Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(8), 3399-3415; doi:10.3390/ijerph8083399

A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

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Received: 24 July 2011; Accepted: 5 August 2011 / Published: 18 August 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Substance and Behavioral Addictions: Co-Occurrence and Specificity)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena.
Keywords: addiction specificity; PACE model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sussman, S.; Leventhal, A.; Bluthenthal, R.N.; Freimuth, M.; Forster, M.; Ames, S.L. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3399-3415.

AMA Style

Sussman S, Leventhal A, Bluthenthal RN, Freimuth M, Forster M, Ames SL. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(8):3399-3415.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Freimuth, Marilyn; Forster, Myriam; Ames, Susan L. 2011. "A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 8: 3399-3415.

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