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Dairy Consumption and the Risk of 15-Year Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Cohort of Older Australians
School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences, The University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Cluster for Public Health Nutrition, Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Centre for Vision Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Westmead Millennium Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 November 2012; in revised form: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 30 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Abstract: The effects of habitual dairy consumption and the risk of 15-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a cohort of older Australians were investigated. Participants (n = 2900) completed a validated 145-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate associations between tertiles of the dairy consumption, including low/reduced fat dairy, whole fat dairy and their ratio (ratioLF/WF), and risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke or combined CVD. There were 548 recorded cases of CVD mortality in this cohort. For total dairy intake, a reduction in risk of CVD was only seen in tertile 2 (adjusted hazard ratio, AHR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.55–0.93), and for CHD both tertile 2 and tertile 3 were associated with a reduced risk (both with AHR: 0.71). However there were no linear trends between total dairy consumption and any of the three outcomes. There were no associations or trends between low/reduced fat dairy or whole fat dairy consumption, or ratioLF/WF and any of the three outcomes in the fully adjusted model (all p > 0.05). This study found no consistent association between baseline consumption of dairy foods and the risk of CHD, stroke and combined CVD mortality.
Keywords: dairy; cardiovascular disease; older Australian; Blue Mountains Eye Study; population
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Louie, J.C.Y.; Flood, V.M.; Burlutsky, G.; Rangan, A.M.; Gill, T.P.; Mitchell, P. Dairy Consumption and the Risk of 15-Year Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Cohort of Older Australians. Nutrients 2013, 5, 441-454.
Louie JCY, Flood VM, Burlutsky G, Rangan AM, Gill TP, Mitchell P. Dairy Consumption and the Risk of 15-Year Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Cohort of Older Australians. Nutrients. 2013; 5(2):441-454.
Louie, Jimmy C.Y.; Flood, Victoria M.; Burlutsky, George; Rangan, Anna M.; Gill, Timothy P.; Mitchell, Paul. 2013. "Dairy Consumption and the Risk of 15-Year Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in a Cohort of Older Australians." Nutrients 5, no. 2: 441-454.