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Anti-Diabetic Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water and Its Mode of Action in High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Mice
Bio-Medical Research Institute, Kyungpook National University Hospital, 50 Samduk 2ga Jung-gu, Daegu 700-721, Korea
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 August 2013; in revised form: 11 September 2013 / Accepted: 8 October 2013 / Published: 29 October 2013
Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW) on hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice. BDSW was prepared by mixing deep-sea water (DSW) mineral extracts and desalinated water to give a final hardness of 500–2000. Mice given an HFD with BDSW showed lowered fasting plasma glucose levels compared to HFD-fed mice. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests showed that BDSW improves impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Histopathological evaluation of the pancreas showed that BDSW recovers the size of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and increases the secretion of insulin and glucagon in HFD-fed mice. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results revealed that the expression of hepatic genes involved in glucogenesis, glycogenolysis and glucose oxidation were suppressed, while those in glucose uptake, β-oxidation, and glucose oxidation in muscle were increased in mice fed HFD with BDSW. BDSW increased AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 pre- and mature adipocytes and improved impaired AMPK phosphorylation in the muscles and livers of HFD-induced diabetic mice. BDSW stimulated phosphoinositol-3-kinase and AMPK pathway-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that BDSW has potential as an anti-diabetic agent, given its ability to suppress hyperglycemia and improve glucose intolerance by increasing glucose uptake.
Keywords: deep-sea water; high-fat diet; diabetes; hyperglycemia; glucose tolerance
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ha, B.G.; Shin, E.J.; Park, J.-E.; Shon, Y.H. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water and Its Mode of Action in High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Mice. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 4193-4212.
Ha BG, Shin EJ, Park J-E, Shon YH. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water and Its Mode of Action in High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Mice. Marine Drugs. 2013; 11(11):4193-4212.
Ha, Byung G.; Shin, Eun J.; Park, Jung-Eun; Shon, Yun H. 2013. "Anti-Diabetic Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water and Its Mode of Action in High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Mice." Mar. Drugs 11, no. 11: 4193-4212.