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Materials 2016, 9(10), 834; doi:10.3390/ma9100834

Microstructural Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics of Mo-Tm2O3 Powder Mixtures during Ball Milling

College of Energy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
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Academic Editor: Sergey Kustov
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 15 October 2016
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Abstract

The microstructural evolution, thermodynamics, and kinetics of Mo (21 wt %) Tm2O3 powder mixtures during ball milling were investigated using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Ball milling induced Tm2O3 to be decomposed and then dissolved into Mo crystal. After 96 h of ball milling, Tm2O3 was dissolved completely and the supersaturated nanocrystalline solid solution of Mo (Tm, O) was obtained. The Mo lattice parameter increased with increasing ball-milling time, opposite for the Mo grain size. The size and lattice parameter of Mo grains was about 8 nm and 0.31564 nm after 96 h of ball milling, respectively. Ball milling induced the elements of Mo, Tm, and O to be distributed uniformly in the ball-milled particles. Based on the semi-experimental theory of Miedema, a thermodynamic model was developed to calculate the driving force of phase evolution. There was no chemical driving force to form a crystal solid solution of Tm atoms in Mo crystal or an amorphous phase because the Gibbs free energy for both processes was higher than zero. For Mo (21 wt %) Tm2O3, it was mechanical work, not the negative heat of mixing, which provided the driving force to form a supersaturated nanocrystalline Mo (Tm, O) solid solution. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutron absorber; Mo-based composites; ball milling; microstructure; thulium oxide neutron absorber; Mo-based composites; ball milling; microstructure; thulium oxide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Luo, Y.; Ran, G.; Chen, N.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, Y. Microstructural Evolution, Thermodynamics, and Kinetics of Mo-Tm2O3 Powder Mixtures during Ball Milling. Materials 2016, 9, 834.

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