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Effect of Malnutrition on the Expression of Cytokines Involved in Th1 Cell Differentiation
Department of Health Sciences, Autonomus Metropolitan University-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, CP 09340, México D.F., Mexico
Postgraduate Study Section, High School of Medicine, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón s/n, CP 11340, México D.F., Mexico
Department of Health Care, Autonomus Metropolitan University-Xochimilco, Calz. del Hueso 1100, CP 04960, México D.F., Mexico
Pediatric Hospital-Iztapalapa, Servicios de Salud Gobierno del Distrito Federal, Calzada Ermita Iztapalapa 780, CP 09070, México D.F., Mexico
General Hospital of Mexico, Servicio de Pediatría, Urgencias y Terapia Intensiva, Secretaría de Salud, Dr. Balmis 148, CP 06726, México D.F., Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2012; in revised form: 25 January 2013 / Accepted: 5 February 2013 / Published: 19 February 2013
Abstract: Malnutrition is a common cause of secondary immune deficiency and has been linked to an increased susceptibility to infection in humans. Malnutrition specifically affects T-cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of this study was to assess in lymphocytes from malnourished children the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21, molecules that induce the differentiation of T cells related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 response) and the production of cytokines related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 cytokines). We found that the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 were significantly diminished in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children and were coincident with lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokines). In this study, we show for the first time that the gene expression and intracellular production of cytokines responsible for Th1 cell differentiation (IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21) are diminished in malnourished children. As expected, this finding was related to lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ. The decreased expression of Th1 cytokines observed in this study may contribute to the deterioration of the immunological Type 1 (cellular) response. We hypothesize that the decreased production of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 in malnourished children contributes to their inability to eradicate infections.
Keywords: malnutrition; Type 1 immunological response; cytokines
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González-Torres, C.; González-Martínez, H.; Miliar, A.; Nájera, O.; Graniel, J.; Firo, V.; Alvarez, C.; Bonilla, E.; Rodríguez, L. Effect of Malnutrition on the Expression of Cytokines Involved in Th1 Cell Differentiation. Nutrients 2013, 5, 579-593.
González-Torres C, González-Martínez H, Miliar A, Nájera O, Graniel J, Firo V, Alvarez C, Bonilla E, Rodríguez L. Effect of Malnutrition on the Expression of Cytokines Involved in Th1 Cell Differentiation. Nutrients. 2013; 5(2):579-593.
González-Torres, Cristina; González-Martínez, Haydeé; Miliar, Angel; Nájera, Oralia; Graniel, Jaime; Firo, Verónica; Alvarez, Catalina; Bonilla, Edmundo; Rodríguez, Leonor. 2013. "Effect of Malnutrition on the Expression of Cytokines Involved in Th1 Cell Differentiation." Nutrients 5, no. 2: 579-593.