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Special Issue "Marine Algae"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Professor Claire Hellio (Website)

President of ESMB; Head of a bioprospection corefacility (Biodimar) at the University of Brest; Course leader for a master in Biotechnology at the University of Brest, Brest, France
Fax: +44 239 284 2070
Interests: new non-toxic antifouling solutions; new biocides; marine natural products; ethnobotany; marine biochemistry
Guest Editor
Dr. Kirsten Heimann (Website)

School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
Fax: +61 7 4725 1570
Interests: ecophysiology and cell biology of marine microalgae

Keywords

  • algal toxins (e.g., caulerpins, saxitoxins, yessotoxins, cooliatoxins, gambiertoxins)
  • antioxidants (detection of activity, purification, mechanisms of action)
  • pigments
  • polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids (omega-3 and 6)
  • natural products from algae

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Spasmolytic Effect of Caulerpine Involves Blockade of Ca2+ Influx on Guinea Pig Ileum
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(5), 1553-1564; doi:10.3390/md11051553
Received: 25 February 2013 / Revised: 16 April 2013 / Accepted: 26 April 2013 / Published: 13 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, we investigated the spasmolytic effect of caulerpine, a bisindole alkaloid isolated from marine algae of the Caulerpa genus, on guinea pig ileum. Our findings indicated that caulerpine inhibited phasic contractions induced by carbachol (IC50 = 7.0 ± 1.9 [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigated the spasmolytic effect of caulerpine, a bisindole alkaloid isolated from marine algae of the Caulerpa genus, on guinea pig ileum. Our findings indicated that caulerpine inhibited phasic contractions induced by carbachol (IC50 = 7.0 ± 1.9 × 10−5 M), histamine (IC50 = 1.3 ± 0.3 × 10−4 M) and serotonin (IC50 = 8.0 ± 1.4 × 10−5 M) in a non-selective manner. Furthermore, caulerpine concentration-dependently inhibited serotonin-induced cumulative contractions (pD′2 = 4.48 ± 0.08), shifting the curves to the right with Emax reduction and slope of 2.44 ± 0.21, suggesting a noncompetitive antagonism pseudo-irreversible. The alkaloid also relaxed the ileum pre-contracted by KCl (EC50 = 9.0 ± 0.9 × 10−5 M) and carbachol (EC50 = 4.6 ± 0.7 × 10−5 M) in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was probably due to inhibition of Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV), since caulerpine slightly inhibited the CaCl2-induced contractions in depolarizing medium without Ca2+, shifting the curves to the right and with Emax reduction. According to these results, the spasmolytic effect of caulerpine on guinea pig ileum seems to involve inhibition of Ca2+ influx through CaV. However, other mechanisms are not discarded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
Open AccessArticle Two New Bromophenols with Radical Scavenging Activity from Marine Red Alga Symphyocladia latiuscula
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(3), 842-847; doi:10.3390/md11030842
Received: 7 December 2012 / Revised: 29 January 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 13 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical investigation of a Chinese collection of marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula yielded two new highly brominated phenols. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, including HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR and MS methods. Compounds 1 and [...] Read more.
Chemical investigation of a Chinese collection of marine red alga Symphyocladia latiuscula yielded two new highly brominated phenols. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, including HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR and MS methods. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for radical scavenging capability by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazuyl (DPPH) radical with the IC50 value of 14.5 and 20.5 μg/mL, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
Open AccessArticle Eleganolone, a Diterpene from the French Marine Alga Bifurcaria bifurcata Inhibits Growth of the Human Pathogens Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(3), 599-610; doi:10.3390/md11030599
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 18 January 2013 / Accepted: 7 February 2013 / Published: 26 February 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (419 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Organic extracts of 20 species of French seaweed have been screened against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense trypomastigotes, the parasite responsible for sleeping sickness. These extracts have previously shown potent antiprotozoal activities in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani. The selectivity of [...] Read more.
Organic extracts of 20 species of French seaweed have been screened against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense trypomastigotes, the parasite responsible for sleeping sickness. These extracts have previously shown potent antiprotozoal activities in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani. The selectivity of the extracts was also evaluated by testing cytotoxicity on a mammalian L6 cell line. The ethyl acetate extract of the brown seaweed, Bifurcaria bifurcata, showed strong trypanocidal activity with a mild selectivity index (IC50 = 0.53 µg/mL; selectivity index (SI) = 11.6). Bio-guided fractionation led to the isolation of eleganolone, the main diterpenoid isolated from this species. Eleganolone contributes only mildly to the trypanocidal activity of the ethyl acetate extract (IC50 = 45.0 µM, SI = 4.0). However, a selective activity against P. falciparum erythrocytic stages in vitro has been highlighted (IC50 = 7.9 µM, SI = 21.6). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle HPN, a Synthetic Analogue of Bromophenol from Red Alga Rhodomela confervoides: Synthesis and Anti-Diabetic Effects in C57BL/KsJ-db/db Mice
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(2), 350-362; doi:10.3390/md11020350
Received: 14 November 2012 / Revised: 16 January 2013 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 30 January 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
3,4-Dibromo-5-(2-bromo-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(isopropoxymethyl)benzyl)benzene-1,2-diol (HPN) is a synthetic analogue of 3,4-dibromo-5-(2-bromo-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(ethoxymethyl)benzyl)benzene-1,2-diol (BPN), which is isolated from marine red alga Rhodomela confervoides with potent protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibition (IC50 = 0.84 μmol/L). The in vitro assay showed that HPN exhibited enhanced inhibitory activity [...] Read more.
3,4-Dibromo-5-(2-bromo-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(isopropoxymethyl)benzyl)benzene-1,2-diol (HPN) is a synthetic analogue of 3,4-dibromo-5-(2-bromo-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(ethoxymethyl)benzyl)benzene-1,2-diol (BPN), which is isolated from marine red alga Rhodomela confervoides with potent protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibition (IC50 = 0.84 μmol/L). The in vitro assay showed that HPN exhibited enhanced inhibitory activity against PTP1B with IC50 0.63 μmol/L and high selectivity against other PTPs (T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), leucocyte antigen-related tyrosine phosphatase (LAR), Src homology 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) and SHP-2). The results of antihyperglycemic activity using db/db mouse model demonstrated that HPN significantly decreased plasma glucose (P < 0.01) after eight weeks treatment period. HPN lowered serum triglycerides and total cholesterol concentration in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, both of the high and medium dose groups of HPN remarkably decreased HbA1c levels (P < 0.05). HPN in the high dose group markedly lowered the insulin level compared to the model group (P < 0.05), whereas the effects were less potent than the positive drug rosiglitazone. Western blotting results showed that HPN decreased PTP1B levels in pancreatic tissue. Last but not least, the results of an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test in Sprague–Dawley rats indicate that HPN have a similar antihyperglycemic activity as rosiglitazone. HPN therefore have potential for development as treatments for Type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
Open AccessArticle Asperolide A, a Marine-Derived Tetranorditerpenoid, Induces G2/M Arrest in Human NCI-H460 Lung Carcinoma Cells, Is Mediated by p53-p21 Stabilization and Modulated by Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(2), 316-331; doi:10.3390/md11020316
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 6 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 29 January 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Here we first demonstrate that asperolide A, a very recently reported marine-derived tetranorditerpenoid, leads to the inhibition of NCI-H460 lung carcinoma cell proliferation by G2/M arrest with the activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling and p53-dependent p21 pathway. Treatment with 35 μM asperolide [...] Read more.
Here we first demonstrate that asperolide A, a very recently reported marine-derived tetranorditerpenoid, leads to the inhibition of NCI-H460 lung carcinoma cell proliferation by G2/M arrest with the activation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling and p53-dependent p21 pathway. Treatment with 35 μM asperolide A (2 × IC50) resulted in a significant increase in the proportion of G2/M phase cells, about a 2.9-fold increase during 48 h. Immunoblot assays demonstrated time-dependent inhibition of G2/M regulatory proteins. Moreover, asperolide A significantly activated MAP kinases (ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinase) by phosphorylation, and only the inhibition of ERK activation by PD98059 reversed downregulation of G2/M regulatory proteins CDC2, and suppressed upregulation of p21 and p-p53 levels. Transfection of cells with dominant-negative Ras (RasN17) mutant genes up-regulated asperolide A-induced the decrease of cyclin B1 and CDC2, suppressed Raf, ERK activity and p53-p21 expression, and at last, abolished G2/M arrest. This study indicates that asperolide A-induced G2/M arrest in human NCI-H460 lung carcinoma cells relys on the participation of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway in p53-p21 stabilization. An in vivo study with asperolide A illustrated a marked inhibition of tumor growth, and little toxcity compared to Cisplatin therapy. Overall, these findings provide potential effectiveness and a theoretical basis for the therapeutic use of asperolide A in the treatment of malignancies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
Open AccessArticle Quorum Sensing Inhibition by Asparagopsis taxiformis, a Marine Macro Alga: Separation of the Compound that Interrupts Bacterial Communication
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(1), 253-265; doi:10.3390/md11010253
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 26 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 23 January 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The majority of the marine algal species, though completing their life cycle in seawater, are rarely susceptible to fouling, making them an important source of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory substances. The separation and characterization of QS inhibitors are crucial for any potential [...] Read more.
The majority of the marine algal species, though completing their life cycle in seawater, are rarely susceptible to fouling, making them an important source of quorum sensing (QS) inhibitory substances. The separation and characterization of QS inhibitors are crucial for any potential application. Thirty marine macroalgae were tested for QS inhibition activity by using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the reporter strain, and among them, Asparagopsis taxiformis showed antibacterial, as well as antiquorum, sensing activities. Cinnamaldehyde (75 mM) and methanol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antiquorum sensing activity of A. taxiformis was further confirmed using the sensor strain, Serratia liquefaciens MG44, having green fluorescent protein (gfp). Methanolic extract of the alga was fractionated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and each fraction was tested for QS inhibition. Two types of activities were observed—zone of clearance (antibacterial activity) and zone of inhibition with or without finger-like projections (QS inhibition). Out of five SPE cartridges, Bond Elut PH showed clear separation of these two fractions. The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Fourier Transformation Mass Spectrometer (ICR-FT/MS) analysis of the fractions further supported the bioassay results. The presence of strong QS inhibitory compound in A. taxiformis indicates its potential use in antifouling preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Proteomic Analysis Reveals Proteins Putatively Involved in Toxin Biosynthesis in the Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(1), 213-232; doi:10.3390/md11010213
Received: 7 November 2012 / Revised: 27 December 2012 / Accepted: 21 January 2013 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Alexandrium is a neurotoxin-producing dinoflagellate genus resulting in paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. However, little is known about the toxin biosynthesis mechanism in Alexandrium. This study compared protein profiles of A. catenella collected at different toxin biosynthesis stages (non-toxin synthesis, [...] Read more.
Alexandrium is a neurotoxin-producing dinoflagellate genus resulting in paralytic shellfish poisonings around the world. However, little is known about the toxin biosynthesis mechanism in Alexandrium. This study compared protein profiles of A. catenella collected at different toxin biosynthesis stages (non-toxin synthesis, initial toxin synthesis and toxin synthesizing) coupled with the cell cycle, and identified differentially expressed proteins using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that toxin biosynthesis of A. catenella occurred within a defined time frame in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Proteomic analysis indicated that 102 protein spots altered significantly in abundance (P < 0.05), and 53 proteins were identified using database searching. These proteins were involved in a variety of biological processes, i.e., protein modification and biosynthesis, metabolism, cell division, oxidative stress, transport, signal transduction, and translation. Among them, nine proteins with known functions in paralytic shellfish toxin-producing cyanobacteria, i.e., methionine S-adenosyltransferase, chloroplast ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase, S-adenosylhomocysteinase, adenosylhomocysteinase, ornithine carbamoyltransferase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, sulfotransferase (similar to), alcohol dehydrogenase and arginine deiminase, varied significantly at different toxin biosynthesis stages and formed an interaction network, indicating that they might be involved in toxin biosynthesis in A. catenella. This study is the first step in the dissection of the behavior of the A. catenella proteome during different toxin biosynthesis stages and provides new insights into toxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Structural Determination of Two Novel Phlorotannins from the Brown Alga Ecklonia kurome Okamura, and Their Radical Scavenging Activities
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(1), 165-183; doi:10.3390/md11010165
Received: 12 November 2012 / Revised: 11 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Two novel phlorotannins with a molecular weight of 974, temporarily named 974-A and 974-B, were isolated from the polyphenol powder prepared from the edible marine brown alga Ecklonia kurome Okamura, and their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic method. The [...] Read more.
Two novel phlorotannins with a molecular weight of 974, temporarily named 974-A and 974-B, were isolated from the polyphenol powder prepared from the edible marine brown alga Ecklonia kurome Okamura, and their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic method. The isolated yield of the total of 974-A and 974-B was approximately 4% (w/w) from the polyphenol powder. In 974-A, the carbon at the C2′ position in the A ring of phlorofucofuroeckol-A forms a C–C bond with the carbon at the C2″ position of the C ring of triphloretol-B, while in 974-B, phlorofucofuroeckol-B and triphloretol-B form a C–C bond in the same manner as in 974-A. These structures were supported by high resolution-MS/MS data. To evaluate the antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and intracellular radical scavenging assay, using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), were performed for 974-A, 974-B, and four known phlorotannins. The results of the DPPH assay showed that the IC50 values of 974-A, 974-B, phlorofucofuroeckol-A, and dieckol were significantly smaller than those of phlorofucofuroeckol-B, phloroglucinol, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the DCFH-DA assay suggested that 974-A, 974-B, and dieckol reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species most strongly among the tested compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional and Chemical Composition and Antiviral Activity of Cultivated Seaweed Sargassum naozhouense Tseng et Lu
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(1), 20-32; doi:10.3390/md11010020
Received: 29 October 2012 / Revised: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 27 December 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (425 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sargassum naozhouense is a brown seaweed used in folk medicine and applied for thousands of years in Zhanjiang, Guangdong province, China. This study is the first time to investigate its chemical composition and antiviral activity. On the dry weight basis, this seaweed [...] Read more.
Sargassum naozhouense is a brown seaweed used in folk medicine and applied for thousands of years in Zhanjiang, Guangdong province, China. This study is the first time to investigate its chemical composition and antiviral activity. On the dry weight basis, this seaweed was constituted of ca. 35.18% ash, 11.20% protein, 1.06% lipid and 47.73% total carbohydrate, and the main carbohydrate was water-soluble polysaccharide. The protein analysis indicated the presence of essential amino acids, which accounted for 36.35% of the protein. The most abundant fatty acids were C14:0, C16:0, C18:1 and C20:4. The ash fraction analysis indicated that essential minerals and trace elements, such as Fe, Zn and Cu, were present in the seaweed. IR analysis revealed that polysaccharides from cultivated S. naozhouense may be alginates and fucoidan. The polysaccharides possessed strong antiviral activity against HSV-1 in vitro with EC50 of 8.92 μg/mL. These results demonstrated cultivated S. naozhouense has a potential for its use in functional foods and antiviral new drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
Open AccessArticle Diversity of Peptides Produced by Nodularia spumigena from Various Geographical Regions
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(1), 1-19; doi:10.3390/md11010001
Received: 12 October 2012 / Revised: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cyanobacteria produce a great variety of non-ribosomal peptides. Among these compounds, both acute toxins and potential drug candidates have been reported. The profile of the peptides, as a stable and specific feature of an individual strain, can be used to discriminate cyanobacteria [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria produce a great variety of non-ribosomal peptides. Among these compounds, both acute toxins and potential drug candidates have been reported. The profile of the peptides, as a stable and specific feature of an individual strain, can be used to discriminate cyanobacteria at sub-population levels. In our work, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to elucidate the structures of non-ribosomal peptides produced by Nodularia spumigena from the Baltic Sea, the coastal waters of southern Australia and Lake Iznik in Turkey. In addition to known structures, 9 new congeners of spumigins, 4 aeruginosins and 12 anabaenopeptins (nodulapeptins) were identified. The production of aeruginosins by N. spumigena was revealed in this work for the first time. The isolates from the Baltic Sea appeared to be the richest source of the peptides; they also showed a higher diversity in peptide profiles. The Australian strains were characterized by similar peptide patterns, but distinct from those represented by the Baltic and Lake Iznik isolates. The results obtained with the application of the peptidomic approach were consistent with the published data on the genetic diversity of the Baltic and Australian populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle An Ethanol Extract Derived from Bonnemaisonia hamifera Scavenges Ultraviolet B (UVB) Radiation-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species and Attenuates UVB-Induced Cell Damage in Human Keratinocytes
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(12), 2826-2845; doi:10.3390/md10122826
Received: 29 October 2012 / Revised: 30 November 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 14 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of an ethanol extract derived from the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cell damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. The Bonnemaisonia hamifera ethanol extract (BHE) scavenged the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of an ethanol extract derived from the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cell damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. The Bonnemaisonia hamifera ethanol extract (BHE) scavenged the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and the hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO4 + H2O2), both of which were detected by using electron spin resonance spectrometry. In addition, BHE exhibited scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were induced by either hydrogen peroxide or UVB radiation. BHE reduced UVB-induced apoptosis, as shown by decreased apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. BHE also attenuated DNA damage and the elevated levels of 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyls resulting from UVB-mediated oxidative stress. Furthermore, BHE absorbed electromagnetic radiation in the UVB range (280–320 nm). These results suggest that BHE protects human HaCaT keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative damage by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB photons, thereby reducing injury to cellular components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
Open AccessArticle Promoter Trapping in Microalgae Using the Antibiotic Paromomycin as Selective Agent
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(12), 2749-2765; doi:10.3390/md10122749
Received: 11 September 2012 / Revised: 12 October 2012 / Accepted: 15 November 2012 / Published: 4 December 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (711 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lack of highly active endogenous promoters to drive the expression of transgenes is one of the main drawbacks to achieving efficient transformation of many microalgal species. Using the model chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the paromomycin resistance APHVIII gene from Streptomyces rimosus [...] Read more.
The lack of highly active endogenous promoters to drive the expression of transgenes is one of the main drawbacks to achieving efficient transformation of many microalgal species. Using the model chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the paromomycin resistance APHVIII gene from Streptomyces rimosus as a marker, we have demonstrated that random insertion of the promoterless marker gene and subsequent isolation of the most robust transformants allows for the identification of novel strong promoter sequences in microalgae. Digestion of the genomic DNA with an enzyme that has a unique restriction site inside the marker gene and a high number of target sites in the genome of the microalga, followed by inverse PCR, allows for easy determination of the genomic region, which precedes the APHVIII marker gene. In most of the transformants analyzed, the marker gene is inserted in intragenic regions and its expression relies on its adequate insertion in frame with native genes. As an example, one of the new promoters identified was used to direct the expression of the APHVIII marker gene in C. reinhardtii, showing high transformation efficiencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
Open AccessArticle Adjuvant Activity of Sargassum pallidum Polysaccharides against Combined Newcastle Disease, Infectious Bronchitis and Avian Influenza Inactivated Vaccines
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(12), 2648-2660; doi:10.3390/md10122648
Received: 28 August 2012 / Revised: 7 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 November 2012 / Published: 22 November 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP) on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB) and avian influenza (AI) was investigated by examining the antibody titers [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the effects of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides (SPP) on the immune responses in a chicken model. The adjuvanticity of Sargassum pallidum polysaccharides in Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB) and avian influenza (AI) was investigated by examining the antibody titers and lymphocyte proliferation following immunization in chickens. The chickens were administrated combined ND, IB and AI inactivated vaccines containing SPP at 10, 30 and 50 mg/mL, using an oil adjuvant vaccine as a control. The ND, IB and AI antibody titers and the lymphocyte proliferation were enhanced at 30 mg/mL SPP. In conclusion, an appropriate dose of SPP may be a safe and efficacious immune stimulator candidate that is suitable for vaccines to produce early and persistent prophylaxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Bacteriocinogenic Potential of Marine Bacteria Reveals Lichenicidin Production by Seaweed-Derived Bacillus spp.
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(10), 2280-2299; doi:10.3390/md10102280
Received: 26 July 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 October 2012 / Published: 19 October 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (605 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2) to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3) to determine if they are [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2) to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3) to determine if they are unique to the marine environment and/or novel. Fifteen Bacillus licheniformis or pumilus isolates with antimicrobial activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria used were recovered. Some, at least, of the antimicrobials produced were bacteriocins, as they were proteinaceous and the producers displayed immunity. Screening with PCR primers for known Bacillus bacteriocins revealed that three seaweed-derived Bacillus licheniformis harbored the bli04127 gene which encodes one of the peptides of the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin. Production of both lichenicidin peptides was then confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the first definitive proof of bacteriocin production by seaweed-derived bacteria. The authors acknowledge that the bacteriocin produced has previously been discovered and is not unique to the marine environment. However, the other marine isolates likely produce novel bacteriocins, as none harboured genes for known Bacillus bacteriocins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
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Open AccessArticle Trypanocidal Action of (−)-Elatol Involves an Oxidative Stress Triggered by Mitochondria Dysfunction
Mar. Drugs 2012, 10(8), 1631-1646; doi:10.3390/md10081631
Received: 22 June 2012 / Revised: 8 July 2012 / Accepted: 27 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (10059 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural compounds have shown good potential for the discovery of new chemotherapeutics for the treatment of Chagas’ disease. Recently, our group reported the effective trypanocidal activity of (−)-elatol, extracted from the red macroalgae Laurencia dendroidea present in the Brazilian coast against Trypanosoma [...] Read more.
Natural compounds have shown good potential for the discovery of new chemotherapeutics for the treatment of Chagas’ disease. Recently, our group reported the effective trypanocidal activity of (−)-elatol, extracted from the red macroalgae Laurencia dendroidea present in the Brazilian coast against Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the mechanism of action of this compound has remained unclear. There are only hypotheses concerning its action on mitochondrial function. Here, we further investigated the mechanisms of action of (−)-elatol on trypomastigotes of T. cruzi. For this, we evaluated some biochemical alterations in trypomastigotes treated with (−)-elatol. Our results show that (−)-elatol induced depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, an increase in the formation of mitochondrial superoxide anion and loss of cell membrane and DNA integrity. Additionally, (−)-elatol induced formation of autophagic vacuoles and a decrease in cell volume. All together, these results suggest that the trypanocidal action of (−)-elatol involves multiple events and mitochondria might be the initial target organelle. Our hypothesis is that the mitochondrial dysfunction leads to an increase of ROS production through the electron transport chain, which affects cell membrane and DNA integrity leading to different types of parasite death. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Beneficial Effects of Marine Algal Compounds in Cosmeceuticals
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(1), 146-164; doi:10.3390/md11010146
Received: 18 September 2012 / Revised: 19 October 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 14 January 2013
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (844 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The name “cosmeceuticals” is derived from “cosmetics and pharmaceuticals”, indicating that a specific product contains active ingredients. Marine algae have gained much importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their rich bioactive compounds. In the present review, marine algal compounds (phlorotannins, sulfated [...] Read more.
The name “cosmeceuticals” is derived from “cosmetics and pharmaceuticals”, indicating that a specific product contains active ingredients. Marine algae have gained much importance in cosmeceutical product development due to their rich bioactive compounds. In the present review, marine algal compounds (phlorotannins, sulfated polysaccharides and tyrosinase inhibitors) have been discussed toward cosmeceutical application. In addition, atopic dermatitis and the possible role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in skin-related diseases have been explored extensively for cosmeceutical products. The proper development of marine algae compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and in the development of the cosmeceutical industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Algae)
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marinedrugs@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
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