Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 565-578; doi:10.3390/nu5020565
Article

Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)

1,* email, 1email, 1,2email, 3email, 4email, 5email, 6email, 5email, 7email, 8email and 1email
Received: 15 November 2012; in revised form: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (β = 0.117, p < 0.001). The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect) in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.
Keywords: socioeconomic status; education; household income; folate intake; depression
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MDPI and ACS Style

Miyaki, K.; Song, Y.; Taneichi, S.; Tsutsumi, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kawakami, N.; Takahashi, M.; Shimazu, A.; Inoue, A.; Kurioka, S.; Shimbo, T. Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study). Nutrients 2013, 5, 565-578.

AMA Style

Miyaki K, Song Y, Taneichi S, Tsutsumi A, Hashimoto H, Kawakami N, Takahashi M, Shimazu A, Inoue A, Kurioka S, Shimbo T. Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study). Nutrients. 2013; 5(2):565-578.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro. 2013. "Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study)." Nutrients 5, no. 2: 565-578.


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