Abstract: Astaxanthin is a novel carotenoid nutraceutical occurring in many crustaceans and red yeasts. It has exhibited various biological activities including prevention or amelioration of cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction was developed for the effective extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Some parameters such as extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 48.0% ethanol in ethyl acetate, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 20:1 (mL/g), and extraction for 16.0 min at 41.1 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of astaxanthin was 27.58 ± 0.40 mg/g. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of Haematococcus pluvialis, which also indicated that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting astaxanthin from marine life.
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Zou, T.-B.; Jia, Q.; Li, H.-W.; Wang, C.-X.; Wu, H.-F. Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1644-1655.
Zou T-B, Jia Q, Li H-W, Wang C-X, Wu H-F. Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(5):1644-1655.
Zou, Tang-Bin; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen; Wang, Chang-Xiu; Wu, Hong-Fu. 2013. "Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 5: 1644-1655.