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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3287-3298; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083287
Article

Perceived Stress Scale: Reliability and Validity Study in Greece

1,†
, 1,†,* , 2
, 1
, 3
, 1,4,‡
 and 1,‡
1 Postgraduate Course Stress Management and Health Promotion, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Soranou Ephessiou Str. 4, GR-115-27, Athens, Greece 2 Department of Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion 74100, Crete, Greece 3 Technological Educational Institute of Messolonghi, 30200 Messolonghi, Greece 4 1st Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Athens 11527, Greece These authors contributed equally to this work. These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2011 / Revised: 2 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 11 August 2011
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Abstract

Objective: To translate the Perceived Stress Scale (versions PSS-4, -10 and -14) and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of general Greek population. Methods: 941 individuals completed anonymously questionnaires comprising of PSS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS-21 version), and a list of stress-related symptoms. Psychometric properties of PSS were investigated by confirmatory factor analysis (construct validity), Cronbach’s alpha (reliability), and by investigating relations with the DASS-21 scores and the number of symptoms, across individuals’ characteristics. The two-factor structure of PSS-10 and PSS-14 was confirmed in our analysis. We found satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha values (0.82 for the full scale) for PSS-14 and PSS-10 and marginal satisfactory values for PSS-4 (0.69). PSS score exhibited high correlation coefficients with DASS-21 subscales scores, meaning stress (r = 0.64), depression (r = 0.61), and anxiety (r = 0.54). Women reported significantly more stress compared to men and divorced or widows compared to married or singled only. A strong significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation between the stress score and the number of self-reported symptoms was also noted. Conclusions: The Greek versions of the PSS-14 and PSS-10 exhibited satisfactory psychometric properties and their use for research and health care practice is warranted.
Keywords: Perceived Stress Scale; translation; psychometric properties; validation; Greece Perceived Stress Scale; translation; psychometric properties; validation; Greece
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Andreou, E.; Alexopoulos, E.C.; Lionis, C.; Varvogli, L.; Gnardellis, C.; Chrousos, G.P.; Darviri, C. Perceived Stress Scale: Reliability and Validity Study in Greece. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3287-3298.

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