Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(11), 4193-4212; doi:10.3390/md11114193
Article

Anti-Diabetic Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water and Its Mode of Action in High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Mice

Received: 2 August 2013; in revised form: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) on hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice. BDSW was prepared by mixing deep-sea water (DSW) mineral extracts and desalinated water to give a final hardness of 500–2000. Mice given an HFD with BDSW showed lowered fasting plasma glucose levels compared to HFD-fed mice. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests showed that BDSW improves impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Histopathological evaluation of the pancreas showed that BDSW recovers the size of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and increases the secretion of insulin and glucagon in HFD-fed mice. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results revealed that the expression of hepatic genes involved in glucogenesis, glycogenolysis and glucose oxidation were suppressed, while those in glucose uptake, β-oxidation, and glucose oxidation in muscle were increased in mice fed HFD with BDSW. BDSW increased AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 pre- and mature adipocytes and improved impaired AMPK phosphorylation in the muscles and livers of HFD-induced diabetic mice. BDSW stimulated phosphoinositol-3-kinase and AMPK pathway-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that BDSW has potential as an anti-diabetic agent, given its ability to suppress hyperglycemia and improve glucose intolerance by increasing glucose uptake.
Keywords: deep-sea water; high-fat diet; diabetes; hyperglycemia; glucose tolerance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ha, B.G.; Shin, E.J.; Park, J.-E.; Shon, Y.H. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water and Its Mode of Action in High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Mice. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4193-4212.

AMA Style

Ha BG, Shin EJ, Park J-E, Shon YH. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water and Its Mode of Action in High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Mice. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(11):4193-4212.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ha, Byung G.; Shin, Eun J.; Park, Jung-Eun; Shon, Yun H. 2013. "Anti-Diabetic Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water and Its Mode of Action in High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Mice." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 11: 4193-4212.

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