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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3287-3298; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083287

Perceived Stress Scale: Reliability and Validity Study in Greece

1
Postgraduate Course Stress Management and Health Promotion, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Soranou Ephessiou Str. 4, GR-115-27, Athens, Greece
2
Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 74100, Crete, Greece
3
Technological Educational Institute of Messolonghi, 30200 Messolonghi, Greece
4
1st Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Athens 11527, Greece
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 2 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
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Abstract

Objective: To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14) and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. Methods: 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version), and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity), Cronbach’s alpha (reliability), and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals’ characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha values (0.82 for the full scale) for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69). PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64), depression (r = 0.61), and anxiety (r = 0.54). Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation between the stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. Conclusions: The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted.
Keywords: Perceived Stress Scale; translation; psychometric properties; validation; Greece Perceived Stress Scale; translation; psychometric properties; validation; Greece
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Andreou, E.; Alexopoulos, E.C.; Lionis, C.; Varvogli, L.; Gnardellis, C.; Chrousos, G.P.; Darviri, C. Perceived Stress Scale: Reliability and Validity Study in Greece. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3287-3298.

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