A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions
AbstractResearch over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena.
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Sussman, S.; Leventhal, A.; Bluthenthal, R.N.; Freimuth, M.; Forster, M.; Ames, S.L. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3399-3415.
Sussman S, Leventhal A, Bluthenthal RN, Freimuth M, Forster M, Ames SL. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(8):3399-3415.Chicago/Turabian Style
Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Freimuth, Marilyn; Forster, Myriam; Ames, Susan L. 2011. "A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 8: 3399-3415.