The neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of six starfish polar steroids, asterosaponin Ð 1, (25S)-5Î±-cholestane-3Î²,4Î²,6Î±,7Î±,8,15Î±,16Î²,26-octaol, and (25S)-5Î±-cholestane-3Î²,6Î±,7Î±,8,15Î±,16Î²,26-heptaol (1â3) from the starfish Patiria pectinifera and distolasterosides D1âD3 (4â6)
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The neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of six starfish polar steroids, asterosaponin Р1
)-5α-cholestane-3β,4β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-octaol, and (25S
) from the starfish Patiria pectinifera
and distolasterosides D1
) from the starfish Distolasterias nipon
were analyzed using the mouse neuroblastoma (NB) C-1300 cell line and an organotypic rat hippocampal slice culture (OHSC). All of these compounds enhanced neurite outgrowth in NB cells. Dose-dependent responses to compounds 1
were observed within the concentration range of 10–100 nM, and dose-dependent responses to glycosides 4
were observed at concentrations of 1–50 nM. All the tested substances exhibited notable synergistic effects with trace amounts of nerve growth factor (NGF, 1 ng/mL) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 0.1 ng/mL). Using NB cells and OHSCs, it was shown for the first time that starfish steroids 1
act as neuroprotectors against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) by increasing the number of surviving cells. Altogether, these results suggest that neurotrophin-like neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities are most likely common properties of starfish polyhydroxysteroids and the related glycosides, although the magnitude of the effect depended on the particular compound structure.