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Special Issue "Green Nanotechnology"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Structure Analysis and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mady Elbahri

1.School of Chemical Technology- Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 00076 Aalto, Finland 2. Institute for Materials Science - Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, CAU-Kiel University, Kaiserstr. 2, D-24143 Kiel, Germany 3. Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht- Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: functional nanomaterials and nanocomposites; smart materials; green nanotechnology; bio-nanotechnology; environmental remediation; nanophotonics and plasmonic
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Shain Homaeigohar

Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, University of Kiel, Kaiserstrasse 2, 24143 Kiel, Germany
E-Mail
Interests: membranes; nanomaterials; water filtration; electrospinning
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati

Nanochemistry and Nanoengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, University of Kiel, Kaiserstrasse 2, 24143 Kiel, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Interests: plasmonic metamaterials; metasurface; thin films; nano-optics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Green nanotechnology is a sustainable nanofabrication approach dealing with the development of nanomaterials using environmentally friendly approaches. Green energy and environmental technologies are two major strategic scientific areas drawing the attention of researchers from a diverse range of expertise. Scientists and engineering from various disciplines are currently seeking to develop advanced materials which could provide comfort and ease to human kind's life in a sustainable manner. In this regard, nanomaterials are highly consequential and can bring about a new generation of devices that are able to collect, save and transform energy as well as to purify water streams or air with the least energy consumption. This issue aims to cover research of relevance to nanomaterials and nanostructures developed for energy and environmental applications within the wide scope of green nanotechnology. In particular, manuscripts presenting innovative green fabrication methods and characterization techniques of nanomaterials and nanostructures applicable to the energy sector and environmental technology are most welcome. The subjects of the manuscripts can include, without being limited to, the following themes: plasmonic based solar and environmental technologies, nanomaterials for solar absorbers, nanostructures for optoelectronic and solar cells, antireflective nanomaterials, environmental-sensors, photocatalytic and gas sensing nanomaterials, nano-fibrous membranes, affinity nano-structured membranes, adsorbent nanomaterials, aerosol nanostructure filters, organic gases nanofiltration and protective clothing nanomaterials.

Mady Elbahri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • solar absorbing structures
  • green nanofabrication
  • materials for energy harvesting applications

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle An Investigation into the Properties and Microstructure of Cement Mixtures Modified with Cellulose Nanocrystal
Materials 2017, 10(5), 498; doi:10.3390/ma10050498
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 21 April 2017 / Accepted: 25 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims to examine the effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the hydration, transport behavior, and microstructure of cement mixtures. The addition of CNC delayed hydration at an early age but improved hydration at later ages. A small increase in the electrical
[...] Read more.
This paper aims to examine the effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the hydration, transport behavior, and microstructure of cement mixtures. The addition of CNC delayed hydration at an early age but improved hydration at later ages. A small increase in the electrical resistivity of the cement mixtures with CNC was observed. Statistical nanoindentation showed a small tendency to a larger volume fraction of high density calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) and a smaller volume fraction of low-density C-S-H in the mixture with CNC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle In Situ Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles on Wool Powder and Their Catalytic Application
Materials 2017, 10(3), 295; doi:10.3390/ma10030295
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in situ on wool powder (WP) under heating conditions. Wool powder not only reduced Au ions to AuNPs, but also provided a support for as-synthesized AuNPs. WPs were treated under different concentrations of Au ions, and corresponding optical
[...] Read more.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized in situ on wool powder (WP) under heating conditions. Wool powder not only reduced Au ions to AuNPs, but also provided a support for as-synthesized AuNPs. WPs were treated under different concentrations of Au ions, and corresponding optical features and morphologies of the treated WPs were investigated by UV-VIS diffuse reflectance absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were also employed to characterize the WP treated with AuNPs. The results demonstrate that AuNPs were produced in the presence of WP and distributed over the wool particles. The porous structure led to the synthesis of AuNPs in the internal parts of WP. Acid conditions and high temperature facilitated the synthesis of AuNPs by WP in aqueous solution. The reducibility of wool was improved after being converted to powder from fibers, due to exposure of more active groups. Moreover, the obtained AuNP-WP complexes showed significant catalytic activity to accelerate the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Photovoltaic Performance Characterization of Textured Silicon Solar Cells Using Luminescent Down-Shifting Eu-Doped Phosphor Particles of Various Dimensions
Materials 2017, 10(1), 21; doi:10.3390/ma10010021
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 1 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports on efforts to enhance the photovoltaic performance of textured silicon solar cells through the application of a layer of Eu-doped silicate phosphor with particles of various dimensions using the spin-on film technique. We examined the surface profile and dimensions of
[...] Read more.
This paper reports on efforts to enhance the photovoltaic performance of textured silicon solar cells through the application of a layer of Eu-doped silicate phosphor with particles of various dimensions using the spin-on film technique. We examined the surface profile and dimensions of the Eu-doped phosphors in the silicate layer using optical microscopy with J-image software. Optical reflectance, photoluminescence, and external quantum efficiency were used to characterize the luminescent downshifting (LDS) and light scattering of the Eu-doped silicate phosphor layer. Current density-voltage curves under AM 1.5G simulation were used to confirm the contribution of LDS and light scattering produced by phosphor particles of various dimensions. Experiment results reveal that smaller phosphor particles have a more pronounced effect on LDS and a slight shading of incident light. The application of small Eu-doped phosphor particles increased the conversion efficiency by 9.2% (from 12.56% to 13.86%), far exceeding the 5.6% improvement (from 12.54% to 13.32%) achieved by applying a 250 nm layer of SiO2 and the 4.5% improvement (from 12.37% to 12.98%) observed in cells with large Eu-doped phosphor particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Organic-Inorganic Hydrophobic Nanocomposite Film with a Core-Shell Structure
Materials 2016, 9(12), 1021; doi:10.3390/ma9121021
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
PDF Full-text (4984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A method to prepare novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite films was proposed by a site-specific polymerization process. The inorganic part, the core of the nanocomposite, is a ternary SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles, which is grafted with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl
[...] Read more.
A method to prepare novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite films was proposed by a site-specific polymerization process. The inorganic part, the core of the nanocomposite, is a ternary SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles, which is grafted with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane (KH570), and wrapped by fluoride and siloxane polymers. The synthesized samples are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), contact angle meter (CA), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results indicate that the novel organic-inorganic hydrophobic nanocomposite with a core-shell structure was synthesized successfully. XRD analysis reveals the nanocomposite film has an amorphous structure, and FTIR analysis indicates the nanoparticles react with a silane coupling agent (methacryloxy propyl trimethoxyl silane KH570). Interestingly, the morphology of the nanoparticle film is influenced by the composition of the core. Further, comparing with the film synthesized by silica nanoparticles, the film formed from SiO2–Al2O3–TiO2 nanoparticles has higher hydrophobic performance, i.e., the contact angle is greater than 101.7°. In addition, the TEM analysis reveals that the crystal structure of the particles can be changed at high temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Nanohybrid Nanofibrous Adsorbent for Water Purification from Dye Pollutants
Materials 2016, 9(10), 848; doi:10.3390/ma9100848
Received: 9 September 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we devised a novel nanofibrous adsorbent made of polyethersulfone (PES) for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye pollutant from water. The polymer shows a low isoelectric point thus at elevated pHs and, being nanofibrous, can offer a huge highly hydroxylated
[...] Read more.
In this study, we devised a novel nanofibrous adsorbent made of polyethersulfone (PES) for removal of methylene blue (MB) dye pollutant from water. The polymer shows a low isoelectric point thus at elevated pHs and, being nanofibrous, can offer a huge highly hydroxylated surface area for adsorption of cationic MB molecules. As an extra challenge, to augment the adsorbent’s properties in terms of adsorption capacity in neutral and acidic conditions and thermal stability, vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanoparticles were added to the nanofibers. Adsorption data were analyzed according to the Freundlich adsorption model. The thermodynamic parameters verified that only at basic pH is the adsorption spontaneous and in general the process is entropy-driven and endothermic. The kinetics of the adsorption process was evaluated by the pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models. The latter model exhibited the highest correlation with data. In sum, the adsorbent showed a promising potential for dye removal from industrial dyeing wastewater systems, especially when envisaging their alkaline and hot conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Removal of Cr(VI) from Water Using a New Reactive Material: Magnesium Oxide Supported Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron
Materials 2016, 9(8), 666; doi:10.3390/ma9080666
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 6 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The chromium pollution of water is an important environmental and health issue. Cr(VI) removal by means of metallic iron is an attractive method. Specifically, nanoscopic zero valent iron (NZVI) shows great reactivity, however, its applicability needs to be further investigated. In the present
[...] Read more.
The chromium pollution of water is an important environmental and health issue. Cr(VI) removal by means of metallic iron is an attractive method. Specifically, nanoscopic zero valent iron (NZVI) shows great reactivity, however, its applicability needs to be further investigated. In the present paper, NZVI was supported on MgO grains to facilitate the treatments for remediation of chromium-contaminated waters. The performances and mechanisms of the developed composite, in the removal of hexavalent chromium, were investigated by means of batch and continuous tests. Kinetic studies, under different operating conditions, showed that reduction of Cr(VI) could be expressed by a pseudo second-order reaction kinetic. The reaction rate increased with the square of Fe(0) amount, while it was inversely proportional to the initial chromium concentration. The process performance was satisfactory also under uncontrolled pH, and a limited influence of temperature was observed. The reactive material was efficiently reusable for many cycles without any regeneration treatment. The performances in continuous tests were close to 97% for about 80 pore volume of reactive material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle The Development of High-Density Vertical Silicon Nanowires and Their Application in a Heterojunction Diode
Materials 2016, 9(7), 534; doi:10.3390/ma9070534
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 15 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vertically aligned p-type silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays were fabricated through metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of Si wafers. An indium tin oxide/indium zinc oxide/silicon nanowire (ITO/IZO/SiNW) heterojunction diode was formed by depositing ITO and IZO thin films on the vertically aligned SiNW arrays. The
[...] Read more.
Vertically aligned p-type silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays were fabricated through metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of Si wafers. An indium tin oxide/indium zinc oxide/silicon nanowire (ITO/IZO/SiNW) heterojunction diode was formed by depositing ITO and IZO thin films on the vertically aligned SiNW arrays. The structural and electrical properties of the resulting ITO/IZO/SiNW heterojunction diode were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and current−voltage (I−V) measurements. Nonlinear and rectifying I−V properties confirmed that a heterojunction diode was successfully formed in the ITO/IZO/SiNW structure. The diode had a well-defined rectifying behavior, with a rectification ratio of 550.7 at 3 V and a turn-on voltage of 2.53 V under dark conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids
Materials 2016, 9(8), 617; doi:10.3390/ma9080617
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 12 July 2016 / Accepted: 15 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2907 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessReview Antireflective Coatings: Conventional Stacking Layers and Ultrathin Plasmonic Metasurfaces, A Mini-Review
Materials 2016, 9(6), 497; doi:10.3390/ma9060497
Received: 2 May 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 15 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reduction of unwanted light reflection from a surface of a substance is very essential for improvement of the performance of optical and photonic devices. Antireflective coatings (ARCs) made of single or stacking layers of dielectrics, nano/microstructures or a mixture of both are the
[...] Read more.
Reduction of unwanted light reflection from a surface of a substance is very essential for improvement of the performance of optical and photonic devices. Antireflective coatings (ARCs) made of single or stacking layers of dielectrics, nano/microstructures or a mixture of both are the conventional design geometry for suppression of reflection. Recent progress in theoretical nanophotonics and nanofabrication has enabled more flexibility in design and fabrication of miniaturized coatings which has in turn advanced the field of ARCs considerably. In particular, the emergence of plasmonic and metasurfaces allows for the realization of broadband and angular-insensitive ARC coatings at an order of magnitude thinner than the operational wavelengths. In this review, a short overview of the development of ARCs, with particular attention paid to the state-of-the-art plasmonic- and metasurface-based antireflective surfaces, is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Nanotechnology)

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