Next Article in Journal
A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions
Next Article in Special Issue
Cancer Incidence of 2,4-D Production Workers
Previous Article in Journal
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood from Pregnant Hispanic Women Living in Brownsville, Texas
Previous Article in Special Issue
Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Swedish Sterilant Workers Exposed to Ethylene Oxide: Updated Cohort Study Findings 1972–2006
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3380-3398; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083380
Review

Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

* ,
 and
Received: 7 June 2011; in revised form: 7 July 2011 / Accepted: 13 July 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occupational Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [225 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21). These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0) were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure), with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements.
Keywords: dichloromethane; methylene chloride; solvents; cancer; epidemiology dichloromethane; methylene chloride; solvents; cancer; epidemiology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Cooper, G.S.; Scott, C.S.; Bale, A.S. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3380-3398.

AMA Style

Cooper GS, Scott CS, Bale AS. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(8):3380-3398.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cooper, Glinda S.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Bale, Ambuja S. 2011. "Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 8: 3380-3398.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert