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Okadaic Acid: More than a Diarrheic Toxin
Toxicology Unit, Department of Psychobiology, University of A Coruña, A Coruña E15071, Spain
Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of A Coruna, A Coruña E15071, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2013; in revised form: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
Abstract: Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most frequent and worldwide distributed marine toxins. It is easily accumulated by shellfish, mainly bivalve mollusks and fish, and, subsequently, can be consumed by humans causing alimentary intoxications. OA is the main representative diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxin and its ingestion induces gastrointestinal symptoms, although it is not considered lethal. At the molecular level, OA is a specific inhibitor of several types of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and a tumor promoter in animal carcinogenesis experiments. In the last few decades, the potential toxic effects of OA, beyond its role as a DSP toxin, have been investigated in a number of studies. Alterations in DNA and cellular components, as well as effects on immune and nervous system, and even on embryonic development, have been increasingly reported. In this manuscript, results from all these studies are compiled and reviewed to clarify the role of this toxin not only as a DSP inductor but also as cause of alterations at the cellular and molecular levels, and to highlight the relevance of biomonitoring its effects on human health. Despite further investigations are required to elucidate OA mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, and harmful effects, there are enough evidences illustrating its toxicity, not related to DSP induction, and, consequently, supporting a revision of the current regulation on OA levels in food.
Keywords: okadaic acid; diarrheic toxin; toxicity; phosphatase inhibition
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Valdiglesias, V.; Prego-Faraldo, M.V.; Pásaro, E.; Méndez, J.; Laffon, B. Okadaic Acid: More than a Diarrheic Toxin. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4328-4349.
Valdiglesias V, Prego-Faraldo MV, Pásaro E, Méndez J, Laffon B. Okadaic Acid: More than a Diarrheic Toxin. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(11):4328-4349.
Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Prego-Faraldo, María V.; Pásaro, Eduardo; Méndez, Josefina; Laffon, Blanca. 2013. "Okadaic Acid: More than a Diarrheic Toxin." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 11: 4328-4349.