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Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, China
Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangdong Medical College, Dongguan 523808, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2013; in revised form: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Abstract: Astaxanthin is a novel carotenoid nutraceutical occurring in many crustaceans and red yeasts. It has exhibited various biological activities including prevention or amelioration of cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction was developed for the effective extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Some parameters such as extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 48.0% ethanol in ethyl acetate, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 20:1 (mL/g), and extraction for 16.0 min at 41.1 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of astaxanthin was 27.58 ± 0.40 mg/g. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of Haematococcus pluvialis, which also indicated that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting astaxanthin from marine life.
Keywords: ultrasound-assisted extraction; astaxanthin; Haematococcus pluvialis; response surface methodology
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MDPI and ACS Style
Zou, T.-B.; Jia, Q.; Li, H.-W.; Wang, C.-X.; Wu, H.-F. Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 1644-1655.
Zou T-B, Jia Q, Li H-W, Wang C-X, Wu H-F. Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(5):1644-1655.
Zou, Tang-Bin; Jia, Qing; Li, Hua-Wen; Wang, Chang-Xiu; Wu, Hong-Fu. 2013. "Response Surface Methodology for Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 5: 1644-1655.