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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(5), 1440-1455; doi:10.3390/md11051440
Article

Neuritogenic and Neuroprotective Effects of Polar Steroids from the Far East Starfishes Patiria pectinifera and Distolasterias nipon

1
, 1
, 1
, 2,* , 2
 and 2
1 Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, SB RAMS, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia 2 Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
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Abstract

The neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of six starfish polar steroids, asterosaponin Р1, (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,4β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-octaol, and (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-heptaol (13) from the starfish Patiria pectinifera and distolasterosides D1–D3 (46) from the starfish Distolasterias nipon were analyzed using the mouse neuroblastoma (NB) C-1300 cell line and an organotypic rat hippocampal slice culture (OHSC). All of these compounds enhanced neurite outgrowth in NB cells. Dose-dependent responses to compounds 13 were observed within the concentration range of 10–100 nM, and dose-dependent responses to glycosides 46 were observed at concentrations of 1–50 nM. All the tested substances exhibited notable synergistic effects with trace amounts of nerve growth factor (NGF, 1 ng/mL) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 0.1 ng/mL). Using NB cells and OHSCs, it was shown for the first time that starfish steroids 16 act as neuroprotectors against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) by increasing the number of surviving cells. Altogether, these results suggest that neurotrophin-like neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities are most likely common properties of starfish polyhydroxysteroids and the related glycosides, although the magnitude of the effect depended on the particular compound structure.
Keywords: steroid; starfish; neuroblastoma; organotypic hippocampal slice culture; neuritogenesis; oxygen-glucose deprivation steroid; starfish; neuroblastoma; organotypic hippocampal slice culture; neuritogenesis; oxygen-glucose deprivation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Palyanova, N.V.; Pankova, T.M.; Starostina, M.V.; Kicha, A.A.; Ivanchina, N.V.; Stonik, V.A. Neuritogenic and Neuroprotective Effects of Polar Steroids from the Far East Starfishes Patiria pectinifera and Distolasterias nipon. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1440-1455.

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