 605 kcal/day. The percentage of total energy intake from proteins, carbohydrates, and fats were 15 ± 2, 43 ± 6, and 36 ± 5 En%, respectively. A total of 1113 participants completed telephone-based recalls and 1783 participants completed web-based recalls. This database will enable researchers to validate existing national FFQs and to develop new high quality dietary assessment methods. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chronic High Dose Zinc Supplementation Induces Visceral Adipose Tissue Hypertrophy without Altering Body Weight in Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1138; doi:10.3390/nu9101138
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis
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The trace element zinc plays an important role in human life. Zinc deficiency impairs growth, reproduction, metabolism and immunity in both human and animals. Thus, zinc supplementation is recommended in daily life. However, the effect of long-term chronic zinc supplementation on adipose homeostasis has not been well elucidated. In the current study, mice were supplemented with zinc sulfate in the drinking water for 20 weeks. The results suggested that chronic zinc supplementation impaired systemic glucose clearance after exogenous insulin or glucose challenges, as compared to the control mice. Further study revealed that chronic zinc supplementation made no difference to body weight, but increased visceral adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size. In addition, gene expression of leptin and IL6 in the visceral adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice were higher than those of control mice. Moreover, serum level of leptin of the zinc-supplemented mice was twice as high as that of the control mice. Besides, phosphorylation level of AKT T308 was attenuated in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice. In comparison, the expression of macrophage marker genes and lipogenic genes were not affected by chronic zinc supplementation, but the protein levels of FAS and SCD1 decreased or tended to decrease in the perirenal adipose tissue of zinc-supplemented mice, as compared to the control mice. Our findings suggest that chronic high dose zinc supplementation induces visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and impairs AKT signaling in perirenal adipose tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Intrauterine Zn Deficiency Favors Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone-Increasing Effects on Thyrotropin Serum Levels and Induces Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Weaned Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1139; doi:10.3390/nu9101139
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but
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Individuals who consume a diet deficient in zinc (Zn-deficient) develop alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function, i.e., a low metabolic rate and cold insensitivity. Although those disturbances are related to primary hypothyroidism, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficient adults have an increased thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, but unchanged thyroid hormone (TH) levels and decreased body weight. This does not support the view that the hypothyroidism develops due to a low Zn intake. In addition, intrauterine or postnatal Zn-deficiency in weaned and adult rats reduces the activity of pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase II (PPII) in the medial-basal hypothalamus (MBH). PPII is an enzyme that degrades thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). This hypothalamic peptide stimulates its receptor in adenohypophysis, thereby increasing TSH release. We analyzed whether earlier low TH is responsible for the high TSH levels reported in adults, or if TRH release is enhanced by Zn deficiency at weaning. Dams were fed a 2 ppm Zn-deficient diet in the period from one week prior to gestation and up to three weeks after delivery. We found a high release of hypothalamic TRH, which along with reduced MBH PPII activity, increased TSH levels in Zn-deficient pups independently of changes in TH concentration. We found that primary hypothyroidism did not develop in intrauterine Zn-deficient weaned rats and we confirmed that metal deficiency enhances TSH levels since early-life, favoring subclinical hypothyroidism development which remains into adulthood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Piceatannol from Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Seeds on Metabolic Health in Humans
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1142; doi:10.3390/nu9101142
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This
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Animal studies have shown the beneficial effects of piceatannol on metabolic health; however, there is a lack of human studies designed to examine these effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of piceatannol on metabolic health in humans. This randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 39 subjects, including 10 overweight men and 9 overweight women (BMI ≥ 25), as well as 10 non-overweight men and 10 non-overweight women (BMI < 25). Subjects received piceatannol (20 mg/day) or placebo capsules for eight weeks in a random order. The primary outcome was the effect of piceatannol on glucose-metabolism, including insulin sensitivity. The secondary outcomes were the effects on other parameters, including blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1 and phospho-AMP-activated kinase (p-AMPK) expression in isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). Supplementation with piceatannol in overweight men reduced serum insulin levels, HOMA-IR, BP and HR. Other groups, including non-overweight men, as well as overweight and non-overweight women, showed no beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity, BP and HR. Furthermore, piceatannol is not associated with other data, including body weight (BW), body composition, endothelial function, lipids, inflammation, oxidative stress, mood status, and Sirt1/p-AMPK expression in PBMNCs. In conclusion, supplementation with piceatannol can improve metabolic health, including insulin sensitivity, BP and HR, in overweight men. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Association of Vitamin E Levels with Metabolic Syndrome, and MRI-Derived Body Fat Volumes and Liver Fat Content
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1143; doi:10.3390/nu9101143
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
We aimed to relate circulating α- and γ-tocopherol levels to a broad spectrum of adiposityrelated traits in a cross-sectional Northern German study. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and adipose tissue volumes and liver fat were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 641 individuals (mean
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We aimed to relate circulating α- and γ-tocopherol levels to a broad spectrum of adiposityrelated traits in a cross-sectional Northern German study. Anthropometric measures were obtained, and adipose tissue volumes and liver fat were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 641 individuals (mean age 61 years; 40.6% women). Concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression were used to assess associations of circulating α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio levels with visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), liver signal intensity (LSI), fatty liver disease (FLD), metabolic syndrome (MetS), and its individual components. The α- tocopherol/cholesterol ratio was positively associated with VAT (β scaled by interquartile range (IQR): 0.036; 95%Confidence Interval (CI): 0.0003; 0.071) and MetS (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.83; 95% CI: 1.21–2.76 for 3rd vs. 1st tertile), and the γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio was positively associated with VAT (β scaled by IQR: 0.066; 95% CI: 0.027; 0.104), SAT (β scaled by IQR: 0.048; 95% CI: 0.010; 0.087) and MetS (OR: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.23–2.84 for 3rd vs. 1st tertile). α- and γ-tocopherol levels were positively associated with high triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all Ptrend < 0.05). No association of α- and γ-tocopherol/cholesterol ratio with LSI/FLD was observed. Circulating vitamin E levels displayed strong associations with VAT and MetS. These observations lay the ground for further investigation in longitudinal studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Health and Disease)
Open AccessArticle Migration Rate Inhibition of Breast Cancer Cells Treated by Caffeic Acid and Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: An In Vitro Comparison Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1144; doi:10.3390/nu9101144
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
One of the deadliest cancers among women is a breast cancer. Research has shown that two natural substances occurring in propolis, caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), have significant anticancer effects. The purpose of our in vitro study was to
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One of the deadliest cancers among women is a breast cancer. Research has shown that two natural substances occurring in propolis, caffeic acid (CA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), have significant anticancer effects. The purpose of our in vitro study was to compare cytotoxic activity and migration rate inhibition using CA and CAPE (doses of 50 and 100 µm) against triple-negative, MDA-MB-231 breast adenocarcinoma line cells, drawn from Caucasian women. Viability was measured by XTT-NR-SRB assay (Tetrazolium hydroxide-Neutral Red-Sulforhodamine B) for 24 h and 48 h periods. Cell migration for wound healing assay was taken for 0 h, 8 h, 16 h, and 24 h periods. CAPE displayed more than two times higher cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 cells. IC50 values for the XTT assay were as follows: CA for 24 h and 48 h were 150.94 µM and 108.42 µM, respectively, while CAPE was 68.82 µM for 24 h and 55.79 µM for 48 h. For the NR assay: CA was 135.85 µM at 24 h and 103.23 µM at 48 h, while CAPE was 64.04 µM at 24 h and 53.25 µM at 48 h. For the SRB assay: CA at 24 h was 139.80 µM and at 48 h 103.98 µM, while CAPE was 66.86 µM at 24 h and 47.73 µM at 48 h. Both agents suspended the migration rate; however, CAPE displayed better activity. Notably, for the 100 µM CAPE dose, motility of the tested breast carcinoma cells was halted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy)
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Open AccessArticle Brain and Hepatic Mt mRNA Is Reduced in Response to Mild Energy Restriction and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency in Juvenile Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1145; doi:10.3390/nu9101145
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Metallothioneins (MTs) perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER) and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of
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Metallothioneins (MTs) perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER) and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of undernutrition upon MT expression in growing animals. We tested the hypothesis that ER with and without dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency reduces MT expression in juvenile rats. ER rats were individually pair-fed at 75% of the ad libitum (AL) intake of control rats provided diets consisting of either soybean oil (SO) that is α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) sufficient or corn oil (CO; ALA-deficient). Fatty acids (FA) and metal concentrations of liver and brain regions were analyzed. Tissue expression of MTs (Mt1-3) and modulators of MT expression including glucocorticoid receptors (Nr3c1 and Nr3c2) and several mediators of thyroid hormone regulation (Dio1-3, Mct8, Oatp1c1, Thra, and Thrb) were measured. Plasma corticosterone and triiodothyronine levels were also evaluated. ER, but not metal deficiency, reduced Mt2 expression in the cerebellum (50%) and cerebral cortex (23%). In liver, a reduction in dietary n-3 PUFA reduced Mt1, Mt2, Nr3c1, Mct8, and Thrb. ER elevated Nr3c1, Dio1, and Thrb and reduced Thra in the liver. Given MT’s role in cellular protection, further studies are needed to evaluate whether ER or n-3 PUFA deficiency may leave the juvenile brain and/or liver more susceptible to endogenous or environmental stressors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Curcumin on the Diversity of Gut Microbiota in Ovariectomized Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1146; doi:10.3390/nu9101146
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
Curcumin has been proven to have a weight-loss effect in a menopausal rat model induced by ovariectomy. However, the effects of curcumin on gut microfloral communities of ovariectomized (OVX) rats remains unclear. Here, we used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to explore the effects
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Curcumin has been proven to have a weight-loss effect in a menopausal rat model induced by ovariectomy. However, the effects of curcumin on gut microfloral communities of ovariectomized (OVX) rats remains unclear. Here, we used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to explore the effects of curcumin on microbial diversity in the gut of OVX rats. Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM group). The OVX rats were treated with vehicle (OVX group) or curcumin (CUR group) by oral gavage. After 12-week treatments, the weights of the bodies and uteri of rats were recorded, the levels of estradiol in the serum were assayed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Then, the fragments encompassing V3–V4 16S rDNA hypervariable regions were PCR amplified from fecal samples, and the PCR products of V3–V4 were sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq for characterization of the gut microbiota. Our results showed that, compared to rats in the SHAM group, rats in the OVX group had more weight gain and lower levels of estradiol in the serum, and curcumin could cause significant weight loss in OVX rats but did not increase the levels of estradiol. Sequencing results revealed the presence of 1120, 1114, and 1119 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found in the SHAM, OVX, and CUR groups, respectively. The percentage of shared OTUs was 86.1603%. Gut microbiota of rats from the SHAM or CUR group had higher levels of biodiversity and unevenness estimations than those from the OVX group. At the phyla level, compared to rats in SHAM group, rats in the OVX group had a higher ratio of phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut; at the genus level, four differential gut microbiota (Incertae_Sedis, Anaerovorax, Anaerotruncus, and Helicobacter) between SHAM and OVX groups were found, whereas seven differential gut microbiota (Serratia, Anaerotruncus, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Papillibacter, Exiguobacterium, and Helicobacter) between OVX and CUR groups were found. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency induced by ovariectomy caused changes in the distribution and structure of intestinal microflora in rats, and curcumin could partially reverse changes in the diversity of gut microbiota. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of a Weight Loss Intervention on Diet Quality and Eating Behaviours in People with Obesity and COPD
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1147; doi:10.3390/nu9101147
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index;
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There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status. This sub-study aims to evaluate the intervention by (a) examining changes in dietary intake and nutritional biomarkers and (b) examining predictors of weight loss. Dietary intake was evaluated using four-day food diaries, and analysis of plasma fatty acids and plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of dietary fat intake and fruit and vegetable intake, respectively. Twenty-eight obese COPD subjects (n = 17 males, n = 11 females) with a mean (standard deviation; SD) age of 67.6 (6.3) years completed the 12-week weight loss intervention. Pre-intervention, mean (SD) BMI was 36.3 (4.6) kg/m2. Micronutrient intake improved from pre- to post-intervention, with the percentage of subjects meeting the Nutrient Reference Values increased for all micronutrients. Post-intervention, significant decreases in total (p = 0.009) and saturated fat intake (p = 0.037), and corresponding decreases in total (p = 0.007) and saturated plasma fatty acids (p = 0.003) were observed. There was a trend towards higher total carotenoids post-intervention (p = 0.078). Older age (p = 0.025), higher pre-intervention uncontrolled eating (p < 0.001) and plasma carotenoids (p = 0.009) predicted weight loss. This demonstrates the efficacy of a weight loss intervention in improving diet quality of obese COPD adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Fat Diet with a High Monounsaturated Fatty Acid and Polyunsaturated/Saturated Fatty Acid Ratio Suppresses Body Fat Accumulation and Weight Gain in Obese Hamsters
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1148; doi:10.3390/nu9101148
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high fat diet with experimental oil consisting of 60% MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) with a P/S ratio of 5 on fat deposition and lipid metabolism in obese hamsters. Hamsters were randomly
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a high fat diet with experimental oil consisting of 60% MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) with a P/S ratio of 5 on fat deposition and lipid metabolism in obese hamsters. Hamsters were randomly assigned to a control group and a diet-induced obesity group for nine weeks. Then an additional eight-week experimental period began, during which obese hamsters were randomly divided into three groups and fed different amounts of the experimental oil mixture in their diets as follows: 5%, 15%, and 20% w/w (OB-M5, OB-M15, and OB-M20 groups, respectively). The results showed that the OB-M15 and OB-M20 groups had significantly lower blood cholesterol and higher insulin levels. Compared to the control group, the three obese groups exhibited higher hepatic fatty acid synthase activity; however, the acyl-CoA oxidase activities were also enhanced. Although dietary fat content differed, there were no differences in energy intake, final body weights, and epididymal fat weights among the four groups. These results suggest that regardless of whether the specimens had a high fat intake or not, dietary fat containing high MUFAs with a high P/S ratio had beneficial effects on maintaining blood lipid profiles and may not result in body fat accumulation in obese hamsters, possibly by promoting lipolytic enzyme activities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Body Weight Cycling with Identical Diet Composition Does Not Affect Energy Balance and Has No Adverse Effect on Metabolic Health Parameters
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1149; doi:10.3390/nu9101149
Received: 20 August 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Background: Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters
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Background: Body weight (BW) cycling, the yo-yo effect, is generally thought to have adverse effects on human metabolic health. However, human and animal experiments are limited in number and do not provide clear answers, partly due to large variations in experimental design, parameters measured, and definitions of BW cycling. Here, we examined the effect of repetitive BW cycling versus single- and non-cycling control groups, without alterations in diet composition, on steady state BW and metabolic parameters. Methods: We induced well-defined BW cycles on a semi-purified high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice, a well-described animal model for diet-induced obesity, and measured energy expenditure and relevant metabolic parameters. Results: Our setup indeed resulted in the intended BW changes and always reached a stage of energy balance. A history of weight cycling did not result in increased BW or fat mass compared with the control group, nor in deteriorated serum concentrations of glucose, adipokines and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. If anything, BW tended to be reduced, presumably because of a reduced overall energy intake in BW cycling animals. Conclusion: Repeated cycling in BW without changes in diet composition does not lead to impaired metabolic health nor increased BW (gain). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Open AccessArticle Zinc Supplementation Improves Glucose Homeostasis in High Fat-Fed Mice by Enhancing Pancreatic β-Cell Function
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1150; doi:10.3390/nu9101150
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
Zinc is an essential component of the insulin granule and it possibly modulates insulin secretion and signaling. Since insulin resistance is a hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this study aimed at investigating if zinc supplementation is able to improve
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Zinc is an essential component of the insulin granule and it possibly modulates insulin secretion and signaling. Since insulin resistance is a hallmark in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this study aimed at investigating if zinc supplementation is able to improve glucose tolerance and β-cell function in a model of insulin resistance. Male C57BL/6 mice were distributed in four groups according to the diet: normal fat (NF); normal fat supplemented with ZnCl2 (NFZ); high-fat (HF); and, high-fat chow supplemented with ZnCl2 (HFZ). Intraperitoneal glucose (ipGTT) and insulin (ipITT) tolerance, glycemia, insulinemia, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-β were determined after 15 weeks in each diet. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was investigated in isolated islets. The insulin effect on glucose uptake, metabolism, and signaling was investigated in soleus muscle. ZnCl2 did not affect body mass or insulin sensitivity as assessed by ipITT, HOMA-IR, muscle glucose metabolism, and Akt and GSK3-β phosphorylation. However, glucose tolerance, HOMA-β, and GSIS were significantly improved by ZnCl2 supplementation. Therefore, ZnCl2 supplementation improves glucose homeostasis in high fat-fed mice by a mechanism that enhances β-cell function, rather than whole-body or muscle insulin sensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zn and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of the Micellar Incorporation and the Intestinal Cell Uptake of Cholecalciferol, 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-α-Hydroxycholecalciferol
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1152; doi:10.3390/nu9101152
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
In the context of the global prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, we compared two key determinants of the bioavailability of 3 vitamin D forms with significant biopotencies: cholecalciferol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol. To this aim, we studied their incorporation into synthetic mixed micelles and
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In the context of the global prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, we compared two key determinants of the bioavailability of 3 vitamin D forms with significant biopotencies: cholecalciferol, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol. To this aim, we studied their incorporation into synthetic mixed micelles and their uptake by intestinal cells in culture. Our results show that 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol was significantly more solubilized into mixed micelles compared to the other forms (1.6-fold and 2.9-fold improvement compared to cholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, respectively). In Caco-2 TC7 cells, the hydroxylated forms were taken up more efficiently than cholecalciferol (p < 0.05), and conversely to cholecalciferol, their uptake was neither SR-BI(Scavenger-Receptor class B type I)- nor NPC1L1 (NPC1 like intracellular cholesterol transporter 1)-dependent. Besides, the apical membrane sodium–bile acid transporter ASBT (Apical Sodium-dependent Bile acid Transporter) was not involved, at least in vitro, in the uptake of any of the three vitamin D forms. Further investigations are needed to identify the uptake pathways of both 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. However, considering its high bioavailability, our results suggest the potential interest of using 1-α-hydroxycholecalciferol in the treatment of severe vitamin D deficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multivariable Analysis of Nutritional and Socio-Economic Profiles Shows Differences in Incident Anemia for Northern and Southern Jiangsu in China
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1153; doi:10.3390/nu9101153
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
Anemia is a prevalent public health problem associated with nutritional and socio-economic factors that contribute to iron deficiency. To understand the complex interplay of risk factors, we investigated a prospective population sample from the Jiangsu province in China. At baseline, three-day food intake
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Anemia is a prevalent public health problem associated with nutritional and socio-economic factors that contribute to iron deficiency. To understand the complex interplay of risk factors, we investigated a prospective population sample from the Jiangsu province in China. At baseline, three-day food intake was measured for 2849 individuals (20 to 87 years of age, mean age 47 ± 14, range 20–87 years, 64% women). At a five-year follow-up, anemia status was re-assessed for 1262 individuals. The dataset was split and age-matched to accommodate cross-sectional (n = 2526), prospective (n = 837), and subgroup designs (n = 1844). We applied a machine learning framework (self-organizing map) to define four subgroups. The first two subgroups were primarily from the less affluent North: the High Fibre subgroup had a higher iron intake (35 vs. 21 mg/day) and lower anemia incidence (10% vs. 25%) compared to the Low Vegetable subgroup. However, the predominantly Southern subgroups were surprising: the Low Fibre subgroup showed a lower anemia incidence (10% vs. 27%), yet also a lower iron intake (20 vs. 28 mg/day) compared to the High Rice subgroup. These results suggest that interventions and iron intake guidelines should be tailored to regional, nutritional, and socio-economic subgroups. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Prevalence and Predictors of Dietary Supplement Use in the Australian Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1154; doi:10.3390/nu9101154
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
Current dietary supplement use in Australia is not well described. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of supplement use in the Australian population (n = 19,257) using data from the 2014–2015 National Health Survey. We reported the prevalence of supplement use by
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Current dietary supplement use in Australia is not well described. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of supplement use in the Australian population (n = 19,257) using data from the 2014–2015 National Health Survey. We reported the prevalence of supplement use by sex and age group and investigated the independent predictors of supplement use in adults, adolescents, and children using multiple logistic regression models. A total of 43.2% of adults (34.9% of males, 50.3% of females), 20.1% of adolescents (19.7% of males, 20.6% of females), and 23.5% of children (24.4% of males, 22.5% of females) used at least one dietary supplement in the previous two weeks. The most commonly used supplements were multivitamins and/or multiminerals and fish oil preparations. In adults, independent predictors of supplement use included being female, increasing age, being born outside Australia and other main English-speaking countries, having a higher education level, having a healthy BMI compared to those who were obese, being physically active, and being a non-smoker. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed investigation of dietary supplement use in a nationally-representative sample of the Australian population. Future studies investigating the contribution of supplements to overall dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Diet Quality and Adiposity in the Atlantic PATH Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1155; doi:10.3390/nu9101155
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine diet quality among participants in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (PATH) cohort and to assess the association with adiposity. Data were collected from participants (n = 23,768) aged 35–69 years that were residents
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The aim of this study was to examine diet quality among participants in the Atlantic Partnership for Tomorrow’s Health (PATH) cohort and to assess the association with adiposity. Data were collected from participants (n = 23,768) aged 35–69 years that were residents of the Atlantic Canadian provinces. Both measured and self-reported data were used to examine adiposity (including body mass index (BMI), abdominal obesity, waist-to-hip ratio and fat mass) and food frequency questionnaires were used to assess diet quality. Overall, diet quality was statistically different among provinces. Of concern, participants across all the provinces reported consuming only 1–2 servings of vegetables and 1–2 servings fruit per day. However, participants also reported some healthy dietary choices such as consuming more servings of whole grains than refined grains, and eating at fast food restaurants ≤1 per month. Significant differences in BMI, body weight, percentage body fat, and fat mass index were also observed among provinces. Adiposity measures were positively associated with consumption of meat/poultry, fish, snack food, sweeteners, diet soft drinks, and frequenting fast food restaurants, and inversely associated with consumption of whole grains and green tea. Although all four provinces are in the Atlantic region, diet quality vary greatly among provinces and are associated with adiposity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA) of Foodservice Operation, Dietary Life Education, and Nutrition Counseling Tasks of Nutrition Teachers and Dietitians in Jeju, Korea
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1157; doi:10.3390/nu9101157
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze foodservice operation, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians in elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju, Korea, and to provide effective ways to implement dietary life education and nutrition
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The purpose of this study was to analyze foodservice operation, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians in elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju, Korea, and to provide effective ways to implement dietary life education and nutrition counseling in schools. This study surveyed 94 nutrition teachers and 46 dietitians working at elementary, middle, and high schools in Jeju during 7–14 May 2015. The importance and performance of 16 tasks of nutrition teachers and dietitians were measured using questionnaires. The data was analyzed by using the SPSS software and Importance–Performance Analysis (IPA). Importance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.72), dietary life education (4.37), and nutrition counseling (4.24); and performance was ranked in the order of foodservice operation (4.48), dietary life education (3.70), and nutrition counseling (3.22). The importance–performance matrix showed that in Quadrant 4, the “Concentrate Here” item was “nutrition and dietary life education for students”, while in Quadrant 2, the “Possible Overkill” item was “cost control and office management”. These findings suggest that it is important to reduce unnecessary administrative and office management tasks in order for nutrition teachers and dietitians to implement effective nutrition education, dietary life education, and nutrition counseling programs. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Muscle Glycogen Content in Rats Seven Days after Eccentric Contraction
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1159; doi:10.3390/nu9101159
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
Eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, which impairs recovery of glycogen and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content over several days. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) enhance the recovery in muscles that are damaged after eccentric contractions. However, the role of LEAAs in this process remains
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Eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, which impairs recovery of glycogen and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) content over several days. Leucine-enriched essential amino acids (LEAAs) enhance the recovery in muscles that are damaged after eccentric contractions. However, the role of LEAAs in this process remains unclear. We evaluated the content in glycogen and high energy phosphates molecules (phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine di-phosphate (ADP) and ATP) in rats that were following electrically stimulated eccentric contractions. Muscle glycogen content decreased immediately after the contraction and remained low for the first three days after the stimulation, but increased seven days after the eccentric contraction. LEAAs administration did not change muscle glycogen content during the first three days after the contraction. Interestingly, however, it induced a further increase in muscle glycogen seven days after the stimulation. Contrarily, ATP content decreased immediately after the eccentric contraction, and remained lower for up to seven days after. Additionally, LEAAs administration did not affect the ATP content over the experimental period. Finally, ADP and PCr levels did not significantly change after the contractions or LEAA administration. LEAAs modulate the recovery of glycogen content in muscle after damage-inducing exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Diosgenin-Rich Yam Extract Enhances Cognitive Function: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study of Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1160; doi:10.3390/nu9101160
Received: 17 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Diosgenin, a yam-derived compound, was found to facilitate the repair of axonal atrophy and synaptic degeneration and improve memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It was also found to enhance neuronal excitation and memory function even in normal
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Diosgenin, a yam-derived compound, was found to facilitate the repair of axonal atrophy and synaptic degeneration and improve memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It was also found to enhance neuronal excitation and memory function even in normal mice. We hypothesized that diosgenin, either isolated or in an extract, may represent a new category of cognitive enhancers with essential activities that morphologically and functionally reinforce neuronal networks. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a diosgenin-rich yam extract on cognitive enhancement in healthy volunteers. For this placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study, 28 healthy volunteers (age: 20–81 years) were recruited from Toyama Prefecture, Japan, and was randomly assigned to receive either a yam extract or placebo. Preliminary functional animal experiments indicated that an oil solvent mediated the most efficient distribution of diosgenin into the blood and brain after oral administration, and was a critical factor in the cognitive benefits. Therefore, test samples (placebo and yam extract) were prepared with olive oil and formulated as soft capsules. The intake period was 12 weeks, and a 6-week washout period separated the two crossover intake periods. The Japanese version of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) test was used for neurocognitive assessment, and the adverse effects were monitored through blood testing. Diosgenin-rich yam extract consumption for 12 weeks yielded significant increases in total RBANS score. Among the 12 individual standard cognitive subtests, diosgenin-rich yam extract use significantly improved the semantic fluency. No adverse effects were reported. The diosgenin-rich yam extract treatment appeared to safely enhance cognitive function in healthy adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flavonoid Naringenin Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Improves Neurotrophic Effects in the Diabetic Rat Retina
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1161; doi:10.3390/nu9101161
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness worldwide. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is believed to be the key factor that initiates neuronal damage in the diabetic retina leading to DR. Experimental approaches to utilize dietary flavonoids, which
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of decreased vision and blindness worldwide. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is believed to be the key factor that initiates neuronal damage in the diabetic retina leading to DR. Experimental approaches to utilize dietary flavonoids, which possess both antidiabetic and antioxidant activities, might protect the retinal damage in diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of naringenin in the retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally treated and untreated with naringenin (50 mg/kg/day) for five weeks and retinas were analyzed for markers of oxidative stress, apoptosis and neurotrophic factors. Systemic effects of naringenin treatments were also analyzed and compared with untreated groups. The results showed that elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) and decreased level of glutathione (GSH) in diabetic rats were ameliorated with naringenin treatments. Moreover, decreased levels of neuroprotective factors (Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)), tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB) and synaptophysin in diabetic retina were augmented with naringenin treatments. In addition, naringenin treatment ameliorated the levels of apoptosis regulatory proteins; B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 in the diabetic retina. Thus, the study demonstrates the beneficial effects of naringenin that possesses anti-diabetic, antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, which may limit neurodegeneration by providing neurotrophic support to prevent retinal damage in diabetic retinopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Altering Dietary n-6:n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio with Plant and Marine-Based Supplement on Biomarkers of Bone Turnover in Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1162; doi:10.3390/nu9101162
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
Although there is accumulating evidence for a protective role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on bone health, there are limited studies that examine the effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio with plant and marine
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Although there is accumulating evidence for a protective role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on bone health, there are limited studies that examine the effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio with plant and marine sources of n-3 PUFA on bone health. Healthy adults (n = 24) were randomized into an eight-week crossover study with a four-week washout between treatments, with each subject consuming three of four diets. The four diets differed in the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios and either had an algal oil supplement added or not: (Control diet (10:1); α-linolenic acid (ALA) diet (2:1); Eicosapentaenoic acid/Docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) diet (10:1 plus supplement (S) containing EPA/DHA; Combination diet (2:1 + S)). The supplement was microalgae oil that provided 1 g EPA + DHA/day. Flaxseed oil and walnuts provided 8.6 g of ALA/day in the 2:1 diets. Serum levels of c-telopeptide (CTX), procollagen Type I N-terminal peptide, and osteocalcin showed significant correlation with age but none of the bone markers or peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ mRNA expression was significantly different between the diets. Serum CTX was negatively associated with red blood cell membrane linoleic acid and ALA and positively associated with membrane DHA. Neither altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio from a 10:1 to a 2:1 ratio nor adding EPA/DHA supplement significantly changed bone turnover in the short term in healthy adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessReview Biological Mechanisms by Which Antiproliferative Actions of Resveratrol Are Minimized
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1046; doi:10.3390/nu9101046
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 17 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
Preclinical and clinical studies have offered evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers. Resveratrol is among the most widely studied polyphenols. However, the preventive and treatment effectiveness of resveratrol in cancer remain controversial because of
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Preclinical and clinical studies have offered evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers. Resveratrol is among the most widely studied polyphenols. However, the preventive and treatment effectiveness of resveratrol in cancer remain controversial because of certain limitations in existing studies. For example, studies of the activity of resveratrol against cancer cell lines in vitro have often been conducted at concentrations in the low μM to mM range, whereas dietary resveratrol or resveratrol-containing wine rarely achieve nM concentrations in the clinic. While the mechanisms underlying the failure of resveratrol to inhibit cancer growth in the intact organism are not fully understood, the interference by thyroid hormones with the anticancer activity of resveratrol have been well documented in both in vitro and xenograft studies. Thus, endogenous thyroid hormones may explain the failure of anticancer actions of resveratrol in intact animals, or in the clinic. In this review, mechanisms involved in resveratrol-induced antiproliferation and effects of thyroid hormones on these mechanisms are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Is Branched-Chain Amino Acids Supplementation an Efficient Nutritional Strategy to Alleviate Skeletal Muscle Damage? A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1047; doi:10.3390/nu9101047
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract
Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have
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Amino acids and more precisely, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), are usually consumed as nutritional supplements by many athletes and people involved in regular and moderate physical activities regardless of their practice level. BCAAs have been initially shown to increase muscle mass and have also been implicated in the limitation of structural and metabolic alterations associated with exercise damage. This systematic review provides a comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding the beneficial effects of BCAAs supplementation within the context of exercise-induced muscle damage or muscle injury. The potential benefit of a BCAAs supplementation was also analyzed according to the supplementation strategy—amount of BCAAs, frequency and duration of the supplementation—and the extent of muscle damage. The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42017073006) and followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Literature search was performed from the date of commencement until August 2017 using four online databases (Medline, Cochrane library, Web of science and ScienceDirect). Original research articles: (i) written in English; (ii) describing experiments performed in Humans who received at least one oral BCAAs supplementation composed of leucine, isoleucine and valine mixture only as a nutritional strategy and (iii) reporting a follow-up of at least one day after exercise-induced muscle damage, were included in the systematic review analysis. Quality assessment was undertaken independently using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Changes in indirect markers of muscle damage were considered as primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures were the extent of change in indirect markers of muscle damage. In total, 11 studies were included in the analysis. A high heterogeneity was found regarding the different outcomes of these studies. The risk of bias was moderate considering the quality ratings were positive for six and neutral for three. Although a small number of studies were included, BCAAs supplementation can be efficacious on outcomes of exercise-induced muscle damage, as long as the extent of muscle damage was low-to-moderate, the supplementation strategy combined a high daily BCAAs intake (>200 mg kg−1 day−1) for a long period of time (>10 days); it was especially effective if taken prior to the damaging exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein for Post-Exercise Recovery and Performance)
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Open AccessReview Mediterranean Diet and Multi-Ingredient-Based Interventions for the Management of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1052; doi:10.3390/nu9101052
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a wide spectrum of hepatic disorders, from simple steatosis to hepatic necro-inflammation leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although the prevalence of these multifactorial pathologies is continuously increasing in the population, there is still not an established methodology
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a wide spectrum of hepatic disorders, from simple steatosis to hepatic necro-inflammation leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although the prevalence of these multifactorial pathologies is continuously increasing in the population, there is still not an established methodology for their treatment other than weight loss and a change in lifestyle habits, such as a hypocaloric diet and physical exercise. In this framework, there is increasing evidence that several food bioactives and dietary patterns are effective for reversing and preventing the onset of these pathologies. Some studies have claimed that better responses are obtained when treatments are performed under a multifaceted approach, using different bioactive compounds that act against complementary targets. Thus, in this work, current strategies for treating NAFLD and NASH based on multi-ingredient-based supplements or the Mediterranean diet, a dietary pattern rich in bioactive compounds, are reviewed. Furthermore, the usefulness of omics techniques to design effective multi-ingredient nutritional interventions and to predict and monitor their response against these disorders is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
Open AccessReview Therapeutic Effects of Olive and Its Derivatives on Osteoarthritis: From Bench to Bedside
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1060; doi:10.3390/nu9101060
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Osteoarthritis is a major cause of morbidity among the elderly worldwide. It is a disease characterized by localized inflammation of the joint and destruction of cartilage, leading to loss of function. Impaired chondrocyte repair mechanisms, due to inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy, play
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Osteoarthritis is a major cause of morbidity among the elderly worldwide. It is a disease characterized by localized inflammation of the joint and destruction of cartilage, leading to loss of function. Impaired chondrocyte repair mechanisms, due to inflammation, oxidative stress and autophagy, play important roles in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Olive and its derivatives, which possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and autophagy-enhancing activities, are suitable candidates for therapeutic interventions for osteoarthritis. This review aimed to summarize the current evidence on the effects of olive and its derivatives, on osteoarthritis and chondrocytes. The literature on animal and human studies has demonstrated a beneficial effect of olive and its derivatives on the progression of osteoarthritis. In vitro studies have suggested that the augmentation of autophagy (though sirtuin-1) and suppression of inflammation by olive polyphenols could contribute to the chondroprotective effects of olive polyphenols. More research and well-planned clinical trials are required to justify the use of olive-based treatment in osteoarthritis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1063; doi:10.3390/nu9101063
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to gain further insight into the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet (MedD) on risk of overall cancer mortality, risk of different types of cancer, and cancer mortality and recurrence risk in cancer
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The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to gain further insight into the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet (MedD) on risk of overall cancer mortality, risk of different types of cancer, and cancer mortality and recurrence risk in cancer survivors. Literature search was performed using the electronic databases PubMed, and Scopus until 25 August 2017. We included randomized trials (RCTs), cohort (for specific tumors only incidence cases were used) studies, and case-control studies. Study-specific risk ratios, hazard ratios, and odds ratios (RR/HR/OR) were pooled using a random effects model. Observational studies (cohort and case-control studies), and intervention trials were meta-analyzed separately. The updated review process showed 27 studies that were not included in the previous meta-analysis (total number of studies evaluated: 83 studies). An overall population of 2,130,753 subjects was included in the present update. The highest adherence score to a MedD was inversely associated with a lower risk of cancer mortality (RRcohort: 0.86, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.91, I2 = 82%; n = 14 studies), colorectal cancer (RRobservational: 0.82, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.88, I2 = 73%; n = 11 studies), breast cancer (RRRCT: 0.43, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88, n = 1 study) (RRobservational: 0.92, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.96, I2 = 22%, n = 16 studies), gastric cancer (RRobservational: 0.72, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.86, I2 = 55%; n = 4 studies), liver cancer (RRobservational: 0.58, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.73, I2 = 0%; n = 2 studies), head and neck cancer (RRobservational: 0.49, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.66, I2 = 87%; n = 7 studies), and prostate cancer (RRobservational: 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, I2 = 0%; n = 6 studies). Among cancer survivors, the association between the adherence to the highest MedD category and risk of cancer mortality, and cancer recurrence was not statistically significant. Pooled analyses of individual components of the MedD revealed that the protective effects appear to be most attributable to fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The updated meta-analysis confirms an important inverse association between adherence to a MedD and cancer mortality and risk of several cancer types, especially colorectal cancer. These observed beneficial effects are mainly driven by higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Moreover, we were able to report for the first time a small decrease in breast cancer risk (6%) by pooling seven cohort studies. Full article
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Open AccessReview Isocaloric Dietary Changes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Cardiometabolic Risk Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1065; doi:10.3390/nu9101065
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incorporates an extensive spectrum of histologic liver abnormalities, varying from simple triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and it is the most frequent chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. Beyond liver related complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, NAFLD is also an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Currently, lifestyle intervention including strategies to reduce body weight and to increase regular physical activity represents the mainstay of NAFLD management. Total caloric intake plays a very important role in both the development and the treatment of NAFLD; however, apart from the caloric restriction alone, modifying the quality of the diet and modulating either the macro- or micronutrient composition can also markedly affect the clinical evolution of NAFLD, offering a more realistic and feasible treatment alternative. The aim of the present review is to summarize currently available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effects of different nutrients including carbohydrates, lipids, protein and other dietary components, in isocaloric conditions, on NAFLD in people at high cardiometabolic risk. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary components could modulate liver fat content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Animal Models of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease—A Starter’s Guide
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1072; doi:10.3390/nu9101072
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 13 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes a major health concern with the increasing incidence of obesity and diabetes in many Western countries, reaching a prevalence of up to 30% in the general population. Animal models have played a vital role in elucidating the
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes a major health concern with the increasing incidence of obesity and diabetes in many Western countries, reaching a prevalence of up to 30% in the general population. Animal models have played a vital role in elucidating the pathophysiological mechanisms of NAFLD and continue to do so. A myriad of different models exists, each with its advantages and disadvantages. This review presents a brief overview of these models with a particular focus on the basic mechanisms and physical, biochemical and histological phenotype. Both nutritional and chemically induced, as well as genetic models are examined, including models combining different approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Sugar- and Intense-Sweetened Drinks in Australia: A Systematic Review on Cardiometabolic Risk
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1075; doi:10.3390/nu9101075
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are consumed globally, and have been associated with adverse health outcomes, including weight gain, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is global variation in beverage formulation in terms of glucose and fructose concentration, which
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Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are consumed globally, and have been associated with adverse health outcomes, including weight gain, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is global variation in beverage formulation in terms of glucose and fructose concentration, which may pose unique health risks linked to glycemic control for Australian consumers. However, previous systematic reviews have overlooked Australian-based literature. A systematic review was performed to synthesise evidence for the associations between consumption of SSBs and intense-sweetened beverages with clinical cardiometabolic risk factors in the Australian population. Articles were sourced from Global Health, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Medline, and Culmative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. To be eligible for review, studies had to report on the consumption of sugar-sweetened (including fruit juice and fruit drinks) and/or intense-sweetened beverages, and at least one clinical cardiometabolic risk factor. Eighteen studies were included in this review. Research has mostly focused on the relationship between SSB consumption and adiposity-related outcomes. No studies have examined indices of glycaemic control (glucose/insulin), and the evidence for the health impact of intense-sweetened drinks is limited. In addition, studies have primarily been of cross-sectional design, and have examined children and adolescents, as opposed to adult populations. In the Australian population, there is modest but consistent evidence that SSB consumption has adverse associations with weight, but there is insufficient data to assess relationships with cardiometabolic outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessReview Precision Nutrition for Targeting Lipid Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1076; doi:10.3390/nu9101076
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
Cancer is a multistage and multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating tumorogenesis and disease progression. Nevertheless, cancer is preventable, as one third of cancer deaths could be avoided by modifying key risk factors. Nutrients can directly affect fundamental cellular processes and
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Cancer is a multistage and multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating tumorogenesis and disease progression. Nevertheless, cancer is preventable, as one third of cancer deaths could be avoided by modifying key risk factors. Nutrients can directly affect fundamental cellular processes and are considered among the most important risk factors in colorectal cancer (CRC). Red and processed meat, poultry consumption, fiber, and folate are the best-known diet components that interact with colorectal cancer susceptibility. In addition, the direct association of an unhealthy diet with obesity and dysbiosis opens new routes in the understanding of how daily diet nutrients could influence cancer prognosis. In the “omics” era, traditional nutrition has been naturally evolved to precision nutrition where technical developments have contributed to a more accurate discipline. In this sense, genomic and transcriptomic studies have been extensively used in precision nutrition approaches. However, the relation between CRC carcinogenesis and nutrition factors is more complex than originally expected. Together with classical diet-nutrition-related genes, nowadays, lipid-metabolism-related genes have acquired relevant interest in precision nutrition studies. Lipids regulate very diverse cellular processes from ATP synthesis and the activation of essential cell-signaling pathways to membrane organization and plasticity. Therefore, a wide range of tumorogenic steps can be influenced by lipid metabolism, both in primary tumours and distal metastasis. The extent to which genetic variants, together with the intake of specific dietary components, affect the risk of CRC is currently under investigation, and new therapeutic or preventive applications must be explored in CRC models. In this review, we will go in depth into the study of co-occurring events, which orchestrate CRC tumorogenesis and are essential for the evolution of precision nutrition paradigms. Likewise, we will discuss the application of precision nutrition approaches to target lipid metabolism in CRC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Open AccessReview Translational Aspects of Diet and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1077; doi:10.3390/nu9101077
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 September 2017 / Published: 28 September 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis without inflammation or fibrosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Despite the strong association between dietary factors and NAFLD, no dietary animal model of NAFLD fully recapitulates the complex metabolic and
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis without inflammation or fibrosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Despite the strong association between dietary factors and NAFLD, no dietary animal model of NAFLD fully recapitulates the complex metabolic and histological phenotype of the disease, although recent models show promise. Although animal models have significantly contributed to our understanding of human diseases, they have been less successful in accurate translation to predict effective treatment strategies. We discuss strategies to overcome this challenge, in particular the adoption of big data approaches combining clinical phenotype, genomic heterogeneity, transcriptomics, and metabolomics changes to identify the ideal NAFLD animal model for a given scientific question or to test a given drug. We conclude by noting that novel big data approaches may help to bridge the translational gap for selecting dietary models of NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
Open AccessReview Anti-Inflammatory Thioredoxin Family Proteins for Medicare, Healthcare and Aging Care
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1081; doi:10.3390/nu9101081
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 19 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
Human thioredoxin (TRX) is a 12-kDa protein with redox-active dithiol in the active site -Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-, which is induced by biological stress due to oxidative damage, metabolic dysfunction, chemicals, infection/inflammation, irradiation, or hypoxia/ischemia-reperfusion. Our research has demonstrated that exogenous TRX is effective in a
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Human thioredoxin (TRX) is a 12-kDa protein with redox-active dithiol in the active site -Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-, which is induced by biological stress due to oxidative damage, metabolic dysfunction, chemicals, infection/inflammation, irradiation, or hypoxia/ischemia-reperfusion. Our research has demonstrated that exogenous TRX is effective in a wide variety of inflammatory diseases, including viral pneumonia, acute lung injury, gastric injury, and dermatitis, as well as in the prevention and amelioration of food allergies. Preclinical and clinical studies using recombinant TRX (rhTRX) are now underway. We have also identified substances that induce the expression of TRX in the body, in vegetables and other plant ingredients. Skincare products are being developed that take advantage of the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic action of TRX. Furthermore, we are currently engaged in the highly efficient production of pure rhTRX in several plants, such as lettuce, grain and rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from APNNO Biennial Conference 2016)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds on Inflammation in the Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Artery Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1087; doi:10.3390/nu9101087
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is responsible for more than 7 million deaths worldwide. In the early stages of the development of atherosclerotic plaques, cardiovascular risk factors stimulate vascular endothelial cells, initiating an inflammatory process, fundamental in the pathogenesis of CAD. The inclusion of
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is responsible for more than 7 million deaths worldwide. In the early stages of the development of atherosclerotic plaques, cardiovascular risk factors stimulate vascular endothelial cells, initiating an inflammatory process, fundamental in the pathogenesis of CAD. The inclusion of potentially cardioprotective foods, such as olive oil, to the diet, may aid in the control of these risk factors, and in the reduction of cytokines and inflammatory markers. The present review aims to address the interaction between phenolic compounds present in olive oil, and inflammation, in the prevention and treatment of CAD. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phenolic compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and their secoiridoid derivatives, may reduce the expression of adhesion molecules and consequent migration of immune cells, modify the signaling cascade and the transcription network (blocking the signal and expression of the nuclear factor kappa B), inhibit the action of enzymes responsible for the production of eicosanoids, and consequently, decrease circulating levels of inflammatory markers. Daily consumption of olive oil seems to modulate cytokines and inflammatory markers related to CAD in individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, clinical studies that have evaluated the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on individuals with CAD are still scarce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Impact of Restaurant Menu Labeling on Calories and Nutrients (Ordered or Consumed) in U.S. Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1088; doi:10.3390/nu9101088
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
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Abstract
A systematic review and meta-analysis determined the effect of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients chosen in laboratory and away-from-home settings in U.S. adults. Cochrane-based criteria adherent, peer-reviewed study designs conducted and published in the English language from 1950 to 2014 were
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A systematic review and meta-analysis determined the effect of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients chosen in laboratory and away-from-home settings in U.S. adults. Cochrane-based criteria adherent, peer-reviewed study designs conducted and published in the English language from 1950 to 2014 were collected in 2015, analyzed in 2016, and used to evaluate the effect of nutrition labeling on calories and nutrients ordered or consumed. Before and after menu labeling outcomes were used to determine weighted mean differences in calories, saturated fat, total fat, carbohydrate, and sodium ordered/consumed which were pooled across studies using random effects modeling. Stratified analysis for laboratory and away-from-home settings were also completed. Menu labeling resulted in no significant change in reported calories ordered/consumed in studies with full criteria adherence, nor the 14 studies analyzed with ≤1 unmet criteria, nor for change in total ordered carbohydrate, fat, and saturated fat (three studies) or ordered or consumed sodium (four studies). A significant reduction of 115.2 calories ordered/consumed in laboratory settings was determined when analyses were stratified by study setting. Menu labeling away-from-home did not result in change in quantity or quality, specifically for carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, or sodium, of calories consumed among U.S. adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Intake, Trends, and Determinants)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Anthocyanins against Obesity and Inflammation
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1089; doi:10.3390/nu9101089
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 1 October 2017
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Abstract
Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity, due to its associated chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Thus, targeting inflammation is an attractive strategy to counter the burden of obesity-induced health
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Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of obesity, due to its associated chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Thus, targeting inflammation is an attractive strategy to counter the burden of obesity-induced health problems. Recently, food-derived bioactive compounds have been spotlighted as a regulator against various chronic diseases due to their low toxicity, as opposed to drugs that induce severe side effects. Here we describe the beneficial effects of dietary anthocyanins on obesity-induced metabolic disorders and inflammation. Red cabbage microgreen, blueberry, blackcurrant, mulberry, cherry, black elderberry, black soybean, chokeberry and jaboticaba peel contain a variety of anthocyanins including cyanidins, delphinidins, malvidins, pelargonidins, peonidins and petunidins, and have been reported to alter both metabolic markers and inflammatory markers in cells, animals, and humans. This review discusses the interplay between inflammation and obesity, and their subsequent regulation via the use of dietary anthocyanins, suggesting an alternative dietary strategy to ameliorate obesity and obesity associated chronic diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Intended or Unintended Doping? A Review of the Presence of Doping Substances in Dietary Supplements Used in Sports
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1093; doi:10.3390/nu9101093
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping
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Introduction: The use of dietary supplements is increasing among athletes, year after year. Related to the high rates of use, unintentional doping occurs. Unintentional doping refers to positive anti-doping tests due to the use of any supplement containing unlisted substances banned by anti-doping regulations and organizations, such as the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The objective of this review is to summarize the presence of unlabeled doping substances in dietary supplements that are used in sports. Methodology: A review of substances/metabolites/markers banned by WADA in ergonutritional supplements was completed using PubMed. The inclusion criteria were studies published up until September 2017, which analyzed the content of substances, metabolites and markers banned by WADA. Results: 446 studies were identified, 23 of which fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. In most of the studies, the purpose was to identify doping substances in dietary supplements. Discussion: Substances prohibited by WADA were found in most of the supplements analyzed in this review. Some of them were prohormones and/or stimulants. With rates of contamination between 12 and 58%, non-intentional doping is a point to take into account before establishing a supplementation program. Athletes and coaches must be aware of the problems related to the use of any contaminated supplement and should pay special attention before choosing a supplement, informing themselves fully and confirming the guarantees offered by the supplement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessReview Micronutrient Status and Dietary Intake of Iron, Vitamin A, Iodine, Folate and Zinc in Women of Reproductive Age and Pregnant Women in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa: A Systematic Review of Data from 2005 to 2015
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1096; doi:10.3390/nu9101096
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 5 October 2017
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Abstract
A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the status and intake of iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate and zinc in women of reproductive age (WRA) (≥15–49 years) and pregnant women (PW) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. National and subnational data published
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A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the status and intake of iron, vitamin A, iodine, folate and zinc in women of reproductive age (WRA) (≥15–49 years) and pregnant women (PW) in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa. National and subnational data published between 2005 and 2015 were searched via Medline, Scopus and national public health websites. Per micronutrient, relevant data were pooled into an average prevalence of deficiency, weighted by sample size (WAVG). Inadequate intakes were estimated from mean (SD) intakes. This review included 65 surveys and studies from Ethiopia (21), Kenya (11), Nigeria (21) and South Africa (12). In WRA, WAVG prevalence of anaemia ranged from 18–51%, iron deficiency 9–18%, and iron deficiency anaemia at 10%. In PW, the prevalence was higher, and ranged from 32–62%, 19–61%, and 9–47%, respectively. In WRA, prevalence of vitamin A, iodine, zinc and folate deficiencies ranged from 4–22%, 22–55%, 34% and 46%, while in PW these ranged from 21–48%, 87%, 46–76% and 3–12% respectively. Inadequate intakes of these micronutrients are high and corresponded with the prevalence figures. Our findings indicate that nationally representative data are needed to guide the development of nutrition interventions and public health programs, such as dietary diversification, micronutrient fortification and supplementation. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Reverse Cholesterol Transport: A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1099; doi:10.3390/nu9101099
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 6 October 2017
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Abstract
The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on cardiovascular disease have been studied extensively. However, it remains unclear to what extent n-3 PUFAs may impact Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT). RCT describes a mechanism by which excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues
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The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on cardiovascular disease have been studied extensively. However, it remains unclear to what extent n-3 PUFAs may impact Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT). RCT describes a mechanism by which excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues is transported to the liver for hepatobiliary excretion, thereby inhibiting foam cell formation and the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the literature and to provide an updated overview of the effects of n-3 PUFAs on key players in RCT, including apoliprotein AI (apoA-I), ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ABCG1, apoE, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and ABCG5/G8. Based on current knowledge, we conclude that n-3 PUFAs may beneficially affect RCT, mainly by influencing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) remodeling and by promoting hepatobiliary sterol excretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessReview Dietary Anthocyanins and Insulin Resistance: When Food Becomes a Medicine
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1111; doi:10.3390/nu9101111
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 24 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
Insulin resistance is an abnormal physiological state that occurs when insulin from pancreatic β-cells is unable to trigger a signal transduction pathway in target organs such as the liver, muscles and adipose tissues. The loss of insulin sensitivity is generally associated with persistent
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Insulin resistance is an abnormal physiological state that occurs when insulin from pancreatic β-cells is unable to trigger a signal transduction pathway in target organs such as the liver, muscles and adipose tissues. The loss of insulin sensitivity is generally associated with persistent hyperglycemia (diabetes), hyperinsulinemia, fatty acids and/or lipid dysregulation which are often prevalent under obesity conditions. Hence, insulin sensitizers are one class of drugs currently employed to treat diabetes and associated metabolic disorders. A number of natural products that act through multiple mechanisms have also been identified to enhance insulin sensitivity in target organs. One group of such compounds that gained interest in recent years are the dietary anthocyanins. Data from their in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies are scrutinized in this communication to show their potential health benefit through ameliorating insulin resistance. Specific mechanism of action ranging from targeting specific signal transduction receptors/enzymes to the general antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of insulin resistance are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Bioactives and Insulin Resistance)
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Open AccessReview Optimizing the Nutritional Support of Adult Patients in the Setting of Cirrhosis
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1114; doi:10.3390/nu9101114
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
Aim: The aim of this work is to develop a pragmatic approach in the assessment and management strategies of patients with cirrhosis in order to optimize the outcomes in this patient population. Method: A systematic review of literature was conducted through 8 July
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Aim: The aim of this work is to develop a pragmatic approach in the assessment and management strategies of patients with cirrhosis in order to optimize the outcomes in this patient population. Method: A systematic review of literature was conducted through 8 July 2017 on the PubMed Database looking for key terms, such as malnutrition, nutrition, assessment, treatment, and cirrhosis. Articles and studies looking at associations between nutrition and cirrhosis were reviewed. Results: An assessment of malnutrition should be conducted in two stages: the first, to identify patients at risk for malnutrition based on the severity of liver disease, and the second, to perform a complete multidisciplinary nutritional evaluation of these patients. Optimal management of malnutrition should focus on meeting recommended daily goals for caloric intake and inclusion of various nutrients in the diet. The nutritional goals should be pursued by encouraging and increasing oral intake or using other measures, such as oral supplementation, enteral nutrition, or parenteral nutrition. Conclusions: Although these strategies to improve nutritional support have been well established, current literature on the topic is limited in scope. Further research should be implemented to test if this enhanced approach is effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Dosis Facit Sanitatem—Concentration-Dependent Effects of Resveratrol on Mitochondria
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1117; doi:10.3390/nu9101117
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
The naturally occurring polyphenol, resveratrol (RSV), is known for a broad range of actions. These include a positive impact on lifespan and health, but also pro-apoptotic anti-cancer properties. Interestingly, cell culture experiments have revealed a strong impact of RSV on mitochondrial function. The
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The naturally occurring polyphenol, resveratrol (RSV), is known for a broad range of actions. These include a positive impact on lifespan and health, but also pro-apoptotic anti-cancer properties. Interestingly, cell culture experiments have revealed a strong impact of RSV on mitochondrial function. The compound was demonstrated to affect mitochondrial respiration, structure and mass of mitochondria as well as mitochondrial membrane potential and, ultimately, mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Notably, the mitochondrial effects of RSV show a very strict and remarkable concentration dependency: At low concentrations, RSV (<50 μM) fosters cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)- and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-linked pathways and enhances mitochondrial network formation. These mechanisms crucially contribute to the cytoprotective effects of RSV against toxins and disease-related damage, in vitro and in vivo. However, at higher concentrations, RSV (>50 μM) triggers changes in (sub-)cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases selectively yielding apoptotic cancer cell death, in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we discuss the promising therapeutic potential of RSV, which is most probably related to the compound’s concentration-dependent manipulation of mitochondrial function and structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin D and Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1120; doi:10.3390/nu9101120
Received: 2 August 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and health has received growing attention from the scientific and medical communities. Vitamin D deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with various acute and chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydoxy vitamin
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In recent years, the relationship between vitamin D and health has received growing attention from the scientific and medical communities. Vitamin D deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with various acute and chronic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Its active metabolite, 1α,25-dihydoxy vitamin D, acts as a modulator of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and cumulative data from experimental and observational studies suggest that relatively a lower vitamin D status could be a potential risk factor for the development of early and/or late AMD. Herein, we made a narrative review of the mechanisms linking a potential role of vitamin D with the current concepts of AMD pathophysiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Open AccessReview Resveratrol and Amyloid-Beta: Mechanistic Insights
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1122; doi:10.3390/nu9101122
Received: 19 August 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
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Abstract
The amyloid-beta (Aβ) hypothesis that dyshomeostasis between Aβ production and clearance is a very early, key molecular factor in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been proposed and examined in the AD research field. Scientists have focused on seeking natural products or
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The amyloid-beta (Aβ) hypothesis that dyshomeostasis between Aβ production and clearance is a very early, key molecular factor in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been proposed and examined in the AD research field. Scientists have focused on seeking natural products or drugs to influence the dynamic equilibrium of Aβ, targeting production and clearance of Aβ. There is emerging evidence that resveratrol (Res), a naturally occurring polyphenol mainly found in grapes and red wine, acts on AD in numerous in vivo and in vitro models. Res decreases the amyloidogenic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), enhances clearance of amyloid beta-peptides, and reduces Aβ aggregation. Moreover, Res also protects neuronal functions through its antioxidant properties. This review discusses the action of Res on Aβ production, clearance and aggregation and multiple potential mechanisms, providing evidence of the useful of Res for AD treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Gut Microbiota and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Insights on Mechanisms and Therapy
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1124; doi:10.3390/nu9101124
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can
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The gut microbiota plays critical roles in development of obese-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), type 2 diabetes(T2D), and insulin resistance(IR), highlighting the potential of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in these diseases. There are various ways that gut microbiota can be manipulated, including through use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and some active components from herbal medicines. In this review, we review the main roles of gut microbiota in mediating the development of NAFLD, and the advances in gut microbiota-targeted therapies for NAFLD in both the experimental and clinical studies, as well as the conclusions on the prospect of gut microbiota-targeted therapies in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview Serum Magnesium Levels in Preterm Infants Are Higher Than Adult Levels: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1125; doi:10.3390/nu9101125
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral in the body, impacting the synthesis of biomacromolecules, bone matrix development, energy production, as well as heart, nerve, and muscle function. Although the importance of Mg is evident, reference values for serum Mg (sMg) in pediatric patients
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Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral in the body, impacting the synthesis of biomacromolecules, bone matrix development, energy production, as well as heart, nerve, and muscle function. Although the importance of Mg is evident, reference values for serum Mg (sMg) in pediatric patients (more specifically, in neonates) are not well established. This systematic literature review and meta-analysis (using 47 eligible studies) aims to quantify normal and tolerable ranges of sMg concentrations during the neonatal period and to highlight the factors influencing Mg levels and the importance of regulating sMg levels during pregnancy and birth. In newborns without Mg supplementation during pregnancy, magnesium levels at birth (0.76 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.99) mmol/L) were similar to that of mothers during pregnancy (0.74 (95% CI: 0.43, 1.04) mmol/L), but increased during the first week of life (0.91 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.26) mmol/L) before returning to adult levels. This pattern was also seen in newborns with Mg supplementation during pregnancy, where the average was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.50, 2.08) mmol/L at birth and 1.44 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.27) mmol/L during the first week of life. Factors influencing these levels include prenatal Mg supplementation, gestational age, birth weight, renal maturity/function, and postnatal Mg intake. Elevated Mg levels (>2.5 mmol/L) have been associated with an increased risk of mortality, admission into intensive care, hypotonia, hypotension, and respiratory depression but sMg concentrations up to 2.0 mmol/L appear to be well tolerated in neonates, requiring adequate survey and minimal intervention. Full article
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Open AccessReview Nutritional Therapy in Liver Transplantation
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1126; doi:10.3390/nu9101126
Received: 23 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates
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Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging. Preoperative loss of skeletal muscle mass, namely, sarcopenia, has a significant detrimental impact on post-transplant outcomes. It is essential to provide sufficient nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation. Oral nutrition is preferred, but tube enteral nutrition may be required to provide the needed energy intake. Herein, the latest currently employed perioperative nutritional interventions in liver transplant recipients are thoroughly illustrated including synbiotics, micronutrients, branched-chain amino acid supplementation, immunonutrition formulas, fluid and electrolyte balance, the offering of nocturnal meals, dietary counselling, exercise and rehabilitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Nutritional Needs and Support for Children with Chronic Liver Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1127; doi:10.3390/nu9101127
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 11 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
Malnutrition has become a dangerously common problem in children with chronic liver disease, negatively impacting neurocognitive development and growth. Furthermore, many children with chronic liver disease will eventually require liver transplantation. Thus, this association between malnourishment and chronic liver disease in children becomes
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Malnutrition has become a dangerously common problem in children with chronic liver disease, negatively impacting neurocognitive development and growth. Furthermore, many children with chronic liver disease will eventually require liver transplantation. Thus, this association between malnourishment and chronic liver disease in children becomes increasingly alarming as malnutrition is a predictor of poorer outcomes in liver transplantation and is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition requires aggressive and appropriate management to correct nutritional deficiencies. A comprehensive review of the literature has found that infants with chronic liver disease (CLD) are particularly susceptible to malnutrition given their low reserves. Children with CLD would benefit from early intervention by a multi-disciplinary team, to try to achieve nutritional rehabilitation as well as to optimize outcomes for liver transplant. This review explains the multifactorial nature of malnutrition in children with chronic liver disease, defines the nutritional needs of these children, and discusses ways to optimize their nutritional. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Nutritional Implications: Special Focus on Copper
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1137; doi:10.3390/nu9101137
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess lipids in hepatocytes, due to excessive fatty acid influx from adipose tissue, de novo hepatic lipogenesis, in addition to excessive dietary fat and carbohydrate intake. Chronic hepatic lipid overload induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excess lipids in hepatocytes, due to excessive fatty acid influx from adipose tissue, de novo hepatic lipogenesis, in addition to excessive dietary fat and carbohydrate intake. Chronic hepatic lipid overload induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and cellular damage leading the development of NAFLD into a more severe liver disease condition, non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH). In turn, this can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among others, copper is one of the main bio-metals required for the preponderance of the enzymes involved in physiological redox reactions, which primarily occurs during mitochondrial respiration. Thus, copper homeostasis could be considered a target point for counteracting the progression of NAFLD. Accordingly, many diseases are correlated to unbalanced copper levels and, actually, some clinical trials are examining the use of copper chelating agents. Currently, no pharmacological interventions are approved for NAFLD, but nutritional and lifestyle modifications are always recommended. Fittingly, antioxidant food agents recognized to improve NAFLD and its complications have been described in the literature to bind copper. Therefore, this review describes the role of nutrition in the development and progression of NAFLD with a particular focus on copper and copper-binding antioxidant compounds against NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessReview Qualitative Studies of Infant and Young Child Feeding in Lower-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Dietary Patterns
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1140; doi:10.3390/nu9101140
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Continued high rates of both under- and over-nutrition in low- and low-middle-income countries highlight the importance of understanding dietary practices such as early and exclusive breastfeeding, and dietary patterns such as timely, appropriate complementary feeding—these behaviors are rooted in complex cultural ecologies. A
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Continued high rates of both under- and over-nutrition in low- and low-middle-income countries highlight the importance of understanding dietary practices such as early and exclusive breastfeeding, and dietary patterns such as timely, appropriate complementary feeding—these behaviors are rooted in complex cultural ecologies. A systematic review and synthesis of available qualitative research related to infant and young child dietary patterns and practices from the perspective of parents and families in low income settings is presented, with a focus on barriers and facilitators to achieving international recommendations. Data from both published and grey literature from 2006 to 2016 was included in the review. Quality assessment consisted of two phases (Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) guidelines and assessment using GRADE-CERQual), followed by synthesis of the studies identified, and subsequent thematic analysis and interpretation. The findings indicated several categories of both barriers and facilitators, spanning individual and system level factors. The review informs efforts aimed at improving child health and nutrition, and represents the first such comprehensive review of the qualitative literature, uniquely suited to understanding complex behaviors leading to infant and young child dietary patterns. Full article
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Open AccessReview Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1141; doi:10.3390/nu9101141
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 18 October 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs)
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Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English were selected if they had any pair of interventions (calcium, vitamin D, both, or placebo). Systematic review with two-step network-meta-analysis was used to indirectly estimate supplementary effects. Twenty-seven RCTs with 28,000 women were eligible. A direct meta-analysis suggested that calcium, vitamin D, and calcium plus vitamin D could lower risk of preeclampsia when compared to placebo with the pooled risk ratios (RRs) of 0.54 (0.41, 0.70), 0.47 (0.24, 0.89) and 0.50 (0.32, 0.78), respectively. Results of network meta-analysis were similar with the corresponding RRs of 0.49 (0.35, 0.69), 0.43 (0.17, 1.11), and 0.57 (0.30, 1.10), respectively. None of the controls were significant. Efficacy of supplementation, which was ranked by surface under cumulative ranking probabilities, were: vitamin D (47.4%), calcium (31.6%) and calcium plus vitamin D (19.6%), respectively. Calcium supplementation may be used for prevention for preeclampsia. Vitamin D might also worked well but further large scale RCTs are warranted to confirm our findings. Full article
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Open AccessReview Neural and Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Controlling the Quality of Feeding Behavior: Diet Selection and Feeding Patterns
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1151; doi:10.3390/nu9101151
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract
We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily
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We are what we eat. There are three aspects of feeding: what, when, and how much. These aspects represent the quantity (how much) and quality (what and when) of feeding. The quantitative aspect of feeding has been studied extensively, because weight is primarily determined by the balance between caloric intake and expenditure. In contrast, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the qualitative aspects of feeding, although they also significantly impact the control of weight and health. However, two aspects of feeding quality relevant to weight loss and weight regain are discussed in this review: macronutrient-based diet selection (what) and feeding pattern (when). This review covers the importance of these two factors in controlling weight and health, and the central mechanisms that regulate them. The relatively limited and fragmented knowledge on these topics indicates that we lack an integrated understanding of the qualitative aspects of feeding behavior. To promote better understanding of weight control, research efforts must focus more on the mechanisms that control the quality and quantity of feeding behavior. This understanding will contribute to improving dietary interventions for achieving weight control and for preventing weight regain following weight loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Open AccessReview Probiotic Modulation of Innate Cell Pathogen Sensing and Signaling Events
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1156; doi:10.3390/nu9101156
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
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Abstract
There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which
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There is a growing body of evidence documenting probiotic bacteria to have a beneficial effect to the host through their ability to modulate the mucosal immune system. Many probiotic bacteria can be considered to act as either immune activators or immune suppressors, which have appreciable influence on homeostasis, inflammatory- and suppressive-immunopathology. What is becoming apparent is the ability of these probiotics to modulate innate immune responses via direct or indirect effects on the signaling pathways that drive these activatory or suppressive/tolerogenic mechanisms. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics on signaling pathways in innate immune cells: from positive to negative regulation associated with innate immune cells driving gut mucosal functionality. Research investigations have shown probiotics to modulate innate functionality in many ways including, receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding to and expression of adaptor proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of micro-RNAs, endotoxin tolerisation and finally, the secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids and metabolites. The detailed understanding of the immunomodulatory signaling effects of probiotic strains will facilitate strain-specific selective manipulation of innate cell signal mechanisms in the modulation of mucosal adjuvanticity, immune deviation and tolerisation in both healthy subjects and patients with inflammatory and suppressive pathology. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fatty Acids Consumption: The Role Metabolic Aspects Involved in Obesity and Its Associated Disorders
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1158; doi:10.3390/nu9101158
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are
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Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to treat and prevent these disorders. Some studies demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFA) are considered detrimental for treating these disorders. A high fat diet rich in palmitic acid, a SFA, is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and it may also increase atherosclerosis parameters. On the other hand, a high intake of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids may promote positive effects, especially on triglyceride levels and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are effective at limiting the hepatic steatosis process through a series of biochemical events, such as reducing the markers of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increasing the gene expression of lipid metabolism, decreasing lipogenic activity, and releasing adiponectin. This current review shows that the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA, and especially EPA and DHA, which can be applied as food supplements, may promote effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as on metabolic inflammation, gut microbiota, and hepatic metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
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Open AccessCase Report Weight Loss in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Consider Individualised, Qualitative, ad Libitum Diets? A Narrative Review and Case Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1109; doi:10.3390/nu9101109
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 22 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
In advanced chronic kidney disease, obesity may bring a survival advantage, but many transplant centres demand weight loss before wait-listing for kidney graft. The case here described regards a 71-year-old man, with obesity-related glomerulopathy; referral data were: weight 110 kg, Body Mass Index
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In advanced chronic kidney disease, obesity may bring a survival advantage, but many transplant centres demand weight loss before wait-listing for kidney graft. The case here described regards a 71-year-old man, with obesity-related glomerulopathy; referral data were: weight 110 kg, Body Mass Index (BMI) 37 kg/m2, serum creatinine (sCr) 5 mg/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 23 mL/min, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 75 mg/dL, proteinuria 2.3 g/day. A moderately restricted, low-protein diet allowed reduction in BUN (45–55 mg/dL) and good metabolic and kidney function stability, with a weight increase of 6 kg. Therefore, he asked to be enrolled in a weight-loss program to be wait-listed (the two nearest transplant centres required a BMI below 30 or 35 kg/m2). Since previous low-calorie diets were not successful and he was against a surgical approach, we chose a qualitative, ad libitum coach-assisted diet, freely available in our unit. In the first phase, the diet is dissociated; he lost 16 kg in 2 months, without need for dialysis. In the second maintenance phase, in which foods are progressively combined, he lost 4 kg in 5 months, allowing wait-listing. Dialysis started one year later, and was followed by weight gain of about 5 kg. He resumed the maintenance diet, and his current body weight, 35 months after the start of the diet, is 94 kg, with a BMI of 31.7 kg/m2, without clinical or biochemical signs of malnutrition. This case suggests that our patients can benefit from the same options available to non-CKD (chronic kidney disease) individuals, provided that strict multidisciplinary surveillance is assured. Full article