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Materials, Volume 9, Issue 9 (September 2016)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The relatively limited number of efficient energy conversion materials has driven many scientists [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Highly Absorbent Antibacterial Hemostatic Dressing for Healing Severe Hemorrhagic Wounds
Materials 2016, 9(9), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090793
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 9 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
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Abstract
To accelerate healing of severe hemorrhagic wounds, a novel highly absorbent hemostatic dressing composed of a Tencel®/absorbent-cotton/polylactic acid nonwoven base and chitosan/nanosilver antibacterial agent was fabricated by using a nonwoven processing technique and a freeze-drying technique. This study is the first
[...] Read more.
To accelerate healing of severe hemorrhagic wounds, a novel highly absorbent hemostatic dressing composed of a Tencel®/absorbent-cotton/polylactic acid nonwoven base and chitosan/nanosilver antibacterial agent was fabricated by using a nonwoven processing technique and a freeze-drying technique. This study is the first to investigate the wicking and water-absorbing properties of a nonwoven base by measuring the vertical wicking height and water absorption ratio. Moreover, blood agglutination and hemostatic second tests were conducted to evaluate the hemostatic performance of the resultant wound dressing. The blending ratio of fibers, areal weight, punching density, and fiber orientation, all significantly influenced the vertical moisture wicking property. However, only the first two parameters markedly affected the water absorption ratio. After the nonwoven base absorbed blood, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation showed that erythrocytes were trapped between the fibrin/clot network and nonwoven fibers when coagulation pathways were activated. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) blood agglutination of the resultant dressing decreased to 14.34 and 50.94 s, respectively. In the femoral artery of the rate bleeding model, hemostatic time was saved by 87.2% compared with that of cotton cloth. Therefore, the resultant antibacterial wound dressing demonstrated greater water and blood absorption, as well as hemostatic performance, than the commercially available cotton cloth, especially for healing severe hemorrhagic wounds. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of 4-Octyldecyloxybenzoic Acid on Liquid-Crystalline Polyurethane Composites with Triple-Shape Memory and Self-Healing Properties
Materials 2016, 9(9), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090792
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
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Abstract
To better understand shape memory materials and self-healing materials, a new series of liquid-crystalline shape memory polyurethane (LC-SMPU) composites, named SMPU-OOBAm, were successfully prepared by incorporating 4-octyldecyloxybenzoic acid (OOBA) into the PEG-based SMPU. The effect of OOBA on the structure, morphology, and properties
[...] Read more.
To better understand shape memory materials and self-healing materials, a new series of liquid-crystalline shape memory polyurethane (LC-SMPU) composites, named SMPU-OOBAm, were successfully prepared by incorporating 4-octyldecyloxybenzoic acid (OOBA) into the PEG-based SMPU. The effect of OOBA on the structure, morphology, and properties of the material has been carefully investigated. The results demonstrate that SMPU-OOBAm has liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties, and self-healing properties. The incorporated OOBA promotes the crystallizability of both soft and hard segments of SMPU, and the crystallization rate of the hard segment of SMPU decreases when the OOBA-content increases. Additionally, the SMPU-OOBAm forms a two-phase separated structure (SMPU phase and OOBA phase), and it shows two-step modulus changes upon heating. Therefore, the SMPU-OOBAm exhibits triple-shape memory behavior, and the shape recovery ratio decreases with an increase in the OOBA content. Finally, SMPU-OOBAm exhibits self-healing properties. The new mechanism can be ascribed to the heating-induced “bleeding” of OOBA in the liquid crystalline state and the subsequent re-crystallization upon cooling. This successful combination of liquid crystalline properties, triple-shape memory properties, and self-healing properties make the SMPU-OOBAm composites ideal for many promising applications in smart optical devices, smart electronic devices, and smart sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Pickering Particles Prepared from Food Waste
Materials 2016, 9(9), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090791
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we demonstrate the functionality and functionalisation of waste particles as an emulsifier for oil-in-water (o/w) and water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. Ground coffee waste was chosen as a candidate waste material due to its naturally high content of lignin, a chemical component imparting emulsifying ability. The waste coffee particles readily stabilised o/w emulsions and following hydrothermal treatment adapted from the bioenergy field they also stabilised w/o emulsions. The hydrothermal treatment relocated the lignin component of the cell walls within the coffee particles onto the particle surface thereby increasing the surface hydrophobicity of the particles as demonstrated by an emulsion assay. Emulsion droplet sizes were comparable to those found in processed foods in the case of hydrophilic waste coffee particles stabilizing o/w emulsions. These emulsions were stable against coalescence for at least 12 weeks, flocculated but stable against coalescence in shear and stable to pasteurisation conditions (10 min at 80 °C). Emulsion droplet size was also insensitive to pH of the aqueous phase during preparation (pH 3–pH 9). Stable against coalescence, the water droplets in w/o emulsions prepared with hydrothermally treated waste coffee particles were considerably larger and microscopic examination showed evidence of arrested coalescence indicative of particle jamming at the surface of the emulsion droplets. Refinement of the hydrothermal treatment and broadening out to other lignin-rich plant or plant based food waste material are promising routes to bring closer the development of commercially relevant lignin based food Pickering particles applicable to emulsion based processed foods ranging from fat continuous spreads and fillings to salad dressings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pickering Emulsion and Derived Materials) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Level Decision Fusion Strategy for Condition Based Maintenance of Composite Structures
Materials 2016, 9(9), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090790
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 5 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (5656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a multi-level decision fusion strategy is proposed which weighs the Value of Information (VoI) against the intended functions of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. This paper presents a multi-level approach for three different maintenance strategies in which the performance
[...] Read more.
In this work, a multi-level decision fusion strategy is proposed which weighs the Value of Information (VoI) against the intended functions of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system. This paper presents a multi-level approach for three different maintenance strategies in which the performance of the SHM systems is evaluated against its intended functions. Level 1 diagnosis results in damage existence with minimum sensors covering a large area by finding the maximum energy difference for the guided waves propagating in pristine structure and the post-impact state; Level 2 diagnosis provides damage detection and approximate localization using an approach based on Electro-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) measures, while Level 3 characterizes damage (exact location and size) in addition to its detection by utilising a Weighted Energy Arrival Method (WEAM). The proposed multi-level strategy is verified and validated experimentally by detection of Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) on a curved composite fuselage panel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Photocatalytic, Antimicrobial and Biocompatibility Features of Cotton Knit Coated with Fe-N-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles
Materials 2016, 9(9), 789; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090789
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our research was focused on the evaluation of the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties, as well as biocompatibility of cotton fabrics coated with fresh and reused dispersions of nanoscaled TiO2-1% Fe-N particles prepared by the hydrothermal method and post-annealed at 400 °C.
[...] Read more.
Our research was focused on the evaluation of the photocatalytic and antimicrobial properties, as well as biocompatibility of cotton fabrics coated with fresh and reused dispersions of nanoscaled TiO2-1% Fe-N particles prepared by the hydrothermal method and post-annealed at 400 °C. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The textiles coated with doped TiO2 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyses, and their photocatalytic effect by trichromatic coordinates of the materials stained with methylene blue and coffee and exposed to UV, visible and solar light. The resulting doped TiO2 consists of a mixture of prevailing anatase phase and a small amount (~15%–20%) of brookite, containing Fe3+ and nitrogen. By reusing dispersions of TiO2-1% Fe-N, high amounts of photocatalysts were deposited on the fabrics, and the photocatalytic activity was improved, especially under visible light. The treated fabrics exhibited specific antimicrobial features, which were dependent on their composition, microbial strain and incubation time. The in vitro biocompatibility evaluation on CCD-1070Sk dermal fibroblasts confirmed the absence of cytotoxicity after short-term exposure. These results highlight the potential of TiO2-1% Fe-N nanoparticles for further use in the development of innovative self-cleaning and antimicrobial photocatalytic cotton textiles. However, further studies are required in order to assess the long-term skin exposure effects and the possible particle release due to wearing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Hard and Soft Tissue Engineering: Novel Approaches)
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Open AccessArticle Characteristics of Ceramic Fiber Modified Asphalt Mortar
Materials 2016, 9(9), 788; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090788
Received: 5 June 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4263 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ceramic fiber, with a major composition of Al2O3 and SiO2, has advantages of stability at relatively high temperature, big specific surface area and resistance to external mechanical vibration. It has the potential contribution of improving the rutting resistance
[...] Read more.
Ceramic fiber, with a major composition of Al2O3 and SiO2, has advantages of stability at relatively high temperature, big specific surface area and resistance to external mechanical vibration. It has the potential contribution of improving the rutting resistance and temperature sensitivity of modified asphalt binder by proper modification design. In this research, ceramic fiber was introduced into both pen 60/80 and pen 80/100 asphalt binder by different weight ratios. An asphalt penetration test, softening point test, ductility test and dynamic viscoelastic behavior were conducted to characterize and predict the ceramic fiber modified asphalt mortar (CFAM). Research results indicated that the ceramic fiber has a great effect on reinforcement of asphalt, which makes the asphalt stiffer so that the asphalt can only undertake less strain under the same stress. The heat insulation effect of the ceramic fiber will improve the temperature stability. Complex modulus and phase angle results indicate that the ceramic fiber can significantly enhance the high temperature resistance of soft binder. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Imperfection Sensitivity of Nonlinear Vibration of Curved Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Based on Nonlocal Timoshenko Beam Theory
Materials 2016, 9(9), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090786
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 29 August 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
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Abstract
Imperfection sensitivity of large amplitude vibration of curved single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is considered in this study. The SWCNT is modeled as a Timoshenko nano-beam and its curved shape is included as an initial geometric imperfection term in the displacement field. Geometric nonlinearities
[...] Read more.
Imperfection sensitivity of large amplitude vibration of curved single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is considered in this study. The SWCNT is modeled as a Timoshenko nano-beam and its curved shape is included as an initial geometric imperfection term in the displacement field. Geometric nonlinearities of von Kármán type and nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen are employed to derive governing equations of motion. Spatial discretization of governing equations and associated boundary conditions is performed using differential quadrature (DQ) method and the corresponding nonlinear eigenvalue problem is iteratively solved. Effects of amplitude and location of the geometric imperfection, and the nonlocal small-scale parameter on the nonlinear frequency for various boundary conditions are investigated. The results show that the geometric imperfection and non-locality play a significant role in the nonlinear vibration characteristics of curved SWCNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Elastic Modulus of the Alkali-Silica Reaction Rim in a Simplified Calcium-Alkali-Silicate System Determined by Nano-Indentation
Materials 2016, 9(9), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090787
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work aims at providing a better understanding of the mechanical properties of the reaction rim in the alkali-silica reaction. The elastic modulus of the calcium alkali silicate constituting the reaction rim, which is formed at the interface between alkali silicate and Ca(OH)
[...] Read more.
This work aims at providing a better understanding of the mechanical properties of the reaction rim in the alkali-silica reaction. The elastic modulus of the calcium alkali silicate constituting the reaction rim, which is formed at the interface between alkali silicate and Ca(OH)2 in a chemically-idealized system of the alkali-silica reaction, was studied using nano-indentation. In addition, the corresponding calcium to silica mole ratio of the calcium alkali silicate was investigated. The results show that the elastic modulus of the calcium alkali silicate formed at the interface increased with the increase of the calcium to silica mole ratio and vice versa. Furthermore, the more calcium that was available for interaction with alkali silicate to form calcium alkali silicate, the higher the calcium to silica mole ratio and, consequently, the higher the elastic modulus of the formed calcium alkali silicate. This work provides illustrative evidence from a mechanical point of view on how the occurrence of cracks due to the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is linked to the formation of the reaction rim. It has to be highlighted, however, that the simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system in this study is far from the real condition in concrete. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel Resorbable and Osteoconductive Calcium Silicophosphate Scaffold Induced Bone Formation
Materials 2016, 9(9), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090785
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (11470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This aim of this research was to develop a novel ceramic scaffold to evaluate the response of bone after ceramic implantation in New Zealand (NZ) rabbits. Ceramics were prepared by the polymer replication method and inserted into NZ rabbits. Macroporous scaffolds with interconnected
[...] Read more.
This aim of this research was to develop a novel ceramic scaffold to evaluate the response of bone after ceramic implantation in New Zealand (NZ) rabbits. Ceramics were prepared by the polymer replication method and inserted into NZ rabbits. Macroporous scaffolds with interconnected round-shaped pores (0.5–1.5 mm = were prepared). The scaffold acted as a physical support where cells with osteoblastic capability were found to migrate, develop processes, and newly immature and mature bone tissue colonized on the surface (initially) and in the material’s interior. The new ceramic induced about 62.18% ± 2.28% of new bone and almost complete degradation after six healing months. An elemental analysis showed that the gradual diffusion of Ca and Si ions from scaffolds into newly formed bone formed part of the biomaterial’s resorption process. Histological and radiological studies demonstrated that this porous ceramic scaffold showed biocompatibility and excellent osteointegration and osteoinductive capacity, with no interposition of fibrous tissue between the implanted material and the hematopoietic bone marrow interphase, nor any immune response after six months of implantation. No histological changes were observed in the various organs studied (para-aortic lymph nodes, liver, kidney and lung) as a result of degradation products being released. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Biomaterials and Biointerfaces)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Ono, K. Calibration Methods of Acoustic Emission Sensors. Materials 2016, 9, 508
Materials 2016, 9(9), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090784
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
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Abstract
The author wishes to make the following corrections to this paper [1].[...] Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simple Synthesis of Molybdenum Disulfide/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Hollow Microspheres as Supercapacitor Electrode Material
Materials 2016, 9(9), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090783
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3086 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
MoS2/RGO composite hollow microspheres were hydrothermally synthesized by using SiO2/GO microspheres as a template, which were obtained via the sonication-assisted interfacial self-assembly of tiny GO sheets on positively charged SiO2 microspheres. The structure, morphology, phase, and chemical composition
[...] Read more.
MoS2/RGO composite hollow microspheres were hydrothermally synthesized by using SiO2/GO microspheres as a template, which were obtained via the sonication-assisted interfacial self-assembly of tiny GO sheets on positively charged SiO2 microspheres. The structure, morphology, phase, and chemical composition of MoS2/RGO hollow microspheres were systematically investigated by a series of techniques such as FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, TGA, BET, and Raman characterizations, meanwhile, their electrochemical properties were carefully evaluated by CV, GCD, and EIS measurements. It was found that MoS2/RGO hollow microspheres possessed unique porous hollow architecture with high-level hierarchy and large specific surface area up to 63.7 m2·g−1. When used as supercapacitor electrode material, MoS2/RGO hollow microspheres delivered a maximum specific capacitance of 218.1 F·g−1 at the current density of 1 A·g−1, which was much higher than that of contrastive bare MoS2 microspheres developed in the present work and most of other reported MoS2-based materials. The enhancement of supercapacitive behaviors of MoS2/RGO hollow microspheres was likely due to the improved conductivity together with their distinct structure and morphology, which not only promoted the charge transport but also facilitated the electrolyte diffusion. Moreover, MoS2/RGO hollow microsphere electrode displayed satisfactory long-term stability with 91.8% retention of the initial capacitance after 1000 charge/discharge cycles at the current density of 3 A·g−1, showing excellent application potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Deformation Behavior of Recycled Concrete Aggregate during Cyclic and Dynamic Loading Laboratory Tests
Materials 2016, 9(9), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090780
Received: 29 July 2016 / Revised: 6 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is a relatively new construction material, whose applications can replace natural aggregates. To do so, extensive studies on its mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics are still necessary. RCA is currently used as a subbase material in the construction of
[...] Read more.
Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is a relatively new construction material, whose applications can replace natural aggregates. To do so, extensive studies on its mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics are still necessary. RCA is currently used as a subbase material in the construction of roads, which are subject to high settlements due to traffic loading. The deformation characteristics of RCA must, therefore, be established to find the possible fatigue and damage behavior for this new material. In this article, a series of triaxial cyclic loading and resonant column tests is used to characterize fatigue in RCA as a function of applied deviator stress after long-term cyclic loading. A description of the shakedown phenomenon occurring in the RCA and calculations of its resilient modulus (Mr) as a function of fatigue are also presented. Test result analysis with the stress-life method on the Wohler S-N diagram shows the RCA behavior in accordance with the Basquin law. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Three-Dimensional Network Model for Coupling of Fracture and Mass Transport in Quasi-Brittle Geomaterials
Materials 2016, 9(9), 782; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090782
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1074 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dual three-dimensional networks of structural and transport elements were combined to model the effect of fracture on mass transport in quasi-brittle geomaterials. Element connectivity of the structural network, representing elasticity and fracture, was defined by the Delaunay tessellation of a random set of
[...] Read more.
Dual three-dimensional networks of structural and transport elements were combined to model the effect of fracture on mass transport in quasi-brittle geomaterials. Element connectivity of the structural network, representing elasticity and fracture, was defined by the Delaunay tessellation of a random set of points. The connectivity of transport elements within the transport network was defined by the Voronoi tessellation of the same set of points. A new discretisation strategy for domain boundaries was developed to apply boundary conditions for the coupled analyses. The properties of transport elements were chosen to evolve with the crack opening values of neighbouring structural elements. Through benchmark comparisons involving non-stationary transport and fracture, the proposed dual network approach was shown to be objective with respect to element size and orientation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis of Concrete using Discrete Elements)
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring Poisson’s Ratio Degradation of FRP Composites under Fatigue Loading Using Biaxially Embedded FBG Sensors
Materials 2016, 9(9), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090781
Received: 20 May 2016 / Revised: 27 August 2016 / Accepted: 3 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3865 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The significance of strain measurement is obvious for the analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Conventional strain measurement methods are sufficient for static testing in general. Nevertheless, if the requirements exceed the capabilities of these conventional methods, more sophisticated techniques are necessary to
[...] Read more.
The significance of strain measurement is obvious for the analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites. Conventional strain measurement methods are sufficient for static testing in general. Nevertheless, if the requirements exceed the capabilities of these conventional methods, more sophisticated techniques are necessary to obtain strain data. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have many advantages for strain measurement over conventional ones. Thus, the present paper suggests a novel method for biaxial strain measurement using embedded FBG sensors during the fatigue testing of FRP composites. Poisson’s ratio and its reduction were monitored for each cyclic loading by using embedded FBG sensors for a given specimen and correlated with the fatigue stages determined based on the variations of the applied fatigue loading and temperature due to the autogenous heating to predict an oncoming failure of the continuous fiber-reinforced epoxy matrix composite specimens under fatigue loading. The results show that FBG sensor technology has a remarkable potential for monitoring the evolution of Poisson’s ratio on a cycle-by-cycle basis, which can reliably be used towards tracking the fatigue stages of composite for structural health monitoring purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Structures)
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Open AccessArticle Multichromic Polymers Containing Alternating Bi(3-Methoxythiophene) and Triphenylamine Based Units with Para-Protective Substituents
Materials 2016, 9(9), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma9090779
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (11394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two novel triphenylamine-based thiophene derivative monomers, 4-cyano-4′,4″-di(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)triphenylamine and 4-methoxy-4′,4″-di(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)triphenylamine, were successfully synthesized. The corresponding polymers including poly (4-cyano-4′,4″-di(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)triphenylamine) and poly (4-methoxy-4′,4″-di(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)triphenylamine) were electrochemically synthesized and characterized by multiple test method. The electrochemical measurements and spectroelectrochemical analyses revealed that both of the two polymers
[...] Read more.
Two novel triphenylamine-based thiophene derivative monomers, 4-cyano-4′,4″-di(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)triphenylamine and 4-methoxy-4′,4″-di(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)triphenylamine, were successfully synthesized. The corresponding polymers including poly (4-cyano-4′,4″-di(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)triphenylamine) and poly (4-methoxy-4′,4″-di(4-methoxythiophen-2-yl)triphenylamine) were electrochemically synthesized and characterized by multiple test method. The electrochemical measurements and spectroelectrochemical analyses revealed that both of the two polymers had quasi-reversible redox behavior and multi-electrochromic properties. The two polymer films showed reversible electrochemical oxidation, excellent optical contrasts in NIR region (62% at 1070 nm for the first polymer, and 86% at 1255 nm for the second polymer), satisfactory coloration efficiencies and fast switching times. The research on the application of the as prepared polymer in the fabrication of electrochromic device was also conducted, employing PCMTPA or PMMTPA as the anodically coloring materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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