E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Environmental Health Risk Assessment"

Quicklinks

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Robert K. D. Peterson (Website)

334 Leon Johnson Hall, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120
Interests: agricultural and biological risk assessment; plant-stress ecophysiology; integrated pest management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Environmental risk assessment has emerged as a powerful, robust science-based framework in which to better understand the risks posed by environmental stressors.  And, through improved understanding of risk, we can improve environmental and public health decisions.   The two main categories of environmental risk assessment, ecological and human-health risk assessment, have seen exciting changes over the past few years with advances in areas such as exposure science, biomonitoring, invasive species, biotechnology, and nanotechnology.  The purpose of this special edition is to highlight the myriad ways in which risk assessment as a research discipline can be used to better understand contemporary environmental issues.

Dr. Robert K. D. Peterson
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • environmental risk assessment
  • ecological risk assessment
  • human-health risk assessment
  • biological risk assessment
  • chemical risk assessment
  • risk analysis
  • exposure science
  • toxicology and ecotoxicology
  • invasive species
  • emerging and re-emerging disease
  • problem formulation
  • hazard identification
  • dose-response relationships

Published Papers (13 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-13
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Environmental Impacts from Pesticide Use: A Case Study of Soil Fumigation in Florida Tomato Production
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(12), 4649-4661; doi:10.3390/ijerph8124649
Received: 12 November 2011 / Revised: 19 November 2011 / Accepted: 23 November 2011 / Published: 14 December 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The search for alternative fumigants has been ongoing since the 1992 Parties of the Montreal Protocol classified methyl bromide as a Class I controlled substance with an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.7 and destined it for phase-out. This paper focuses on [...] Read more.
The search for alternative fumigants has been ongoing since the 1992 Parties of the Montreal Protocol classified methyl bromide as a Class I controlled substance with an ozone depletion potential (ODP) of 0.7 and destined it for phase-out. This paper focuses on the hazards from fumigants proposed as alternatives for pre-plant soil fumigation in tomato production. We use the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) developed by Kovach et al. to estimate the hazards from methyl bromide and the proposed alternative fumigants to workers, consumers, beneficial arthropods, birds, fish, and bees. Our findings indicate that iodomethane 98/2 has the lowest EIQ index value and field use rating, and is the alternative with the lowest relative risk. Among environmental categories, workers and beneficial arthropods experience the highest relative risks from the proposed tomato fumigants, and fish and consumers the least risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Prospective Power Calculations for the Four Lab Study of A Multigenerational Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity Rodent Bioassay Using A Complex Mixture of Disinfection By-Products in the Low-Response Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(10), 4082-4101; doi:10.3390/ijerph8104082
Received: 25 March 2011 / Revised: 21 September 2011 / Accepted: 30 September 2011 / Published: 24 October 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In complex mixture toxicology, there is growing emphasis on testing environmentally representative doses that improve the relevance of results for health risk assessment, but are typically much lower than those used in traditional toxicology studies. Traditional experimental designs with typical sample sizes [...] Read more.
In complex mixture toxicology, there is growing emphasis on testing environmentally representative doses that improve the relevance of results for health risk assessment, but are typically much lower than those used in traditional toxicology studies. Traditional experimental designs with typical sample sizes may have insufficient statistical power to detect effects caused by environmentally relevant doses. Proper study design, with adequate statistical power, is critical to ensuring that experimental results are useful for environmental health risk assessment. Studies with environmentally realistic complex mixtures have practical constraints on sample concentration factor and sample volume as well as the number of animals that can be accommodated. This article describes methodology for calculation of statistical power for non-independent observations for a multigenerational rodent reproductive/developmental bioassay. The use of the methodology is illustrated using the U.S. EPA’s Four Lab study in which rodents were exposed to chlorinated water concentrates containing complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products. Possible experimental designs included two single-block designs and a two-block design. Considering the possible study designs and constraints, a design of two blocks of 100 females with a 40:60 ratio of control:treated animals and a significance level of 0.05 yielded maximum prospective power (~90%) to detect pup weight decreases, while providing the most power to detect increased prenatal loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Vulnerability of Newborns to Environmental Factors: Findings from Community Based Surveillance Data in Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3437-3452; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083437
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 22 August 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infection is the major cause of neonatal deaths. Home born newborns in rural Bangladeshi communities are exposed to environmental factors increasing their vulnerability to a number of disease agents that may compromise their health. The current analysis was conducted to assess the [...] Read more.
Infection is the major cause of neonatal deaths. Home born newborns in rural Bangladeshi communities are exposed to environmental factors increasing their vulnerability to a number of disease agents that may compromise their health. The current analysis was conducted to assess the association of very severe disease (VSD) in newborns in rural communities with temperature, rainfall, and humidity. A total of 12,836 newborns from rural Sylhet and Mirzapur communities were assessed by trained community health workers using a sign based algorithm. Records of temperature, humidity, and rainfall were collected from the nearest meteorological stations. Associations between VSD and environmental factors were estimated. Incidence of VSD was found to be associated with higher temperatures (odds ratios: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.21 in Sylhet and 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.07 in Mirzapur) and heat humidity index (odds ratios: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.08 in Sylhet and, 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.04 in Mirzapur). Four months (June-September) in Sylhet, and six months in Mirzapur (April-September) had higher odds ratios of incidence of VSD as compared to the remainder of the year (odds ratios: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.32 to 2.23 in Sylhet and, 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33 to1.96 in Mirzapur). Prevention of VSD in neonates can be enhanced if these interactions are considered in health intervention strategies.  Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Design and Calibration of an Organic Diffusive Probe to Extend the Diffusion Gradient Technique to Organic Pollutants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3318-3332; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083318
Received: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 11 August 2011 / Published: 15 August 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring the mobility of persistent organic pollutants in the solid phase of soils within the context of environmental pollution risk assessment. A new diffusive probe, purposely designed by adapting the diffusive [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to develop a method for measuring the mobility of persistent organic pollutants in the solid phase of soils within the context of environmental pollution risk assessment. A new diffusive probe, purposely designed by adapting the diffusive gradient technique method, measures labile organic species by immobilizing them after diffusion through a thin deionized water layer. The measure of the mass accumulated is used to calculate the flow of pollutant from solid phase to pore water. Naphthalene was chosen as a model persistent organic pollutant. The probe was calibrated at different temperatures and was then tested in several microcosms at different porosity and reactivities with naphthalene (one clay soil, two sandy soils and one natural soil). The probe response showed good agreement with the expected different abilities of the solid phases in restoring the solution phase. The concentration of naphthalene in the pore water was well buffered by rapid equilibria with the solid phase in the investigated natural soil. In contrast, pore water concentration in the sandy soils decreased rapidly and the flow was slackened, especially for the sandy soil with finer particles. In clay, only a fraction of the total naphthalene content was present in the labile fraction, while the remaining was tightly bound and was not released to the pore water. Therefore, this first stage of testing points out that the diffusive gradient technique, if optimized, can properly quantify the mobility of organic pollutants in soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Fumonisin B1 Toxicity in Grower-Finisher Pigs: A Comparative Analysis of Genetically Engineered Bt Corn and non-Bt Corn by Using Quantitative Dietary Exposure Assessment Modeling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3179-3190; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083179
Received: 11 May 2011 / Revised: 12 July 2011 / Accepted: 15 July 2011 / Published: 28 July 2011
PDF Full-text (322 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the long-term exposure (20 weeks) to fumonisin B1 (FB1) in grower-finisher pigs by conducting a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA). Our analytical approach involved both deterministic and semi-stochastic modeling for dietary comparative analyses of FB [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the long-term exposure (20 weeks) to fumonisin B1 (FB1) in grower-finisher pigs by conducting a quantitative exposure assessment (QEA). Our analytical approach involved both deterministic and semi-stochastic modeling for dietary comparative analyses of FB1 exposures originating from genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-corn, conventional non-Bt corn and distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) derived from Bt and/or non-Bt corn. Results from both deterministic and semi-stochastic demonstrated a distinct difference of FB1 toxicity in feed between Bt corn and non-Bt corn. Semi-stochastic results predicted the lowest FB1 exposure for Bt grain with a mean of 1.5 mg FB1/kg diet and the highest FB1 exposure for a diet consisting of non-Bt grain and non-Bt DDGS with a mean of 7.87 mg FB1/kg diet; the chronic toxicological incipient level of concern is 1.0 mg of FB1/kg of diet. Deterministic results closely mirrored but tended to slightly under predict the mean result for the semi-stochastic analysis. This novel comparative QEA model reveals that diet scenarios where the source of grain is derived from Bt corn presents less potential to induce FB1 toxicity than diets containing non-Bt corn. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Change of Exposure Response over Time and Long-Term Risk of Silicosis among a Cohort of Chinese Pottery Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2923-2936; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072923
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 6 July 2011 / Accepted: 6 July 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of [...] Read more.
An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of 65. The cohort comprised 3,250 employees with a median follow-up duration of around 37 years. Incident cases of silicosis were identified via silicosis registries (Chinese X-ray stage I, similar to International Labor Organisation classification scheme profusion category 1/1). Individual exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was estimated based on over 100,000 historical dust measurements. The association between dust exposure, incidence and long-time risk of silicosis was quantified by Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age and smoking. The risk of silicosis depended not only on the cumulative respirable crystalline silica dust exposures, but also on the time-dependent respirable crystalline silica dust exposure pattern (long-term average concentration, highest annual concentration ever experienced and time since first exposure). A long-term “excess” risk of silicosis of approximately 1.5/1,000 was estimated among workers with all annual respirable crystalline silica dust concentration estimates less than 0.1 mg/m3, using the German measurement strategy. This study indicates the importance of proper consideration of exposure information in risk quantification in epidemiological studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Interactions between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges Using Co-integration Analysis: A Case Study for China’s Hunan Province
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2937-2950; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072937
Received: 30 May 2011 / Revised: 26 June 2011 / Accepted: 27 June 2011 / Published: 14 July 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate [...] Read more.
We have investigated the interactions between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharge from 1978 to 2007 in China's Hunan Province using co-integration theory and an error-correction model. Two main economic growth indicators and four representative industrial wastewater pollutants were selected to demonstrate the interaction mechanism. We found a long-term equilibrium relationship between economic growth and the discharge of industrial pollutants in wastewater between 1978 and 2007 in Hunan Province. The error-correction mechanism prevented the variable expansion for long-term relationship at quantity and scale, and the size of the error-correction parameters reflected short-term adjustments that deviate from the long-term equilibrium. When economic growth changes within a short term, the discharge of pollutants will constrain growth because the values of the parameters in the short-term equation are smaller than those in the long-term co-integrated regression equation, indicating that a remarkable long-term influence of economic growth on the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants and that increasing pollutant discharge constrained economic growth. Economic growth is the main driving factor that affects the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants in Hunan Province. On the other hand, the discharge constrains economic growth by producing external pressure on growth, although this feedback mechanism has a lag effect. Economic growth plays an important role in explaining the predicted decomposition of the variance in the discharge of industrial wastewater pollutants, but this discharge contributes less to predictions of the variations in economic growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Assessing Environmental Risks for Established Invasive Weeds: Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica) and Yellow (L. vulgaris) Toadflax in North America
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(7), 2828-2853; doi:10.3390/ijerph8072828
Received: 6 May 2011 / Revised: 19 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 13 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (588 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental risk assessments characterizing potential environmental impacts of exotic weeds are more abundant and comprehensive for potential or new invaders than for widespread and well-established species such as Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica [L.] Mill.) and yellow (L. vulgaris Mill.) toadflax. Specific [...] Read more.
Environmental risk assessments characterizing potential environmental impacts of exotic weeds are more abundant and comprehensive for potential or new invaders than for widespread and well-established species such as Dalmatian (Linaria dalmatica [L.] Mill.) and yellow (L. vulgaris Mill.) toadflax. Specific effects evaluated in our assessment of environmental risks posed by yellow and Dalmatian toadflax included competitive displacement of other plant species, reservoirs of plant disease, animal and insect use, animal toxicity, human toxicity and allergenicity, erosion, and wildfire. Effect and exposure uncertainties for potential impacts of toadflax on human and ecological receptors were rated. Using publicly available information we were able to characterize ecological and human health impacts associated with toadflax, and to identify specific data gaps contributing to a high uncertainty of risk. Evidence supporting perceived negative environmental impacts of invasive toadflax was scarce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Bystander Exposure to Ultra-Low-Volume Insecticide Applications Used for Adult Mosquito Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(6), 2142-2152; doi:10.3390/ijerph8062142
Received: 26 April 2011 / Revised: 4 June 2011 / Accepted: 9 June 2011 / Published: 14 June 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A popular and effective management option for adult mosquitoes is the use of insecticides applied by ultra-low-volume (ULV) equipment. However, there is a paucity of data on human dermal exposure to insecticides applied by this method. The objective of the current study [...] Read more.
A popular and effective management option for adult mosquitoes is the use of insecticides applied by ultra-low-volume (ULV) equipment. However, there is a paucity of data on human dermal exposure to insecticides applied by this method. The objective of the current study was to estimate dermal exposures to the insecticide active ingredient permethrin using water- (Aqua-Reslin®) and oil-based (Permanone® 30-30) formulations with passive dosimetry. No significant differences in deposition of permethrin were observed between years, distance from the spray source, front or back of the body, or the placement of the patches on the body. However, exposure to Aqua-Reslin was significantly greater than Permanone 30-30 and average concentrations deposited on the body were 4.2 and 2.1 ng/cm2, respectively. The greater deposition of Aqua-Reslin is most likely due to the higher density of the water-based formulation which causes it to settle out faster than the lighter oil-based formulation of Permanone 30-30. The estimated average absorbed dermal exposure for permethrin from Aqua-Reslin and Permanone 30-30 was 0.00009 and 0.00005 mg/kg body weight, respectively. We also found that ground deposition of ULV insecticides can be used as a surrogate for estimating dermal exposure. The estimated exposures support the findings of previous risk assessments that exposure to ULV applications used for mosquito management are below regulatory levels of concern. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Flood Risks in Aging-Dam Management in China: A Framework and Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(5), 1368-1387; doi:10.3390/ijerph8051368
Received: 8 March 2011 / Revised: 15 April 2011 / Accepted: 16 April 2011 / Published: 4 May 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of [...] Read more.
Approximately 30,000 dams in China are aging and are considered to be high-level risks. Developing a framework for analyzing spatial multicriteria flood risk is crucial to ranking management scenarios for these dams, especially in densely populated areas. Based on the theories of spatial multicriteria decision analysis, this report generalizes a framework consisting of scenario definition, problem structuring, criteria construction, spatial quantification of criteria, criteria weighting, decision rules, sensitivity analyses, and scenario appraisal. The framework is presented in detail by using a case study to rank dam rehabilitation, decommissioning and existing-condition scenarios. The results show that there was a serious inundation, and that a dam rehabilitation scenario could reduce the multicriteria flood risk by 0.25 in the most affected areas; this indicates a mean risk decrease of less than 23%. Although increased risk ( Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Respiratory Health Symptoms among Students Exposed to Different Levels of Air Pollution in a Turkish City
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1110-1125; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041110
Received: 11 February 2011 / Revised: 10 March 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 14 April 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11–1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22–2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19–2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Mercury Levels in an Urban Pregnant Population in Durham County, North Carolina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(3), 698-712; doi:10.3390/ijerph8030698
Received: 17 January 2011 / Revised: 11 February 2011 / Accepted: 24 February 2011 / Published: 1 March 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The adverse effects of prenatal mercury exposure, most commonly resulting from maternal fish consumption, have been detected at very low exposure levels. The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, however, have been shown to support fetal brain and vision development. Using data [...] Read more.
The adverse effects of prenatal mercury exposure, most commonly resulting from maternal fish consumption, have been detected at very low exposure levels. The omega-3 fatty acids found in fish, however, have been shown to support fetal brain and vision development. Using data from a prospective, cohort study of pregnant women from an inland area in the US South, we sought to understand the fish consumption habits and associated mercury levels across subpopulations. Over 30% of women had at least 1 µg/L of mercury in their blood, and about 2% had blood mercury levels above the level of concern during pregnancy (≥3.5 µg/L). Mercury levels were higher among Asian/Pacific Islander, older, higher educated, and married women. Fish consumption from any source was reported by 2/3 of the women in our study, with older women more likely to consume fish. Despite eating more fish meals per week, lower income, lower educated women had lower blood mercury levels than higher income, higher educated women. This suggests the different demographic groups consume different types of fish. Encouraging increased fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure requires careful crafting of a complex health message. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(8), 3771-3800; doi:10.3390/ijerph10083771
Received: 14 May 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 20 August 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (285 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH) reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxidation/reduction (redox) and detoxification capacity. Research indicates that the availability of thiols, particularly GSH, can influence the effects of thimerosal (TM) and other mercury (Hg) compounds. TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight) that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines. The purpose of the present critical review is provide mechanistic insight regarding how limited thiol availability, abnormal sulfation chemistry, and decreased GSH reserve capacity in children with an ASD could make them more susceptible to the toxic effects of TM routinely administered as part of mandated childhood immunization schedules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijerph@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH
Back to Top