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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(5), 1583-1601; doi:10.3390/md11051583

Influence of Environmental Factors on the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Content and Profile of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) Isolated from the Mediterranean Sea

1,* , 1
1 Université Montpellier 2, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Montpellier 1, IFREMER, IRD, UMR 5119 "Ecologie des Systèmes Marins Côtiers", Place E. Bataillon, CC093, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France 2 Laboratoire Environnement Ressources Languedoc-Roussillon Ifremer, B.P. 171, 34203 Sète, France 3 IFREMER, Phycotoxins Laboratory, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu BP 21105 44311 Nantes CEDEX 3, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 March 2013 / Revised: 27 March 2013 / Accepted: 28 March 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Neurotoxins)
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Laboratory experiments were designed to study the toxin content and profile of the Alexandrium catenella strain ACT03 (isolated from Thau Lagoon, French Mediterranean) in response to abiotic environmental factors under nutrient-replete conditions. This dinoflagellate can produce various paralytic shellfish toxins with concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 50.3 fmol/cell. The toxin profile was characterized by carbamate toxins (GTX3, GTX4 and GTX5) and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins (C1, C2, C3 and C4). C2 dominated at 12–18 °C, but only for salinities ranging from 10 to 25 psu, whereas GTX5 became dominant at temperatures ranging from 21 to 30 °C at almost all salinities. There was no significant variation in the cellular toxin amount from 18 °C to 27 °C for salinities ranging between 30 and 40 psu. At salinities of 10 to 25 psu, the toxin concentrations always remained below 20 fmol/cell. Toxin content was stable for irradiance ranging from 10 to 70 μmol photons/m2/s then slightly increased. Overall, the toxin profile was more stable than the toxin content (fmol/cell), except for temperature and/or salinity values different from those recorded during Alexandrium blooms in Thau Lagoon.
Keywords: Alexandrium catenella; PSP toxins; temperature; salinity; light Alexandrium catenella; PSP toxins; temperature; salinity; light
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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Laabir, M.; Collos, Y.; Masseret, E.; Grzebyk, D.; Abadie, E.; Savar, V.; Sibat, M.; Amzil, Z. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Content and Profile of Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae) Isolated from the Mediterranean Sea. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1583-1601.

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