Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3399-3415; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083399

A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

1 Departments of Preventive Medicine and Psychology, University of Southern California, California 90032, CA, USA 2 Clinical Psychology, Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, California 93105, CA, USA 3 School of Community and Global Health, Claremont Graduate University, Claremont, California 91711,CA, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2011; Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Behavioral Addictions: Co-Occurrence and Specificity)
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Abstract: Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena.
Keywords: addiction specificity; PACE model

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sussman, S.; Leventhal, A.; Bluthenthal, R.N.; Freimuth, M.; Forster, M.; Ames, S.L. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3399-3415.

AMA Style

Sussman S, Leventhal A, Bluthenthal RN, Freimuth M, Forster M, Ames SL. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(8):3399-3415.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Freimuth, Marilyn; Forster, Myriam; Ames, Susan L. 2011. "A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 8: 3399-3415.

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