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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2011), Pages 3063-3513

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Open AccessArticle Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3063-3098; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083063
Received: 25 May 2011 / Revised: 29 June 2011 / Accepted: 8 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (611 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine
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Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 µg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 µg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticides and Health)
Open AccessArticle Mosquitoes Associated with Ditch-Plugged and Control Tidal Salt Marshes on the Delmarva Peninsula
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3099-3113; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083099
Received: 4 April 2011 / Revised: 8 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva
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A study was conducted during the summer of 2009 (from July to September) to characterize mosquito communities among different habitats in five historically ditched tidal salt marshes and three adjacent wooded areas in the E.A. Vaughn Wetland Management Area on the Maryland Delmarva Peninsula, USA. Study marshes are characteristic of Atlantic coastal salt marshes that had undergone grid ditching from the 1930s to 1950s. In the autumn of 2008 (October and November) ditches were plugged near their outlets in two (‘experimental’) marshes with the aim to restore their natural tidal hydrology. The three other marshes were not plugged. Marshes were sampled from July to September in 2009 by using standard dip count method. A total of 2,457 mosquito larvae representing six species were collected on 15.4% (86/557) of all sample occasions and 399 adults representing four mosquito species were collected from landing counts. Aedes sollicitans, Anopheles bradleyi and Culex salinarius were the most common species collected in larval habitats, and Ae. sollicitans was the most common adult collected. Wooded habitats had more total mosquitoes, were also more frequently occupied by mosquitoes and had higher densities of mosquitoes than marsh habitats. Almost all larvae collected from marshes were from one experimental and one control site. The majority of larvae at the control site were Ae. sollicitans in marsh pannes while Cx. salinarius, An. bradleyi, Ae. cantator, and Ae. sollicitans were collected in high numbers from ditches at the experimental site. We found a difference in the proportion of marsh pannes occupied by Ae. sollicitans but not total mosquitoes sampled 4–5 days after spring tide events than on other occasions. Salinity measures of 42 larval habitats showed lower median salinity in mosquito-occupied habitats (11.5 ppt) than unoccupied habitats (20.1 ppt), and in habitats in wooded areas followed by ditches and pannes in marsh areas. The results of this study suggest that wooded areas adjacent to salt marshes may be a substantial source of biting adult mosquitoes usually associated with salt marsh habitats and that ditch plugging may alter the productivity of mosquitoes on some marshes. We recommend future studies consider mosquito productivity from habitats surrounding salt marshes, and if assessments of marsh alterations are a goal, compare multiple experimental and control areas before and after treatments to determine if alterations have a consistent impact on regional mosquito production. Full article
Open AccessArticle Residential Pesticide Usage in Older Adults Residing in Central California
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3114-3133; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083114
Received: 1 March 2011 / Revised: 6 July 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use
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Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB) study (N = 153) and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG) study (N = 359) and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297). All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticides and Health)
Open AccessArticle Validation of the Gravity Model in Predicting the Global Spread of Influenza
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3134-3143; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083134
Received: 3 March 2011 / Revised: 13 June 2011 / Accepted: 20 July 2011 / Published: 25 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (927 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The gravity model is often used in predicting the spread of influenza. We use the data of influenza A (H1N1) to check the model’s performance and validation, in order to determine the scope of its application. In this article, we proposed to model
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The gravity model is often used in predicting the spread of influenza. We use the data of influenza A (H1N1) to check the model’s performance and validation, in order to determine the scope of its application. In this article, we proposed to model the pattern of global spread of the virus via a few important socio-economic indicators. We applied the epidemic gravity model for modelling the virus spread globally through the estimation of parameters of a generalized linear model. We compiled the daily confirmed cases of influenza A (H1N1) in each country as reported to the WHO and each state in the USA, and established the model to describe the relationship between the confirmed cases and socio-economic factors such as population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), and the distance between the countries/states and the country where the first confirmed case was reported (i.e., Mexico). The covariates we selected for the model were all statistically significantly associated with the global spread of influenza A (H1N1). However, within the USA, the distance and GDP were not significantly associated with the number of confirmed cases. The combination of the gravity model and generalized linear model provided a quick assessment of pandemic spread globally. The gravity model is valid if the spread period is long enough for estimating the model parameters. Meanwhile, the distance between donor and recipient communities has a good gradient. Besides, the spread should be at the early stage if a single source is taking into account. Full article
Open AccessArticle Severe Allergic Reactions to Food in Norway: A Ten Year Survey of Cases Reported to the Food Allergy Register
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3144-3155; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083144
Received: 25 May 2011 / Revised: 15 July 2011 / Accepted: 18 July 2011 / Published: 26 July 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Norwegian Food Allergy Register was established at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in 2000. The purpose of the register is to gain information about severe allergic reactions to food in Norway and to survey food products in relation to allergen labelling
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The Norwegian Food Allergy Register was established at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health in 2000. The purpose of the register is to gain information about severe allergic reactions to food in Norway and to survey food products in relation to allergen labelling and contamination. Cases are reported on a voluntary basis by first line doctors, and submitted together with a serum sample for specific IgE analysis. The register has received a total of 877 reports from 1 July, 2000 to 31 December, 2010. Two age groups, small children and young adults are over-represented, and the overall gender distribution is 40:60 males-females. The legumes lupine and fenugreek have been identified as two “new” allergens in processed foods and cases of contamination and faults in production of processed foods have been revealed. The highest frequency of food specific IgE is to hazelnuts and peanuts, with a marked increase in reactions to hazelnuts during the last three years. The Food Allergy Register has improved our knowledge about causes and severity of food allergic reactions in Norway. The results show the usefulness of population based national food allergy registers in providing information for health authorities and to secure safe food for individuals with food allergies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental and Food Allergy)
Open AccessArticle Fumonisin B1 Toxicity in Grower-Finisher Pigs: A Comparative Analysis of Genetically Engineered Bt Corn and non-Bt Corn by Using Quantitative Dietary Exposure Assessment Modeling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3179-3190; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083179
Received: 11 May 2011 / Revised: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 July 2011 / Published: 28 July 2011
PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the long-term exposure (20 weeks) to fumonisin B1 (FB1) in grower-finisher pigs by conducting a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA). Our analytical approach involved both deterministic and semi-stochastic modeling for dietary comparative analyses of FB1
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In this study, we investigate the long-term exposure (20 weeks) to fumonisin B1 (FB1) in grower-finisher pigs by conducting a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA). Our analytical approach involved both deterministic and semi-stochastic modeling for dietary comparative analyses of FB1 exposures originating from genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn, conventional non-Bt corn and distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from Bt and/or non-Bt corn. Results from both deterministic and semi-stochastic demonstrated a distinct difference of FB1 toxicity in feed between Bt corn and non-Bt corn. Semi-stochastic results predicted the lowest FB1 exposure for Bt grain with a mean of 1.5 mg FB1/kg diet and the highest FB1 exposure for a diet consisting of non-Bt grain and non-Bt DDGS with a mean of 7.87 mg FB1/kg diet; the chronic toxicological incipient level of concern is 1.0 mg of FB1/kg of diet. Deterministic results closely mirrored but tended to slightly under predict the mean result for the semi-stochastic analysis. This novel comparative QEA model reveals that diet scenarios where the source of grain is derived from Bt corn presents less potential to induce FB1 toxicity than diets containing non-Bt corn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Symptoms of Severe Asthma and Allergies in Irish School Children: An ISAAC Protocol Study, 1995–2007
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3192-3201; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083192
Received: 5 May 2011 / Revised: 25 June 2011 / Accepted: 22 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Childhood asthma is a recurring health burden and symptoms of severe asthma in children are also emerging as a health and economic issue. This study examined changing patterns in symptoms of severe asthma and allergies (ever eczema and hay fever), using the Irish
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Childhood asthma is a recurring health burden and symptoms of severe asthma in children are also emerging as a health and economic issue. This study examined changing patterns in symptoms of severe asthma and allergies (ever eczema and hay fever), using the Irish International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) protocol. ISAAC is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of randomly selected representative post-primary schools. Children aged 13–14 years were studied: 2,670 (in 1995), 2,273 (in 1998), 2,892 (in 2002–2003), and 2,805 (in 2007). Generalized linear modelling using Poisson distribution was employed to compute adjusted prevalence ratios (PR). A 39% significant increase in symptoms of severe asthma was estimated in 2007 relative to the baseline year 1995 (adjusted PR: 1.39 [95% CI: 1.14–1.69]) increasing from 12% in 1995 to 15.3% in 2007. Opposite trends were observed for allergies, showing a decline in 2007, with an initial rise. The potential explanations for such a complex disease pattern whose aetiological hypothesis is still evolving are speculative. Changing environmental factors may be a factor, for instance, an improvement in both outdoor and indoor air quality further reinforcing the hygiene hypothesis but obesity as a disease modifier must also be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Environmentally Reformed Travel Habits During the 2006 Congestion Charge Trial in Stockholm—A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3202-3215; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083202
Received: 13 June 2011 / Revised: 18 July 2011 / Accepted: 25 July 2011 / Published: 2 August 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (201 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Policy measures that reduce or replace road traffic can improve environmental conditions in most large cities. In Stockholm a congestion charge was introduced during a test period in 2006. This was a full-scale trial that proved to meet its targets by reducing traffic
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Policy measures that reduce or replace road traffic can improve environmental conditions in most large cities. In Stockholm a congestion charge was introduced during a test period in 2006. This was a full-scale trial that proved to meet its targets by reducing traffic crossing the inner city segment during rush hours by 20%. Emissions of carbon dioxide and particles were also substantially reduced. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 40 inhabitants, analyses how and why new travel habits emerged. The results show that particular, sometimes unexpected, features of everyday life (habits, resources, opportunities, values, etc.) were crucial for adjustment of travel behaviour in relation to the policy instrument. One example was that those accustomed to mixing different modes of transport on a daily basis more easily adapted their travel in the targeted way. On a more general level, the results revealed that the policy measure could actually tip the scales for the individual towards trying out a new behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Transportation)
Open AccessArticle Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3216-3231; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083216
Received: 25 March 2011 / Revised: 2 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 July 2011 / Published: 3 August 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD), including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a
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Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD), including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult population of the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone interview (n = 1,440). A multivariate analysis was run controlling for socio-behavioural variables, obesity and family antecedents of NCCD. A hierarchical linear regression model and a Poisson regression were used to verify association of type-2 diabetes and coffee intake. The independent variables which remained in the final model, following the hierarchical inclusion levels, were: first level—age and marital status; second level—diabetes and dyslipidaemias in antecedents; third level—cigarette smoking, supplement intake, body mass index; and fourth level—coffee intake (£100 mL/d, 101 to 400 mL/day, and >400 mL/day). After adjusting hierarchically for the confounding variables, consumers of 100 to 400 mL of coffee/day had a 2.7% higher (p = 0.04) prevalence of not having diabetes than those who drank less than 100 mL of coffee/day. Compared to coffee intake of £100 mL/day, adults consuming >400 mL of coffee/day showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus, moderate coffee intake is favourably associated with self-reported type-2 diabetes in the studied population. This is the first study to show a relationship between coffee drinking and diabetes in a Brazilian population. Full article
Open AccessArticle Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Motivations for Use in U.S. College Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3232-3245; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083232
Received: 3 June 2011 / Revised: 30 July 2011 / Accepted: 30 July 2011 / Published: 5 August 2011
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED).
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Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Descriptive Study on Parents’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Antibiotic Use and Misuse in Children with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Cyprus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3246-3262; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083246
Received: 5 May 2011 / Revised: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 2 August 2011 / Published: 5 August 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents’ and pediatricians’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP)
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Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents’ and pediatricians’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) concerning the role of antibiotics in children with URTIs. A school-based stratified geographic clustering sampling was used and a pre-tested KAP questionnaire was distributed. A different questionnaire was distributed to paediatricians. Demographic factors associated with antibiotic misuse were identified by backward logistic regression analysis. The parental overall response rate was 69.3%. Parents (N = 1,462) follow pediatricians advice and rarely administer antibiotics acquired over the counter. Although a third expects an antibiotic prescription for URTI symptoms, most deny pressuring their doctors. Low parental education was the most important independent risk factor positively related to antibiotic misuse (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 2.02 to 4.12, p < 0.001). Pediatricians (N = 33) denied prescribing antibiotics after parental pressure but admit that parents ask for antibiotics and believe they expect antibiotic prescriptions even when not needed. In conclusion, Cypriotic parents trust their primary care providers. Although it appears that antibiotic misuse is not driven by parental pressure, the pediatricians’ view differs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Increasing and Decreasing Alcohol Use Trajectories Among Older Women in the U.S. Across a 10-Year Interval
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3263-3276; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083263
Received: 2 June 2011 / Revised: 13 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 5 August 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Older women who routinely drink alcohol may experience health benefits, but they are also at risk for adverse effects. Despite the importance of their drinking patterns, few studies have analyzed longitudinal data on changes in drinking among community-based samples of women ages 50
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Older women who routinely drink alcohol may experience health benefits, but they are also at risk for adverse effects. Despite the importance of their drinking patterns, few studies have analyzed longitudinal data on changes in drinking among community-based samples of women ages 50 and older. Reported here are findings from a semi-parametric group-based model that used data from 4,439 randomly sampled U.S. women who enrolled in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and completed ≥3 biannual alcohol assessments during 1998–2008. The best-fitting model based on the drinks per day data had four trajectories labeled as “Increasing Drinkers” (5.3% of sample), “Decreasing Drinkers” (5.9%), “Stable Drinkers” (24.2%), and “Non/Infrequent Drinkers” (64.6%). Using group assignments generated by the trajectory model, one adjusted logistic regression analysis contrasted the groups with low alcohol intake in 1998 (Increasing Drinkers and Non/Infrequent Drinkers). In this model, baseline education, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and binge drinking were significant factors. Another analysis compared the groups with higher intake in 1998 (Decreasing Drinkers versus Stable Drinkers). In this comparison, baseline depression, cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and retirement status were significant. Findings underscore the need to periodically counsel all older women on the risks and benefits of alcohol use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle The Dental Aesthetic Index and Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need as Tools in Epidemiological Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3277-3286; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083277
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 9 August 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study assesses the validity and reproducibility of two occlusal indices for epidemiological studies—the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (DHC-IOTN) for the identification of orthodontic treatment needs. The total of 131
[...] Read more.
The present study assesses the validity and reproducibility of two occlusal indices for epidemiological studies—the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (DHC-IOTN) for the identification of orthodontic treatment needs. The total of 131 study models was examined by an examiner (orthodontic specialist) for the determination of the DAI and DHC-IOTN. Thirty days later, further assessment was performed to determine the reproducibility. The duration of each exam was measured in seconds with a stopwatch. The indices were compared by a panel of three experts in orthodontics to evaluate validity. The intra-examiner reliability evaluation resulted in an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.89 for the DAI (95% CI = 0.64 to 1.0) and 0.87 for the DHC-IOTN (95% CI = 0.56 to 0.96). The time spent on the evaluation of the DHC-IOTN was less than the time spent on that of the DAI (P < 0.001). The accuracy of the indices, as reflected by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, was 61% for the DAI (95% CI = 51 to 70; p = 0.037) and 67% for the DHC-IOTN (95% CI = 58 to 77; p = 0.001). Both indices presented good reproducibility and validity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Perceived Stress Scale: Reliability and Validity Study in Greece
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3287-3298; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083287
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 2 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
Cited by 81 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14) and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. Methods: 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21
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Objective: To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14) and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. Methods: 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version), and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity), Cronbach’s alpha (reliability), and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals’ characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha values (0.82 for the full scale) for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69). PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64), depression (r = 0.61), and anxiety (r = 0.54). Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation between the stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. Conclusions: The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spatial Variation of Surface Soil Available Phosphorous and Its Relation with Environmental Factors in the Chaohu Lake Watershed
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3299-3317; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083299
Received: 21 June 2011 / Revised: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The study presented in this paper attempts to evaluate the spatial pattern of soil available phosphorus, as well as the relation between soil available phosphorus and environment factors including elevation, slope, precipitation, percentage of cultivated land, percentage of forest land, percentage of construction
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The study presented in this paper attempts to evaluate the spatial pattern of soil available phosphorus, as well as the relation between soil available phosphorus and environment factors including elevation, slope, precipitation, percentage of cultivated land, percentage of forest land, percentage of construction land and NDVI using statistical methods and GIS spatial analysis techniques. The results showed that the Spline Tension method performed the best in the prediction of soil available phosphorus in the Chaohu Lake watershed. The spatial variation of surface soil available phosphorus was high in Chaohu Lake watershed and the upstream regions around Chaohu Lake, including the west of Chaohu lake (e.g., southwest of Feixi county, east of Shucheng county and north of Lujiang county) and to the north of Chaohu Lake (e.g., south of Hefei city, south of Feidong county, southwest of Juchao district), had the highest soil available phosphorus content. The mean and standard deviation of soil available phosphorus content gradually decreased as the elevation or slope increased. The cultivated land comprised 60.11% of the watershed and of that land 65.63% belonged to the medium to very high SAP level classes, and it played a major role in SAP availability within the watershed and a potential source of phosphorus to Chaohu Lake resulting in eutrophication. Among the land use types, paddy fields have some of the highest maximum values and variation of coefficients. Subwatershed scale soil available phosphorus was significantly affected by elevation, slope, precipitation, percentage of cultivated land and percentage of forest land and was decided by not only these environmental factors but also some other factors such as artificial phosphorus fertilizer application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Design and Calibration of an Organic Diffusive Probe to Extend the Diffusion Gradient Technique to Organic Pollutants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3318-3332; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083318
Received: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 11 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring the mobility of persistent organic pollutants in the solid phase of soils within the context of environmental pollution risk assessment. A new diffusive probe, purposely designed by adapting the diffusive gradient
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The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring the mobility of persistent organic pollutants in the solid phase of soils within the context of environmental pollution risk assessment. A new diffusive probe, purposely designed by adapting the diffusive gradient technique method, measures labile organic species by immobilizing them after diffusion through a thin deionized water layer. The measure of the mass accumulated is used to calculate the flow of pollutant from solid phase to pore water. Naphthalene was chosen as a model persistent organic pollutant. The probe was calibrated at different temperatures and was then tested in several microcosms at different porosity and reactivities with naphthalene (one clay soil, two sandy soils and one natural soil). The probe response showed good agreement with the expected different abilities of the solid phases in restoring the solution phase. The concentration of naphthalene in the pore water was well buffered by rapid equilibria with the solid phase in the investigated natural soil. In contrast, pore water concentration in the sandy soils decreased rapidly and the flow was slackened, especially for the sandy soil with finer particles. In clay, only a fraction of the total naphthalene content was present in the labile fraction, while the remaining was tightly bound and was not released to the pore water. Therefore, this first stage of testing points out that the diffusive gradient technique, if optimized, can properly quantify the mobility of organic pollutants in soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Street Connectivity is Negatively Associated with Physical Activity in Canadian Youth
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3333-3350; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083333
Received: 21 May 2011 / Revised: 8 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (959 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Street connectivity, defined as how well streets connect to one and other and the density of intersections, is positively associated with active transportation in adults. Our objective was to study the relation between street connectivity and physical activity in youth. Study participants consisted
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Street connectivity, defined as how well streets connect to one and other and the density of intersections, is positively associated with active transportation in adults. Our objective was to study the relation between street connectivity and physical activity in youth. Study participants consisted of 8,535 students in grades 6–10 from 180 schools across Canada who completed the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey. Street connectivity was measured in a 5 km circular buffer around these schools using established geographic information system measures. Physical activity performed outside of school hours was assessed by questionnaire, and multi-level regression analyses were used to estimate associations with street connectivity after controlling for several covariates. Compared to students living in the highest street connectivity quartile, those in the second (relative risk = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.10–1.35), third (1.25, 1.13–1.37), and fourth (1.21, 1.09–1.34) quartiles were more likely to be physically active outside of school. In conclusion, youth in neighbourhoods with the most highly connected streets reported less physical activity outside of school than youth from neighbourhoods with less connected streets. Relationships between street connectivity and physical activity reported in this national study are in the opposite direction to those previously observed for active transportation in adult populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood from Pregnant Hispanic Women Living in Brownsville, Texas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3365-3379; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083365
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 5 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 August 2011 / Published: 17 August 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Venous blood was drawn from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, and matched cord blood was collected at birth. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure concentrations of 55 individual PAHs or groups of PAHs. Results indicate that these women and
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Venous blood was drawn from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, and matched cord blood was collected at birth. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure concentrations of 55 individual PAHs or groups of PAHs. Results indicate that these women and their fetuses were regularly exposed to multiple PAHs at comparatively low concentrations, with levels in cord blood generally exceeding levels in paired maternal blood. While the possibility of related adverse effects on the fetus is uncertain, these exposures in combination with socioeconomically-disadvantaged and environmentally-challenging living conditions raise legitimate public health concerns. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3399-3415; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083399
Received: 24 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern
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Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Behavioral Addictions: Co-Occurrence and Specificity)
Open AccessArticle Estimation of the Effect of Soil Texture on Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Groundwater Using Optical Remote Sensing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3416-3436; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083416
Received: 27 May 2011 / Revised: 22 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 19 August 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The use of chemical fertilizers in Thailand increased exponentially by more than 100-fold from 1961 to 2004. Intensification of agricultural production causes several potential risks to water supplies, especially nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) pollution. Nitrate is considered a potential pollutant because its
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The use of chemical fertilizers in Thailand increased exponentially by more than 100-fold from 1961 to 2004. Intensification of agricultural production causes several potential risks to water supplies, especially nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) pollution. Nitrate is considered a potential pollutant because its excess application can move into streams by runoff and into groundwater by leaching. The nitrate concentration in groundwater increases more than 3-fold times after fertilization and it contaminates groundwater as a result of the application of excess fertilizers for a long time. Soil texture refers to the relative proportion of particles of various sizes in a given soil and it affects the water permeability or percolation rate of a soil. Coarser soils have less retention than finer soils, which in the case of NO3-N allows it to leach into groundwater faster, so there is positive relationship between the percentage of sands and NO3-N concentration in groundwater wells. This study aimed to estimate the effect of soil texture on NO3-N content in groundwater. Optical reflectance data obtained by remote sensing was used in this study. Our hypothesis was that the quantity of nitrogen leached into groundwater through loam was higher than through clay. Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, was selected as a study area where the terrain is mostly represented by a flat topography. It was found that classified LANDSAT images delineated paddy fields as covering 29.4% of the study area, while sugarcane covered 10.4%, and 60.2% was represented by “others”. The reason for this classified landuse was to determine additional factors, such as vegetation, which might directly affect the quantity of NO3-N in soil. Ideally, bare soil would be used as a test site, but in fact, no such places were available in Thailand. This led to an indirect method to estimate NO3-N on various soil textures. Through experimentation, it was found that NO3-N measured through the loam in sugarcane (I = 0.0054, p < 0.05) was lower than clay represented by paddies (I = 0.0305, p < 0.05). This had a significant negative impact on the assumption. According to the research and local statistical data, farmers have always applied an excess quantity of fertilizer on paddy fields. This is the main reason for the higher quantity of NO3-N found in clay than loam in this study. This case might be an exceptional study in terms of quantity of fertilizers applied to agricultural fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
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Open AccessArticle Vulnerability of Newborns to Environmental Factors: Findings from Community Based Surveillance Data in Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3437-3452; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083437
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infection is the major cause of neonatal deaths. Home born newborns in rural Bangladeshi communities are exposed to environmental factors increasing their vulnerability to a number of disease agents that may compromise their health. The current analysis was conducted to assess the association
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Infection is the major cause of neonatal deaths. Home born newborns in rural Bangladeshi communities are exposed to environmental factors increasing their vulnerability to a number of disease agents that may compromise their health. The current analysis was conducted to assess the association of very severe disease (VSD) in newborns in rural communities with temperature, rainfall, and humidity. A total of 12,836 newborns from rural Sylhet and Mirzapur communities were assessed by trained community health workers using a sign based algorithm. Records of temperature, humidity, and rainfall were collected from the nearest meteorological stations. Associations between VSD and environmental factors were estimated. Incidence of VSD was found to be associated with higher temperatures (odds ratios: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.21 in Sylhet and 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.07 in Mirzapur) and heat humidity index (odds ratios: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.08 in Sylhet and, 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04 in Mirzapur). Four months (June-September) in Sylhet, and six months in Mirzapur (April-September) had higher odds ratios of incidence of VSD as compared to the remainder of the year (odds ratios: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.32 to 2.23 in Sylhet and, 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33 to1.96 in Mirzapur). Prevention of VSD in neonates can be enhanced if these interactions are considered in health intervention strategies.  Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Loss of Propiconazole and Its Four Stereoisomers from the Water Phase of Two Soil-Water Slurries as Measured by Capillary Electrophoresis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3453-3467; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083453
Received: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 15 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different
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Propiconazole is a chiral fungicide used in agriculture for control of many fungal diseases on a variety of crops. This use provides opportunities for pollution of soil and, subsequently, groundwater. The rate of loss of propiconazole from the water phase of two different soil-water slurries spiked with the fungicide at 50 mg/L was followed under aerobic conditions over five months; the t1/2 was 45 and 51 days for the two soil slurries. To accurately assess environmental and human risk, it is necessary to analyze the separate stereoisomers of chiral pollutants, because it is known that for most such pollutants, both biotransformation and toxicity are likely to be stereoselective. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), the mode of capillary electrophoresis used for analysis of neutral chemicals, was used for analysis of the four propiconazole stereoisomers with time in the water phase of the slurries. MEKC resulted in baseline separation of all stereoisomers, while GC-MS using a chiral column gave only partial separation. The four stereoisomers of propiconazole were lost from the aqueous phase of the slurries at experimentally equivalent rates, i.e., there was very little, if any, stereoselectivity. No loss of propiconazole was observed from the autoclaved controls of either soil, indicating that the loss from active samples was most likely caused by aerobic biotansformation, with a possible contribution by sorption to the non-autoclaved active soils. MEKC is a powerful tool for separation of stereoisomers and can be used to study the fate and transformation kinetics of chiral pesticides in water and soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)
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Open AccessArticle A Gastroenteritis Outbreak Caused by Noroviruses in Greece
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3468-3478; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083468
Received: 20 July 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants), triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study,
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In June 2006, an outbreak alert regarding cases of acute gastroenteritis in a region in North Eastern Greece (population 100,882 inhabitants), triggered investigations to guide control measures. The outbreak started the first days of June, and peaked in July. A descriptive epidemiological study, a virological characterization of the viral agent identified from cases as well as a phylogenetic analysis was performed. From June 5 to September 3, 2006 (weeks 23–44), 1,640 cases of gastroenteritis (45.2% male and 54.8% female, aged 3 months to 89 years) were reported. The overall attack rate for the period was 16.3 cases/1,000 inhabitants. About 57% of cases observed were under the age of 15 years. Αnalysis of faecal samples identified Norovirus GII strains. Fifteen different Norovirus GII strains were recorded, presenting a homology of 94.8% (86–97%) to GII strains obtained from GenBank. The long duration of the outbreak suggests an important role of person-to-person transmission, while the emergence of the outbreak was possibly due to contaminated potable water, although no viruses were detected in any tested water samples. This outbreak underscores the need for a national surveillance system for acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sex Differences in Suicide Incident Characteristics and Circumstances among Older Adults: Surveillance Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System—17 U.S. States, 2007–2009
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3479-3495; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083479
Received: 29 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 23 August 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (258 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Each year in the U.S. more than 7,000 adults aged 60 years and older die of suicide and as the population ages, these numbers are expected to increase. While sex is an important predictor of older adult suicide, differences between males and females
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Each year in the U.S. more than 7,000 adults aged 60 years and older die of suicide and as the population ages, these numbers are expected to increase. While sex is an important predictor of older adult suicide, differences between males and females are often overlooked due to low occurrence, particularly among women. The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) bridges this gap by providing detailed information on older adult suicide by sex in 17 US states (covering approximately 26% of the U.S. population). NVDRS data for 2007–2009 were used to characterize male (n = 5,004) and female (n = 1,123) suicide decedents aged 60 years and older, including incident characteristics and circumstances precipitating suicide. Stratification of NVDRS data by sex shows significant differences with regard to the presence of antidepressants (19% and 45% respectively), opiates (18%, 37%), and 14 precipitating circumstances concerning mental health, interpersonal problems, life stressors and a history of suicide attempts. No differences were found for alcohol problems, suicide/other death of family or friends, non-criminal legal problems, financial problems, or disclosure of intent to take their own life. The findings of this study demonstrate the value of using comprehensive surveillance data to understand sex-specific suicide circumstances so that opportunities for targeted prevention strategies may be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Suicide Prevention and Public Health)

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Open AccessReview Detection, Emission Estimation and Risk Prediction of Forest Fires in China Using Satellite Sensors and Simulation Models in the Past Three Decades—An Overview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3156-3178; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083156
Received: 4 April 2011 / Revised: 29 June 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 28 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forest fires have major impact on ecosystems and greatly impact the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview in the forest fire detection, emission estimation, and fire risk prediction in China using satellite imagery, climate data,
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Forest fires have major impact on ecosystems and greatly impact the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview in the forest fire detection, emission estimation, and fire risk prediction in China using satellite imagery, climate data, and various simulation models over the past three decades. Since the 1980s, remotely-sensed data acquired by many satellites, such as NOAA/AVHRR, FY-series, MODIS, CBERS, and ENVISAT, have been widely utilized for detecting forest fire hot spots and burned areas in China. Some developed algorithms have been utilized for detecting the forest fire hot spots at a sub-pixel level. With respect to modeling the forest burning emission, a remote sensing data-driven Net Primary productivity (NPP) estimation model was developed for estimating forest biomass and fuel. In order to improve the forest fire risk modeling in China, real-time meteorological data, such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction,have been used as the model input for improving prediction of forest fire occurrence and its behavior. Shortwave infrared (SWIR) and near infrared (NIR) channels of satellite sensors have been employed for detecting live fuel moisture content (FMC), and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used for evaluating the forest vegetation condition and its moisture status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Earth System Science)
Open AccessReview A Literature Review of Cost-Benefit Analyses for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3351-3364; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083351
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 3 August 2011 / Published: 16 August 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review of cost-benefit studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatments of alcohol dependence (AD). A literature search was performed in multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The search identified seven psychotherapy studies from the USA and
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The purpose of this study was to conduct a literature review of cost-benefit studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatments of alcohol dependence (AD). A literature search was performed in multiple electronic bibliographic databases. The search identified seven psychotherapy studies from the USA and two pharmacotherapy studies from Europe. In the psychotherapy studies, major benefits are typically seen within the first six months of treatment. The benefit-cost ratio ranged from 1.89 to 39.0. Treatment with acamprosate was found to accrue a net benefit of 21,301 BEF (528 €) per patient over a 24-month period in Belgium and lifetime benefit for each patient in Spain was estimated to be Pta. 3,914,680 (23,528 €). To date, only a few studies exist that have examined the cost-benefit of psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy treatment of AD. Most of the available treatment options for AD appear to produce marked economic benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3380-3398; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083380
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 7 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in
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Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure), with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Cancer)
Open AccessReview A Review of Centrifugal Testing of Gasoline Contamination and Remediation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3496-3513; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083496
Received: 10 March 2011 / Revised: 1 July 2011 / Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 24 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that
[...] Read more.
Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS) is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Geotechnics)

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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Jia, C. and Batterman, S. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 2903-2939
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3191; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083191
Received: 23 July 2011 / Published: 28 July 2011
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Abstract The authors would like to make the following corrections to their published paper: Full article

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