Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4350-4369; doi:10.3390/md11114350
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Phylogeny and Biogeography of Cyanobacteria and Their Produced Toxins

1 CIIMAR/CIMAR, Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, University of Porto, Rua dos Bragas, 289, Porto 4050-123, Portugal 2 Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, Porto 4169-007, Portugal
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2013; in revised form: 29 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Compounds from Cyanobacteria)
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Abstract: Phylogeny is an evolutionary reconstruction of the past relationships of DNA or protein sequences and it can further be used as a tool to assess population structuring, genetic diversity and biogeographic patterns. In the microbial world, the concept that everything is everywhere is widely accepted. However, it is much debated whether microbes are easily dispersed globally or whether they, like many macro-organisms, have historical biogeographies. Biogeography can be defined as the science that documents the spatial and temporal distribution of a given taxa in the environment at local, regional and continental scales. Speciation, extinction and dispersal are proposed to explain the generation of biogeographic patterns. Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of microorganisms that inhabit a wide range of ecological niches and are well known for their toxic secondary metabolite production. Knowledge of the evolution and dispersal of these microorganisms is still limited, and further research to understand such topics is imperative. Here, we provide a compilation of the most relevant information regarding these issues to better understand the present state of the art as a platform for future studies, and we highlight examples of both phylogenetic and biogeographic studies in non-symbiotic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.
Keywords: cyanobacteria; cyanotoxins; phylogeny and biogeography

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MDPI and ACS Style

Moreira, C.; Vasconcelos, V.; Antunes, A. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Cyanobacteria and Their Produced Toxins. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4350-4369.

AMA Style

Moreira C, Vasconcelos V, Antunes A. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Cyanobacteria and Their Produced Toxins. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(11):4350-4369.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moreira, Cristiana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho. 2013. "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Cyanobacteria and Their Produced Toxins." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 11: 4350-4369.

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