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Mar. Drugs, Volume 11, Issue 11 (November 2013), Pages 4127-4697

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Open AccessReview Pathways of Lipid Metabolism in Marine Algae, Co-Expression Network, Bottlenecks and Candidate Genes for Enhanced Production of EPA and DHA in Species of Chromista
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4662-4697; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114662
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 5 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (1275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The importance of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) for human health has received more focus the last decades, and the global consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA has increased. Seafood, the natural n-3 LC-PUFA source, is harvested beyond a sustainable
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The importance of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) for human health has received more focus the last decades, and the global consumption of n-3 LC-PUFA has increased. Seafood, the natural n-3 LC-PUFA source, is harvested beyond a sustainable capacity, and it is therefore imperative to develop alternative n-3 LC-PUFA sources for both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3). Genera of algae such as Nannochloropsis, Schizochytrium, Isochrysis and Phaedactylum within the kingdom Chromista have received attention due to their ability to produce n-3 LC-PUFAs. Knowledge of LC-PUFA synthesis and its regulation in algae at the molecular level is fragmentary and represents a bottleneck for attempts to enhance the n-3 LC-PUFA levels for industrial production. In the present review, Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been used to exemplify the synthesis and compartmentalization of n-3 LC-PUFAs. Based on recent transcriptome data a co-expression network of 106 genes involved in lipid metabolism has been created. Together with recent molecular biological and metabolic studies, a model pathway for n-3 LC-PUFA synthesis in P. tricornutum has been proposed, and is compared to industrialized species of Chromista. Limitations of the n-3 LC-PUFA synthesis by enzymes such as thioesterases, elongases, acyl-CoA synthetases and acyltransferases are discussed and metabolic bottlenecks are hypothesized such as the supply of the acetyl-CoA and NADPH. A future industrialization will depend on optimization of chemical compositions and increased biomass production, which can be achieved by exploitation of the physiological potential, by selective breeding and by genetic engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of Collagen and Antioxidant Collagen Peptides from Scales of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4641-4661; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114641
Received: 28 August 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (521 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Acid soluble collagen (ASC) from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C) was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis), and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of
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Acid soluble collagen (ASC) from scales of croceine croaker (ASC-C) was successfully isolated with the yield of 0.37% ± 0.08% (dry weight basis), and characterized as type I collagen on the basis of amino acid analysis and electrophoretic pattern. The antioxidant hydrolysate of ASC-C (ACH) was prepared through a two-stage in vitro digestion (4-h trypsin followed by 4-h pepsin), and three antioxidant peptides (ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3) were further isolated from ACH using ultrafiltration, gel chromatography, and RP-HPLC, and their amino acid sequences were identified as GFRGTIGLVG (ACH-P1), GPAGPAG (ACH-P2), and GFPSG (ACH-P3). ACH-P1, ACH-P2, and ACH-P3 showed good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radical (IC50 0.293, 0.240, and 0.107 mg/mL, respectively), DPPH radical (IC50 1.271, 0.675, and 0.283 mg/mL, respectively), superoxide radical (IC50 0.463, 0.099, and 0.151 mg/mL, respectively), and ABTS radical (IC50 0.421, 0.309, and 0.210 mg/mL, respectively). ACH-P3 was also effectively against lipid peroxidation in the model system. The antioxidant activities of three collagen peptides were due to the presence of hydrophobic amino acid residues within the peptide sequences. The collagen peptides might be used as antioxidant for the therapy of diseases associated with oxidative stress, or reducing oxidative changes during storage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antiviral Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) from the Brazilian Brown Seaweed Sargassum vulgare
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4628-4640; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114628
Received: 17 September 2013 / Revised: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v) at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel
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Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v) at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and methanol. The fraction eluted with methanol, presented a strong orcinol-positive band characteristic of the presence of sulfatides when examined by TLC. This fraction was then purified by two successive silica gel column chromatography giving rise to fractions F4I86 and F4II90 that exhibited strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. The chemical structures present in both fractions were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis HSQC fingerprints based on their tandem–MS behavior as Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs). The main SQDG present in both fractions and responsible for the anti-herpes activity observed was identified as 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
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Open AccessArticle Simultaneous Extraction and Depolymerization of Fucoidan from Sargassum muticum in Aqueous Media
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4612-4627; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114612
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biomass components of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum were fractionated to allow their separate valorization. S. muticum (Sm) and the solid residue remaining after alginate extraction of this seaweed (AESm) were processed with hot, compressed water (hydrothermal processing) to assess the effects
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The biomass components of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum were fractionated to allow their separate valorization. S. muticum (Sm) and the solid residue remaining after alginate extraction of this seaweed (AESm) were processed with hot, compressed water (hydrothermal processing) to assess the effects of temperature on fucoidan solubilization. Fucose-containing oligosaccharides were identified as reaction products. Operating under optimal conditions (170 °C), up to 62 and 85 wt% of the dry mass of Sm and AESm were solubilized, respectively. The reaction media were subjected to precipitation, nanofiltration and freeze-drying. The dried products contained 50% and 85% of the fucoidan present in Sm and AESm, respectively; together with other components such as phenolics and inorganic components. The saccharidic fraction, accounting for up to 35% of the dried extracts, contained fucose as the main sugar, and also galactose, xylose, glucose and mannose. The concentrates were characterized for antioxidant activity using the TEAC assay. Full article
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Open AccessReview Bioprospecting Marine Plankton
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4594-4611; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114594
Received: 10 July 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from
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The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Plankton)
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Open AccessArticle Discovery of New Eunicellin-Based Diterpenoids from a Formosan Soft Coral Cladiella sp.
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4585-4593; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114585
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 17 October 2013 / Accepted: 31 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new eunicellin diterpenoid, cladieunicellin I (1), and a new natural eunicellin, litophynin I diacetate (2), were isolated from a Formosan soft coral identified as Cladiella sp. The structures of eunicellins 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods
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A new eunicellin diterpenoid, cladieunicellin I (1), and a new natural eunicellin, litophynin I diacetate (2), were isolated from a Formosan soft coral identified as Cladiella sp. The structures of eunicellins 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison of the spectral data with those of related analogues. Eunicellin 1 exhibited significant cytotoxicity toward the DLD-1 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Ophiobolin-O Reverses Adriamycin Resistance via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Sensitization in Adriamycin-Resistant Human Breast Carcinoma (MCF-7/ADR) Cells
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4570-4584; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114570
Received: 30 August 2013 / Revised: 20 October 2013 / Accepted: 24 October 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multidrug-resistance is a major obstacle facing cancer chemotherapy. This paper demonstrates that novel compound Ophiobolin-O reverses MCF-7/ADR resistance to adriamycin (ADM). The IC50 of ADM treated MCF-7 cells was 2.02 ± 0.05 µM and 74.00 ± 0.18 µM treated MCF-7/ADR cells, about
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Multidrug-resistance is a major obstacle facing cancer chemotherapy. This paper demonstrates that novel compound Ophiobolin-O reverses MCF-7/ADR resistance to adriamycin (ADM). The IC50 of ADM treated MCF-7 cells was 2.02 ± 0.05 µM and 74.00 ± 0.18 µM treated MCF-7/ADR cells, about 37-fold, compared to the former. However, 0.1 µM Ophiobolin-O (less than 20% inhibition concentration) combined with ADM caused the decreased IC50 of ADM to 6.67 ± 0.98 µM, indicating it reversed ADM resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells (11-fold). Furthermore, Ophiobolin-O increased ADM-induced mitochondrial pathway apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest, which is partly due to the elevation level of ROS in MCF-7/ADR cells. As we described in this paper, the reversal effect of Ophiobolin-O may be due to the reduction of resistance-related protein P-Glycoprotein (P-gp, also known as MDR1) through inhibiting the activity of the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene promoter, which makes MCF-7/ADR cells more sensitive to ADM treatment. Assays in nude mice also showed that the combination of ADM and Ophiobolin-O significantly improved the effect of ADM. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improvement of Neutral Lipid and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis by Overexpressing a Type 2 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4558-4569; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114558
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 67 | PDF Full-text (969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microalgae have been emerging as an important source for the production of bioactive compounds. Marine diatoms can store high amounts of lipid and grow quite quickly. However, the genetic and biochemical characteristics of fatty acid biosynthesis in diatoms remain unclear. Glycerophospholipids are integral
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Microalgae have been emerging as an important source for the production of bioactive compounds. Marine diatoms can store high amounts of lipid and grow quite quickly. However, the genetic and biochemical characteristics of fatty acid biosynthesis in diatoms remain unclear. Glycerophospholipids are integral as structural and functional components of cellular membranes, as well as precursors of various lipid mediators. In addition, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the last step of triacylglyceride (TAG) biosynthesis. However, a comprehensive sequence-structure and functional analysis of DGAT in diatoms is lacking. In this study, an isoform of diacylglycerol acyltransferase type 2 of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was characterized. Surprisingly, DGAT2 overexpression in P. tricornutum stimulated more oil bodies, and the neutral lipid content increased by 35%. The fatty acid composition showed a significant increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids; in particular, EPA was increased by 76.2%. Moreover, the growth rate of transgenic microalgae remained similar, thereby maintaining a high biomass. Our results suggest that increased DGAT2 expression could alter fatty acid profile in the diatom, and the results thus represent a valuable strategy for polyunsaturated fatty acid production by genetic manipulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activity of Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4544-4557; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114544
Received: 24 September 2013 / Revised: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (593 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections
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New compounds are needed to treat acne and superficial infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus due to the reduced effectiveness of agents used at present. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are attracting attention as potential new topical treatments for Gram-positive infections due to their antimicrobial potency and anti-inflammatory properties. This present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effects of six LC-PUFAs against P. acnes and S. aureus to evaluate their potential to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined against P. acnes and S. aureus, and the LC-PUFAs were found to inhibit bacterial growth at 32–1024 mg/L. Generally, P. acnes was more susceptible to the growth inhibitory actions of LC-PUFAs, but these compounds were bactericidal only for S. aureus. This is the first report of antibacterial activity attributed to 15-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (15-OHEPA) and 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (HETrE), while the anti-P. acnes effects of the six LC-PUFAs used herein are novel observations. During exposure to the LC-PUFAs, S. aureus cells were killed within 15–30 min. Checkerboard assays demonstrated that the LC-PUFAs did not antagonise the antimicrobial potency of clinical agents used presently against P. acnes and S. aureus. However, importantly, synergistic interactions against S. aureus were detected for combinations of benzoyl peroxide with 15-OHEPA, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA) and HETrE; and neomycin with 15-OHEPA, DGLA, eicosapentaenoic acid, γ-linolenic acid and HETrE. In conclusion, LC-PUFAs warrant further evaluation as possible new agents to treat skin infections caused by P. acnes and S. aureus, especially in synergistic combinations with antimicrobial agents already used clinically. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2013)
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Open AccessArticle Design and Synthesis of Pro-Apoptotic Compounds Inspired by Diatom Oxylipins
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4527-4543; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114527
Received: 5 September 2013 / Revised: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 1 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (614 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxylipins are a large and diverse family of fatty acid derivatives exhibiting different levels of oxidation of the carbon chain. They are involved in many biological functions in mammals, plants and diatoms. In this last group of organisms, they are suggested to play
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Oxylipins are a large and diverse family of fatty acid derivatives exhibiting different levels of oxidation of the carbon chain. They are involved in many biological functions in mammals, plants and diatoms. In this last group of organisms, they are suggested to play a role in the reproductive failure of copepod predators, showing clear pro-apoptotic effects on newborn nauplii. In this work, these compounds were tested for the ability to induce mitotic arrest in sea urchin embryos. We show for the first time that oxylipins have an increased efficacy in their corresponding methylated form. Natural oxylipins were also used as an inspiration for the rational design and synthesis of stable chemical analogs with apoptotic activity against tumor cell lines. This approach led to the synthesis of the linear C15-ketol (22) that was shown to induce apoptosis in human leukemia U-937 cells. These results are proof of the concept of the use of eco-physiological considerations as a platform to guide the search for novel drug candidates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Penicillinolide A: A New Anti-Inflammatory Metabolite from the Marine Fungus Penicillium sp. SF-5292
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4510-4526; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114510
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 30 October 2013 / Accepted: 31 October 2013 / Published: 12 November 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In the course of studies on bioactive metabolites from marine fungi, a new 10-membered lactone, named penicillinolide A (1) was isolated from the organic extract of Penicillium sp. SF-5292 as a potential anti-inflammatory compound. The structure of penicillinolide A (1
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In the course of studies on bioactive metabolites from marine fungi, a new 10-membered lactone, named penicillinolide A (1) was isolated from the organic extract of Penicillium sp. SF-5292 as a potential anti-inflammatory compound. The structure of penicillinolide A (1) was mainly determined by analysis of NMR and MS data and Mosher’s method. Penicillinolide A (1) inhibited the production of NO and PGE2 due to inhibition of the expression of iNOS and COX-2. Penicillinolide A (1) also reduced TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production, and these anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be correlated with the suppression of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In addition, using inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), a competitive inhibitor of HO activity, it was verified that the inhibitory effects of compound 1 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and NF-κB DNA binding activity were partially associated with HO-1 expression through Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Derivatives of Salarin A, Salarin C and Tulearin A—Fascaplysinopsis sp. Metabolites
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4487-4509; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114487
Received: 30 August 2013 / Revised: 26 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1016 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Derivatives of salarin A, salarin C and tulearin A, three new cytotoxic sponge derived nitrogenous macrolides, were prepared and bio-evaluated as inhibitors of K562 leukemia cells. Interesting preliminary SAR (structure activity relationship) information was obtained from the products. The most sensitive functionalities were
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Derivatives of salarin A, salarin C and tulearin A, three new cytotoxic sponge derived nitrogenous macrolides, were prepared and bio-evaluated as inhibitors of K562 leukemia cells. Interesting preliminary SAR (structure activity relationship) information was obtained from the products. The most sensitive functionalities were the 16,17-vinyl epoxide in both salarins, the triacylamino group in salarin A and the oxazole in salarin C (less sensitive). Regioselectivity of reactions was also found for tulearin A. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chlorinated Didemnins from the Tunicate Trididemnum solidum
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4478-4486; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114478
Received: 23 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 29 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Chemical investigation of the tunicate Trididemnum solidum resulted in the isolation of two new chlorinated compounds belonging to the didemnin class, along with two known compounds didemnin A and didemnin B. The structural determination of the compounds was based on extensive NMR and
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Chemical investigation of the tunicate Trididemnum solidum resulted in the isolation of two new chlorinated compounds belonging to the didemnin class, along with two known compounds didemnin A and didemnin B. The structural determination of the compounds was based on extensive NMR and mass spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds 14 were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity using in vitro assays for inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. The anti-cell proliferative activity of the above compounds was also evaluated against four solid tumor cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Isolation and Structural Characterization of a Novel Antioxidant Mannoglucan from a Marine Bubble Snail, Bullacta exarata (Philippi)
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4464-4477; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114464
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 12 October 2013 / Accepted: 12 October 2013 / Published: 11 November 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bullacta exarata is one of the most economically important aquatic species in China, noted for not only its delicious taste and nutritional value, but also for its pharmacological activities. In order to explore its potential in medical applications, a mannoglucan designated as BEPS-IB
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Bullacta exarata is one of the most economically important aquatic species in China, noted for not only its delicious taste and nutritional value, but also for its pharmacological activities. In order to explore its potential in medical applications, a mannoglucan designated as BEPS-IB was isolated and purified from the foot muscle of B. exarata after papain digestion. Chemical composition analysis indicated BEPS-IB contained mainly d-glucose and d-mannose in a molar ratio of 1:0.52, with an average molecular weight of about 94 kDa. The linkage information was determined by methylation analysis, and the anomeric configuration and chain linkage were confirmed by IR and 2D NMR. The results indicated BEPS-IB was composed of Glcp6Manp heptasaccharide repeating unit in the backbone, with occasional branch chains of mannose residues (14%) occurring in the backbone mannose. Further antioxidant assay indicated BEPS-IB exhibited positive antioxidant activity in scavenging superoxide radicals and reducing power. This is the first report on the structure and bioactivity of the mannoglucan from the B. exarata. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Smenamides A and B, Chlorinated Peptide/Polyketide Hybrids Containing a Dolapyrrolidinone Unit from the Caribbean Sponge Smenospongia aurea. Evaluation of Their Role as Leads in Antitumor Drug Research
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4451-4463; https://doi.org/10.3390/md11114451
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 25 October 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
An in-depth study of the secondary metabolites contained in the Caribbean sponge Smenospongia aurea led to the isolation of smenamide A (1) and B (2), hybrid peptide/polyketide compounds containing a dolapyrrolidinone unit. Their structures were elucidated using high-resolution ESI-MS/MS
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An in-depth study of the secondary metabolites contained in the Caribbean sponge Smenospongia aurea led to the isolation of smenamide A (1) and B (2), hybrid peptide/polyketide compounds containing a dolapyrrolidinone unit. Their structures were elucidated using high-resolution ESI-MS/MS and homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR experiments. Structures of smenamides suggested that they are products of the cyanobacterial metabolism, and 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis detected Synechococcus spongiarum as the only cyanobacterium present in S. aurea. Smenamides showed potent cytotoxic activity at nanomolar levels on lung cancer Calu-1 cells, which for compound 1 is exerted through a clear pro-apoptotic mechanism. This makes smenamides promising leads for antitumor drug design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Secondary Metabolites)
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