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Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 565-578; doi:10.3390/nu5020565
Article

Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)

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1 Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Research and Informatics, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Toyama 1-21-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan 2 Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan 3 Department of Public Health, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Japan 4 Department of Health Economics and Epidemiology Research, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan 5 Department of Mental Health, Tokyo University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan 6 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Nagao 6-21-1, Tama-Ku, Kawasaki, Japan 7 Department of Mental Health, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan 8 Department of Health Policy and Management, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1, Iseigaoka, Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
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Abstract

The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (β = 0.117, p < 0.001). The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect) in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.
Keywords: socioeconomic status; education; household income; folate intake; depression socioeconomic status; education; household income; folate intake; depression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Miyaki, K.; Song, Y.; Taneichi, S.; Tsutsumi, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kawakami, N.; Takahashi, M.; Shimazu, A.; Inoue, A.; Kurioka, S.; Shimbo, T. Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study). Nutrients 2013, 5, 565-578.

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