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Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians
Núcleo de Nutrição, Laboratório de Bioquímica da Nutrição, Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade de Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro-Asa Norte. CEP 70910-900 Brasília-DF, Brazil
Departamento de Estatística, Universidade de Brasília, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro-Asa Norte. CEP 70910-900 Brasília-DF, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 March 2011; in revised form: 2 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 July 2011 / Published: 3 August 2011
Abstract: Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD), including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult population of the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone interview (n = 1,440). A multivariate analysis was run controlling for socio-behavioural variables, obesity and family antecedents of NCCD. A hierarchical linear regression model and a Poisson regression were used to verify association of type-2 diabetes and coffee intake. The independent variables which remained in the final model, following the hierarchical inclusion levels, were: first level—age and marital status; second level—diabetes and dyslipidaemias in antecedents; third level—cigarette smoking, supplement intake, body mass index; and fourth level—coffee intake (£100 mL/d, 101 to 400 mL/day, and >400 mL/day). After adjusting hierarchically for the confounding variables, consumers of 100 to 400 mL of coffee/day had a 2.7% higher (p = 0.04) prevalence of not having diabetes than those who drank less than 100 mL of coffee/day. Compared to coffee intake of £100 mL/day, adults consuming >400 mL of coffee/day showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus, moderate coffee intake is favourably associated with self-reported type-2 diabetes in the studied population. This is the first study to show a relationship between coffee drinking and diabetes in a Brazilian population.
Keywords: coffee intake; diabetes mellitus; chlorogenic acids; caffeine; body mass index
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MDPI and ACS Style
Machado, L.M.M.; Da Costa, T.H.M.; Da Silva, E.F.; Dórea, J.G. Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3216-3231.
Machado LMM, Da Costa THM, Da Silva EF, Dórea JG. Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(8):3216-3231.
Machado, Liliane M. M.; Da Costa, Teresa H. M.; Da Silva, Eduardo F.; Dórea, José G. 2011. "Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 8: 3216-3231.