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Nutrients 2013, 5(2), 468-477; doi:10.3390/nu5020468
Article

Effects of Germinated Brown Rice and Its Bioactive Compounds on the Expression of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene

1
,
1,2,* , 3
,
1
 and
1,4
1 Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia 2 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia 3 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia 4 Department of Veterinary Pathology & Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 6 February 2013
Download PDF [529 KB, 7 February 2013; original version 6 February 2013]

Abstract

Dysregulated metabolism is implicated in obesity and other disease conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, which are linked to abnormalities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ has been the focus of much research aimed at managing these diseases. Also, germinated brown rice (GBR) is known to possess antidiabetic, antiobesity and hypocholesterolemic effects. We hypothesized that GBR bioactive compounds may mediate some of the improvements in metabolic indices through PPARγ modulation. Cultured HEP-G2 cells were treated with 50 ppm and 100 ppm of extracts from GBR (GABA, ASG and oryzanol) after determination of cell viabilities using MTT assays. Results showed that all extracts upregulated the expression of the PPARγ. However, combination of all three extracts showed downregulation of the gene, suggesting that, in combination, the effects of these bioactives differ from their individual effects likely mediated through competitive inhibition of the gene. Upregulation of the gene may have therapeutic potential in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, while its downregulation likely contributes to GBR’s antiobesity effects. These potentials are worth studying further.
Keywords: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; germinated brown rice; oryzanol; gamma amino butyric acid; acylated steryl glycoside peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; germinated brown rice; oryzanol; gamma amino butyric acid; acylated steryl glycoside
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Imam, M.U.; Ismail, M.; Ithnin, H.; Tubesha, Z.; Omar, A.R. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice and Its Bioactive Compounds on the Expression of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene. Nutrients 2013, 5, 468-477.

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