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Nutrients, Volume 5, Issue 1 (January 2013), Pages 1-327

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Timing of Peak Blood Glucose after Breakfast Meals of Different Glycemic Index in Women with Gestational Diabetes
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 1-9; doi:10.3390/nu5010001
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 18 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to determine the peak timing of postprandial blood glucose level (PBGL) of two breakfasts with different glycemic index (GI) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Ten women with diet-controlled GDM who were between 30 and 32 weeks of gestation were [...] Read more.
This study aims to determine the peak timing of postprandial blood glucose level (PBGL) of two breakfasts with different glycemic index (GI) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Ten women with diet-controlled GDM who were between 30 and 32 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. They consumed two carbohydrate controlled, macronutrient matched bread-based breakfasts with different GI (low vs. high) on two separate occasions in a random order after an overnight fast. PBGLs were assessed using a portable blood analyser. Subjects were asked to indicate their satiety rating at each blood sample collection. Overall the consumption of a high GI breakfast resulted in a greater rise in PBGL (mean ± SEM peak PBGL: low GI 6.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L vs. high GI 8.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L; p < 0.001) and an earlier peak PBGL time (16.9 ± 4.9 min earlier; p = 0.015), with high variability in PBGL time between subjects. There was no significant difference in subjective satiety throughout the test period. In conclusion, the low GI breakfast produced lower postprandial glycemia, and the peak PBGL occurred closer to the time recommended for PBGL monitoring (i.e., 1 h postprandial) in GDM than a macronutrient matched high GI breakfast. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Habits, Nutrients and Bone Mass in Spanish Premenopausal Women: The Contribution of Fish to Better Bone Health
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 10-22; doi:10.3390/nu5010010
Received: 22 October 2012 / Revised: 18 December 2012 / Accepted: 24 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (502 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower [...] Read more.
The moderate consumption of fish is recommended for a healthy diet and is also a feature of the Mediterranean diet. Fish is a major food group in diets throughout the world, and studies show that fish consumption is associated with a lower risk of a number of conditions. Spain has one of the highest annual per capita consumptions of fish worldwide. As fish is a source of high quality protein; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; vitamins, such as A and D; and minerals, such as selenium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, copper and zinc, nutrients that have positive effects on bone characteristics, it has been proposed that its consumption could improve bone health. In this cross-sectional study, we have investigated the relationship between dietary habits and nutrient intake of 151 Spanish premenopausal women and analyzed the association of fish consumption on bone mass measured by quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges. A higher (P < 0.05) bone mass and vitamin D intake (P < 0.05) was observed in the group with a fish intake of 5–7 servings/week. We conclude that increased fish consumption is helpful in maintaining an adequate bone mass in Spanish premenopausal women. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Added Carbohydrates on Glycemic and Insulin Responses to Children’s Milk Products
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 23-31; doi:10.3390/nu5010023
Received: 25 September 2012 / Revised: 12 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. [...] Read more.
Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children’s milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk. Full article
Open AccessArticle Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 82-96; doi:10.3390/nu5010082
Received: 16 November 2012 / Revised: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into [...] Read more.
Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body — as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU — do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of “Maltese Mushroom” (Cynomorium coccineum) by Means of Multiple Chemical and Biological Assays
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 149-161; doi:10.3390/nu5010149
Received: 14 November 2012 / Revised: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 11 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cynomorium coccineum is an edible, non-photosynthetic plant widespread along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. The medicinal properties of Maltese mushroom — one of the oldest vernacular names used to identify this species — have been kept in high regard since ancient [...] Read more.
Cynomorium coccineum is an edible, non-photosynthetic plant widespread along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea. The medicinal properties of Maltese mushroom — one of the oldest vernacular names used to identify this species — have been kept in high regard since ancient times to the present day. We evaluated the antioxidant potential of fresh specimens of C. coccineum picked in Sardinia, Italy. Both aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested by using multiple assay systems (DPPH, FRAP, TEAC, ORAC-PYR). Total phenolics and flavonoids were also determined. Gallic acid and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside were identified as the main constituents and measured. Both extracts showed antioxidant capacities; ORAC-PYR assay gave the highest antioxidant value in both cases. The methanolic extract was further investigated with in vitro biological models of lipid oxidation; it showed a significant activity in preventing cholesterol degradation and exerted protection against Cu2+-mediated degradation of the liposomal unsaturated fatty acids. Results of the present study demonstrate that the extracts of C. coccineum show a significant total antioxidant power and also exert an in vitro protective effect in different bio-assays of oxidative stress. Therefore, Maltese mushroom can be considered a valuable source of antioxidants and phytochemicals useful in the preparation of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effects of Collagen and Collagen Hydrolysate from Jellyfish Umbrella on Histological and Immunity Changes of Mice Photoaging
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 223-233; doi:10.3390/nu5010223
Received: 2 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1540 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The [...] Read more.
Jellyfish collagen (JC) was extracted from jellyfish umbrella and hydrolyzed to prepare jellyfish collagen hydrolysate (JCH). The effects of JC and JCH on UV-induced skin damage of mice were evaluated by the skin moisture, microscopic analyses of skin and immunity indexes. The skin moisture analyses showed that moisture retention ability of UV-induced mice skin was increased by JC and JCH. Further histological analysis showed that JC and JCH could repair the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibers, and could maintain the natural ratio of type I to type III collagen. The immunity indexes showed that JC and JCH play a role in enhancing immunity of photoaging mice in vivo. JCH showed much higher protective ability than JC. These results suggest that JCH as a potential novel antiphotoaging agent from natural resources. Full article
Open AccessArticle Does Milk Cause Constipation? A Crossover Dietary Trial
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 253-266; doi:10.3390/nu5010253
Received: 22 October 2012 / Revised: 26 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 December 2012 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether replacement of cow’s milk protein with soy resolves Chronic Functional Constipation (CFC); and (2) investigate the effects of cow’s milk β casein A1 and cow’s milk β casein A2 on CFC. Children [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether replacement of cow’s milk protein with soy resolves Chronic Functional Constipation (CFC); and (2) investigate the effects of cow’s milk β casein A1 and cow’s milk β casein A2 on CFC. Children diagnosed with CFC were recruited to one of two crossover trials: Trial 1 compared the effects of cow’s milk and soy milk; Trial 2 compared the effects of cow’s milk β casein A1 and cow’s milk β casein A2. Resolution of constipation was defined as greater than eight bowel motions during a two week intervention. Thirteen children (18 to 144 months) participated in Trial 1 (6 boys, 7 girls). Nine participants who completed the soy epoch all experienced resolution (p < 0.05). Thirty-nine children (21 to 144 months) participated in Trial 2 (25 boys, 14 girls). Resolution of constipation was highest during the washout epoch, 81%; followed by cow’s milk β casein A2, 79%; and cow’s milk β casein A1, 57%; however, the proportions did not differ statistically. The results of Trial 1 demonstrate an association between CFC and cow’s milk consumption but Trial 2 failed to show an effect from type of casein. Some other component in cow’s milk common to both A1 and A2 milk may be causing a problem in these susceptible children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle A National Observational Study of the Prevalence and Use of Enteral Tube Feeding, Parenteral Nutrition and Intravenous Glucose in Cancer Patients Enrolled in Specialized Palliative Care
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 267-282; doi:10.3390/nu5010267
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 21 December 2012 / Accepted: 16 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of artificial nutrition remains controversial for cancer patients in palliative care, and its prevalence is largely unknown. We therefore conducted a national study to investigate the prevalence, indications for, and perceived benefit of enteral/parenteral nutrition and intravenous glucose in this [...] Read more.
The use of artificial nutrition remains controversial for cancer patients in palliative care, and its prevalence is largely unknown. We therefore conducted a national study to investigate the prevalence, indications for, and perceived benefit of enteral/parenteral nutrition and intravenous glucose in this patient group. A cross-sectional study was performed within the palliative care research network in Sweden (PANIS), using a web-based survey with 24 questions on demographics, prescribed nutritional treatment, estimated survival and benefit from treatment. Data was received from 32 palliative care units throughout the country, representing 1083 patients with gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies being the most common diagnoses. Thirteen percent of the patients received enteral/parenteral nutrition or intravenous glucose. Parenteral nutrition (PN) was significantly more common in home care units serving the urban Stockholm region (11%) than in other parts of the country (4%). Weight and appetite loss were the predominant indications for PN, with this treatment deemed beneficial for 75% of the palliative patients. Data show that there was great variation in PN use within the country. PN was predominately initiated when patients had weight and appetite loss but still had oral intake, indicating a use of PN that extends beyond the traditional use for patients with obstruction/semi obstruction. Full article
Open AccessArticle Food Sources of Energy and Nutrients among Children in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2006
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 283-301; doi:10.3390/nu5010283
Received: 8 November 2012 / Revised: 3 January 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of [...] Read more.
Background: Recent detailed analyses of data on dietary sources of energy and nutrients in US children are lacking. The objective of this study was to identify food sources of energy and 28 nutrients for children in the United States. Methods: Analyses of food sources were conducted using a single 24-h recall collected from children 2 to 18 years old (n = 7332) in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sources of nutrients contained in foods were determined using nutrient composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from the total diet and from each food group were adjusted for the sample design using appropriate weights. Percentages of the total dietary intake that food sources contributed were tabulated by rank order. Results: The two top ranked food/food group sources of energy and nutrients were: energy — milk (7% of energy) and cake/cookies/quick bread/pastry/pie (7%); protein — milk (13.2%) and poultry (12.8%); total carbohydrate — soft drinks/soda (10.5%) and yeast bread/rolls (9.1%); total sugars — soft drinks/soda (19.2%) and yeast breads and rolls (12.7%); added sugars — soft drinks/soda (29.7%) and candy/sugar/sugary foods (18.6%); dietary fiber — fruit (10.4%) and yeast bread/rolls (10.3%); total fat — cheese (9.3%) and crackers/popcorn/pretzels/chips (8.4%); saturated fatty acids — cheese (16.3%) and milk (13.3%); cholesterol — eggs (24.2%) and poultry (13.2%); vitamin D — milk (60.4%) and milk drinks (8.3%); calcium — milk (33.2%) and cheese (19.4%); potassium — milk (18.8%) and fruit juice (8.0%); and sodium — salt (18.5%) and yeast bread and rolls (8.4%). Conclusions: Results suggest that many foods/food groupings consumed by children were energy dense, nutrient poor. Awareness of dietary sources of energy and nutrients can help health professionals design effective strategies to reduce energy consumption and increase the nutrient density of children’s diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Nutrition)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Nutrigenetics and Metabolic Disease: Current Status and Implications for Personalised Nutrition
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 32-57; doi:10.3390/nu5010032
Received: 30 September 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity, particularly central adiposity, is the primary causal factor in the development of insulin resistance, the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a common condition characterized by dyslipidaemia and hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type [...] Read more.
Obesity, particularly central adiposity, is the primary causal factor in the development of insulin resistance, the hallmark of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a common condition characterized by dyslipidaemia and hypertension, which is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Interactions between genetic and environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle, particularly over-nutrition and sedentary behavior, promote the progression and pathogenesis of these polygenic diet-related diseases. Their current prevalence is increasing dramatically to epidemic proportions. Nutrition is probably the most important environmental factor that modulates expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and the variety of phenotypes associated with obesity, the MetS and T2DM. Furthermore, the health effects of nutrients may be modulated by genetic variants. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics require an understanding of nutrition, genetics, biochemistry and a range of “omic” technologies to investigate the complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors relevant to metabolic health and disease. These rapidly developing fields of nutritional science hold much promise in improving nutrition for optimal personal and public health. This review presents the current state of the art in nutrigenetic research illustrating the significance of gene-nutrient interactions in the context of metabolic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessReview Role of Endogenous Microbiota, Probiotics and Their Biological Products in Human Health
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 58-81; doi:10.3390/nu5010058
Received: 24 October 2012 / Revised: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 14 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, [...] Read more.
Although gut diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, mucositis and the alimentary cancers share similar pathogenetic features, further investigation is required into new treatment modalities. An imbalance in the gut microbiota, breached gut integrity, bacterial invasion, increased cell apoptosis to proliferation ratio, inflammation and impaired immunity may all contribute to their pathogenesis. Probiotics are defined as live bacteria, which when administered in sufficient amounts, exert beneficial effects to the gastrointestinal tract. More recently, probiotic-derived factors including proteins and other molecules released from living probiotics, have also been shown to exert beneficial properties. In this review we address the potential for probiotics, with an emphasis on probiotic-derived factors, to reduce the severity of digestive diseases and further discuss the known mechanisms by which probiotics and probiotic-derived factors exert their physiological effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessReview Selenium in Bone Health: Roles in Antioxidant Protection and Cell Proliferation
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 97-110; doi:10.3390/nu5010097
Received: 28 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 3 January 2013 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and several findings suggest that dietary Se intake may be necessary for bone health. Such findings may relate to roles of Se in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and several findings suggest that dietary Se intake may be necessary for bone health. Such findings may relate to roles of Se in antioxidant protection, enhanced immune surveillance and modulation of cell proliferation. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which Se supports these cellular processes can lead to a better understanding of the role of this nutrient in normal bone metabolism. This article reviews the current knowledge concerning the molecular functions of Se relevant to bone health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D — Effects on Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health and the Need for Supplementation
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 111-148; doi:10.3390/nu5010111
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 21 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 December 2012 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 108 | PDF Full-text (6394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D [...] Read more.
Vitamin D, the sunshine vitamin, has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and infectious diseases. Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a global pandemic. The major cause for vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure has been and continues to be the major source of vitamin D for children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of a healthy skeleton throughout life. There remains some controversy regarding what blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be attained for both bone health and reducing risk for vitamin D deficiency associated acute and chronic diseases and how much vitamin D should be supplemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals)
Open AccessReview Nutrition of the Critically Ill — A 21st-Century Perspective
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 162-207; doi:10.3390/nu5010162
Received: 16 November 2012 / Revised: 17 December 2012 / Accepted: 24 December 2012 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Health care-induced diseases constitute a fast-increasing problem. Just one type of these health care-associated infections (HCAI) constitutes the fourth leading cause of death in Western countries. About 25 million individuals worldwide are estimated each year to undergo major surgery, of which approximately [...] Read more.
Health care-induced diseases constitute a fast-increasing problem. Just one type of these health care-associated infections (HCAI) constitutes the fourth leading cause of death in Western countries. About 25 million individuals worldwide are estimated each year to undergo major surgery, of which approximately 3 million will never return home from the hospital. Furthermore, the quality of life is reported to be significantly impaired for the rest of the lives of those who, during their hospital stay, suffered life-threatening infections/sepsis. Severe infections are strongly associated with a high degree of systemic inflammation in the body, and intimately associated with significantly reduced and malfunctioning GI microbiota, a condition called dysbiosis. Deranged composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota, occurring from the mouth to the anus, has been found to cause impaired ability to maintain intact mucosal membrane functions and prevent leakage of toxins — bacterial endotoxins, as well as whole bacteria or debris of bacteria, the DNA of which are commonly found in most cells of the body, often in adipocytes of obese individuals or in arteriosclerotic plaques. Foods rich in proteotoxins such as gluten, casein and zein, and proteins, have been observed to have endotoxin-like effects that can contribute to dysbiosis. About 75% of the food in the Western diet is of limited or no benefit to the microbiota in the lower gut. Most of it, comprised specifically of refined carbohydrates, is already absorbed in the upper part of the GI tract, and what eventually reaches the large intestine is of limited value, as it contains only small amounts of the minerals, vitamins and other nutrients necessary for maintenance of the microbiota. The consequence is that the microbiota of modern humans is greatly reduced, both in terms of numbers and diversity when compared to the diets of our paleolithic forebears and the individuals living a rural lifestyle today. It is the artificial treatment provided in modern medical care — unfortunately often the only alternative provided — which constitute the main contributors to a poor outcome. These treatments include artificial ventilation, artificial nutrition, hygienic measures, use of skin-penetrating devices, tubes and catheters, frequent use of pharmaceuticals; they are all known to severely impair the microbiomes in various locations of the body, which, to a large extent, are ultimately responsible for a poor outcome. Attempts to reconstitute a normal microbiome by supply of probiotics have often failed as they are almost always undertaken as a complement to — and not as an alternative to — existing treatment schemes, especially those based on antibiotics, but also other pharmaceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Trust Your Gut: Galvanizing Nutritional Interest in Intestinal Cholesterol Metabolism for Protection Against Cardiovascular Diseases
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 208-222; doi:10.3390/nu5010208
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent studies have demonstrated that the intestine is a key target organ for overall health and longevity. Complementing these studies is the discovery of the trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux pathway and the emerging role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport. The surfacing [...] Read more.
Recent studies have demonstrated that the intestine is a key target organ for overall health and longevity. Complementing these studies is the discovery of the trans-intestinal cholesterol efflux pathway and the emerging role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport. The surfacing dynamics of the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the intestine provides an attractive platform for intestine-specific nutritional intervention strategies to lower blood cholesterol levels for protection against cardiovascular diseases. Notably, there is mounting evidence that stimulation of pathways associated with calorie restriction may have a large effect on the regulation of cholesterol removal by the intestine. However, intestinal energy metabolism, specifically the idiosyncrasies surrounding intestinal responses to energy deprivation, is poorly understood. The goal of this paper is to review recent insights into cholesterol regulation by the intestine and to discuss the potential for positive regulation of intestine-driven cholesterol removal through the nutritional induction of pathways associated with calorie restriction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
Open AccessReview Diet-Microbiota Interactions and Their Implications for Healthy Living
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 234-252; doi:10.3390/nu5010234
Received: 7 December 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large [...] Read more.
It is well established that diet influences the health of an individual and that a diet rich in plant-based foods has many advantages in relation to the health and well-being of an individual. What has been unclear until recently is the large contribution of the gut microbiota to this effect. As well as providing basic nutritional requirements, the long-term diet of an animal modifies its gut microbiota. In adults, diets that have a high proportion of fruit and vegetables and a low consumption of meat are associated with a highly diverse microbiota and are defined by a greater abundance of Prevotella compared to Bacteroides, while the reverse is associated with a diet that contains a low proportion of plant-based foods. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly clear that the effect of the microbial ecology of the gut goes beyond the local gut immune system and is implicated in immune-related disorders, such as IBS, diabetes and inflamm-ageing. In this review, we investigate the evidence that a balanced diet leads to a balanced, diverse microbiota with significant consequences for healthy ageing by focusing on conditions of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbiota and Gut Function)
Open AccessReview Calcium Nutrition and Extracellular Calcium Sensing: Relevance for the Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis, Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases
Nutrients 2013, 5(1), 302-327; doi:10.3390/nu5010302
Received: 30 October 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Through a systematic search in Pubmed for literature, on links between calcium malnutrition and risk of chronic diseases, we found the highest degree of evidence for osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer, as well as for hypertension, as the only major cardiovascular risk [...] Read more.
Through a systematic search in Pubmed for literature, on links between calcium malnutrition and risk of chronic diseases, we found the highest degree of evidence for osteoporosis, colorectal and breast cancer, as well as for hypertension, as the only major cardiovascular risk factor. Low calcium intake apparently has some impact also on cardiovascular events and disease outcome. Calcium malnutrition can causally be related to low activity of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). This member of the family of 7-TM G-protein coupled receptors allows extracellular Ca2+ to function as a “first messenger” for various intracellular signaling cascades. Evidence demonstrates that Ca2+/CaSR signaling in functional linkage with vitamin D receptor (VDR)-activated pathways (i) promotes osteoblast differentiation and formation of mineralized bone; (ii) targets downstream effectors of the canonical and non-canonical Wnt pathway to inhibit proliferation and induce differentiation of colorectal cancer cells; (iii) evokes Ca2+ influx into breast cancer cells, thereby activating pro-apoptotic intracellular signaling. Furthermore, Ca2+/CaSR signaling opens Ca2+-sensitive K+ conductance channels in vascular endothelial cells, and also participates in IP3-dependent regulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, the key intermediate of cardiomyocyte functions. Consequently, impairment of Ca2+/CaSR signaling may contribute to inadequate bone formation, tumor progression, hypertension, vascular calcification and, probably, cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)

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