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Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(5), 1644-1655; doi:10.3390/md11051644
Article

Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis

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Received: 29 March 2013; in revised form: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
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Abstract: Astaxanthin is a novel carotenoid nutraceutical occurring in many crustaceans and red yeasts. It has exhibited various biological activities including prevention or amelioration of cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction was developed for the effective extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Some parameters such as extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 48.0% ethanol in ethyl acetate, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 20:1 (mL/g), and extraction for 16.0 min at 41.1 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of astaxanthin was 27.58 ± 0.40 mg/g. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of Haematococcus pluvialis, which also indicated that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting astaxanthin from marine life.
Keywords: ultrasound-assisted extraction; astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; response surface methodology ultrasound-assisted extraction; astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; response surface methodology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zou, T.-B.; Jia, Q.; Li, H.-W.; Wang, C.-X.; Wu, H.-F. Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1644-1655.

AMA Style

Zou T-B, Jia Q, Li H-W, Wang C-X, Wu H-F. Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(5):1644-1655.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zou, Tang-Bin; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen; Wang, Chang-Xiu; Wu, Hong-Fu. 2013. "Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 5: 1644-1655.


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