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Special Issue "Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Yoshiharu Mutoh

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka-shi 940-2188, Japan
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +81-258-47-9735

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Both materials designers and machines/structures designers need information on fracture processes and fracture criteria of materials. There is a long history of fracture and fatigue research. The stress and strain based fracture criteria as the driving forces have been developed to explain fracture and fatigue behavior of un-cracked body. Since the stress intensity factor, as the driving force for fracture phenomena of cracked body, was proposed in 1957 by G.R. Irwin, various kinds of stress intensity factors depending on fracture phenomena have been developed, such as K, ∆K, ∆Keff, Ktip, etc., for driving forces and KIC, ∆Kth, KISCC, etc., for material properties (critical values of fracture). Linear fracture mechanics was then extended to the elastic–plastic fracture mechanics in 1968 by J.R. Rice and J.W. Hutchinson, where the J integral, Kσ, C*, etc., have been proposed as driving forces. Although these progresses have significantly contributed to safe structural design, as well as the development of new materials, failure accidents have obviously not yet ceased. We researchers have to devote our efforts to provide a new stage of knowledge and design tools by combining theoretical and experimental approaches.

In this Special Issue, recent developments in fracture and fatigue research are strongly welcomed to form a body of state-of-the-art knowledge on fracture and fatigue processes and criteria. It is my pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript and contribute to this Special Issue.

Prof. Yoshiharu Mutoh
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fracture
  • Fatigue
  • Process
  • Mechanism
  • Model
  • Mechanics
  • Criterion
  • Materials
  • Joints
  • Microstructure

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Fatigue Strength Estimation Based on Local Mechanical Properties for Aluminum Alloy FSW Joints
Materials 2017, 10(2), 186; doi:10.3390/ma10020186
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 29 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
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Abstract
Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations,
[...] Read more.
Overall fatigue strengths and hardness distributions of the aluminum alloy similar and dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) joints were determined. The local fatigue strengths as well as local tensile strengths were also obtained by using small round bar specimens extracted from specific locations, such as the stir zone, heat affected zone, and base metal. It was found from the results that fatigue fracture of the FSW joint plate specimen occurred at the location of the lowest local fatigue strength as well as the lowest hardness, regardless of microstructural evolution. To estimate the fatigue strengths of aluminum alloy FSW joints from the hardness measurements, the relationship between fatigue strength and hardness for aluminum alloys was investigated based on the present experimental results and the available wide range of data from the references. It was found as: σa (R = −1) = 1.68 HV (σa is in MPa and HV has no unit). It was also confirmed that the estimated fatigue strengths were in good agreement with the experimental results for aluminum alloy FSW joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fretting Fatigue with Cylindrical-On-Flat Contact: Crack Nucleation, Crack Path and Fatigue Life
Materials 2017, 10(2), 155; doi:10.3390/ma10020155
Received: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9914 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fretting fatigue experiments and finite element analysis were carried out to investigate the influence of cylindrical-on-flat contact on crack nucleation, crack path and fatigue life of medium-carbon steel. The location of crack nucleation was predicted using the maximum shear stress range criterion and
[...] Read more.
Fretting fatigue experiments and finite element analysis were carried out to investigate the influence of cylindrical-on-flat contact on crack nucleation, crack path and fatigue life of medium-carbon steel. The location of crack nucleation was predicted using the maximum shear stress range criterion and the maximum relative slip amplitude criterion. The prediction using the maximum relative slip amplitude criterion gave the better agreement with the experimental result, and should be used for the prediction of the location of crack nucleation. Crack openings under compressive bulk stresses were found in the fretting fatigues with flat-on-flat contact and cylindrical-on-flat contacts, i.e., fretting-contact-induced crack openings. The crack opening stress of specimen with flat-on-flat contact was lower than those of specimens with cylindrical-on-flat contacts, while that of specimen with 60-mm radius contact pad was lower than that of specimen with 15-mm radius contact pad. The fretting fatigue lives were estimated by integrating the fatigue crack growth curve from an initial propagating crack length to a critical crack length. The predictions of fretting fatigue life with consideration of crack opening were in good agreement with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Model of BGA Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction Considering Load Sequence Effects
Materials 2016, 9(10), 860; doi:10.3390/ma9100860
Received: 20 August 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 24 October 2016
PDF Full-text (11960 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate testing history data is necessary for all fatigue life prediction approaches, but such data is always deficient especially for the microelectronic devices. Additionally, the sequence of the individual load cycle plays an important role in physical fatigue damage. However, most of the
[...] Read more.
Accurate testing history data is necessary for all fatigue life prediction approaches, but such data is always deficient especially for the microelectronic devices. Additionally, the sequence of the individual load cycle plays an important role in physical fatigue damage. However, most of the existing models based on the linear damage accumulation rule ignore the sequence effects. This paper proposes a thermal fatigue life prediction model for ball grid array (BGA) packages to take into consideration the load sequence effects. For the purpose of improving the availability and accessibility of testing data, a new failure criterion is discussed and verified by simulation and experimentation. The consequences for the fatigue underlying sequence load conditions are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Interior Fracture Mechanism Analysis and Fatigue Life Prediction of Surface-Hardened Gear Steel under Axial Loading
Materials 2016, 9(10), 843; doi:10.3390/ma9100843
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
PDF Full-text (3587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interior defect-induced fracture of surface-hardened metallic materials in the long life region has become a key issue on engineering design. In the present study, the axial loading test with fully reversed condition was performed to examine the fatigue property of a surface-carburized
[...] Read more.
The interior defect-induced fracture of surface-hardened metallic materials in the long life region has become a key issue on engineering design. In the present study, the axial loading test with fully reversed condition was performed to examine the fatigue property of a surface-carburized low alloy gear steel in the long life region. Results show that this steel represents the duplex S-N (stress-number of cycles) characteristics without conventional fatigue limit related to 107 cycles. Fatigue cracks are all originated from the interior inclusions in the matrix region due to the inhabitation effect of carburized layer. The inclusion induced fracture with fisheye occurs in the short life region below 5 × 105 cycles, whereas the inclusion induced fracture with fine granular area (FGA) and fisheye occurs in the long life region beyond 106 cycles. The stress intensity factor range at the front of FGA can be regarded as the threshold value controlling stable growth of interior long crack. The evaluated maximum inclusion size in the effective damage volume of specimen is about 27.29 μm. Considering the size relationships between fisheye and FGA, and inclusion, the developed life prediction method involving crack growth can be acceptable on the basis of the good agreement between the predicted and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle A Constitutive Relationship between Fatigue Limit and Microstructure in Nanostructured Bainitic Steels
Materials 2016, 9(10), 831; doi:10.3390/ma9100831
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (12929 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recently developed nanobainitic steels show high strength as well as high ductility. Although this combination seems to be promising for fatigue design, fatigue properties of nanostructured bainitic steels are often surprisingly low. To improve the fatigue behavior, an understanding of the correlation
[...] Read more.
The recently developed nanobainitic steels show high strength as well as high ductility. Although this combination seems to be promising for fatigue design, fatigue properties of nanostructured bainitic steels are often surprisingly low. To improve the fatigue behavior, an understanding of the correlation between the nanobainitic microstructure and the fatigue limit is fundamental. Therefore, our hypothesis to predict the fatigue limit was that the main function of the microstructure is not necessarily totally avoiding the initiation of a fatigue crack, but the microstructure has to increase the ability to decelerate or to stop a growing fatigue crack. Thus, the key to understanding the fatigue behavior of nanostructured bainite is to understand the role of the microstructural features that could act as barriers for growing fatigue cracks. To prove this hypothesis, we carried out fatigue tests, crack growth experiments, and correlated these results to the size of microstructural features gained from microstructural analysis by light optical microscope and EBSD-measurements. Finally, we were able to identify microstructural features that influence the fatigue crack growth and the fatigue limit of nanostructured bainitic steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue and Fracture Behavior of a Cold-Drawn Commercially Pure Aluminum Wire
Materials 2016, 9(9), 764; doi:10.3390/ma9090764
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 5 September 2016 / Published: 8 September 2016
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Abstract
Fatigue properties and cracking behavior of cold-drawn commercially pure aluminum wires (CPAWs) widely used as the overhead transmission conductors were investigated. It was found that the fracture surface of the CPAWs shows an obvious four-stage fracture characteristic, i.e., crack initiation, planar crack propagation,
[...] Read more.
Fatigue properties and cracking behavior of cold-drawn commercially pure aluminum wires (CPAWs) widely used as the overhead transmission conductors were investigated. It was found that the fracture surface of the CPAWs shows an obvious four-stage fracture characteristic, i.e., crack initiation, planar crack propagation, 45°-inclined crack propagation and final rapid fracture. The crack growth mechanisms for the CPAWs were found quite different from those for the conventional coarse-grained materials. The cracks in the CPAWs firstly grow along the grain boundaries (Stage I crack growth), and then grow along the plane of maximum shear stress during the last stage of cycling (Stage II crack growth), leading to the distinctive fracture surfaces, i.e., the granular surface in the planar crack propagation region and the coarse fatigue striations in the 45°-inclined crack propagation region. The grain boundary migration was observed in the fatigued CPAWs. The increase in fatigue load enhances the dislocation recovery, increases the grain boundary migration rate, and thus promotes the occurrence of softening and damage localization up to the final failure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO2-Water-Rock Interaction
Materials 2016, 9(8), 663; doi:10.3390/ma9080663
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 3 August 2016 / Published: 6 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM
[...] Read more.
The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days) in water dissoluted with gaseous/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. Compared to samples without saturation, 30-day saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for gaseous saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for samples without saturation to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with gaseous CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to samples without saturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Healing of Fatigue Crack in 1045 Steel by Using Eddy Current Treatment
Materials 2016, 9(8), 641; doi:10.3390/ma9080641
Received: 24 June 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 25 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to investigate the methods to heal fatigue cracks in metals, tubular specimens of 1045 steel with axial and radial fatigue cracks were treated under the eddy current. The optical microscope was employed to examine the change of fatigue cracks of specimens
[...] Read more.
In order to investigate the methods to heal fatigue cracks in metals, tubular specimens of 1045 steel with axial and radial fatigue cracks were treated under the eddy current. The optical microscope was employed to examine the change of fatigue cracks of specimens before and after the eddy current treatment. The results show that the fatigue cracks along the axial direction of the specimen could be healed effectively in the fatigue crack initiation zone and the crack tip zone under the eddy current treatment, and the healing could occur within a very short time. The voltage breakdown and the transient thermal compressive stress caused by the detouring of eddy current around the fatigue crack were the main factors contributing to the healing in the fatigue crack initiation zone and the crack tip zone, respectively. Eddy current treatment may be a novel and effective method for crack healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Ultrasonic Peening Treatment on Fatigue Performance of Welded Joints
Materials 2016, 9(6), 471; doi:10.3390/ma9060471
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ultrasonic peening treatment (UPT) as a method of severe plastic deformation was used to treat cruciform welded joints of Q345 steel. The application of UPT achieves material surface nanocrystallization of the peening zone, reduces stress concentration, and produces residual compressive stresses at the
[...] Read more.
Ultrasonic peening treatment (UPT) as a method of severe plastic deformation was used to treat cruciform welded joints of Q345 steel. The application of UPT achieves material surface nanocrystallization of the peening zone, reduces stress concentration, and produces residual compressive stresses at the welded toe. Micro-structure, hardness, stress relief, S-N curve, and the fatigue fracture mechanism of cruciform welded joint of Q345 steel, both before and after UPT, were analyzed in detail. The main results show that: stress concentration and residual tensile stress are the main reasons to reduce fatigue strength of cruciform welded joints. The fatigue life of cruciform welded joints is improved for surface hardening, compressive stress, and grain refinement by UPT. Residual compressive stress caused by UPT is released with the increase of fatigue life. A very significant fatigue strength improvement happens when UPT is replenished repeatedly after a certain number of cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Plasma ZrN Metallurgy and Shot Peening Duplex Treatment on Fretting Wear and Fretting Fatigue Behavior of Ti6Al4V Alloy
Materials 2016, 9(4), 217; doi:10.3390/ma9040217
Received: 5 January 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2016 / Accepted: 7 March 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (9373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A metallurgical zirconium nitride (ZrN) layer was fabricated using glow metallurgy using nitriding with zirconiuming prior treatment of the Ti6Al4V alloy. The microstructure, composition and microhardness of the corresponding layer were studied. The influence of this treatment on fretting wear (FW) and fretting
[...] Read more.
A metallurgical zirconium nitride (ZrN) layer was fabricated using glow metallurgy using nitriding with zirconiuming prior treatment of the Ti6Al4V alloy. The microstructure, composition and microhardness of the corresponding layer were studied. The influence of this treatment on fretting wear (FW) and fretting fatigue (FF) behavior of the Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. The composite layer consisted of an 8-μm-thick ZrN compound layer and a 50-μm-thick nitrogen-rich Zr–Ti solid solution layer. The surface microhardness of the composite layer is 1775 HK0.1. A gradient in cross-sectional microhardness distribution exists in the layer. The plasma ZrN metallurgical layer improves the FW resistance of the Ti6Al4V alloy, but reduces the base FF resistance. This occurs because the improvement in surface hardness results in lowering of the toughness and increasing in the notch sensitivity. Compared with shot peening treatment, plasma ZrN metallurgy and shot peening composite treatment improves the FW resistance and enhances the FF resistance of the Ti6Al4V alloy. This is attributed to the introduction of a compressive stress field. The combination of toughness, strength, FW resistance and fatigue resistance enhance the FF resistance for titanium alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture and Fatigue Mechanics of Materials)

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